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Oксана Kарпюк

АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА

(11-й рік навчання, рівень стандарту)

Підручник для 11 класу закладів загальної середньої освіти

Oksana Karpyuk

ENGLISH

Year 11

A textbook for the eleventh form of secondary schools

Standard level

Рекомендовано Міністерством освіти і науки України

Тернопіль

Астон

2019

УДК 811.111(075.3)

        К 26

Рекомендовано Міністерством освіти і науки України

(наказ Міністерства освіти і науки України від 12.04.2019 № 472)

Видано за рахунок державних коштів. Продаж заборонено.

— символ, що позначає вправи, які мають аудіосупровід.

Аудіосупровід можна завантажити за посиланням:

https://www.libra-terra.com.ua/userfiles/audio karpyuk_audio_11_zag_2019.zip

К 26 Карпюк О. Д.

Англійська мова (11-й рік навчання) (English (the 11th year of studies)) : підручник для 11 класу закладів загальної середньої освіти. Рівень стандарту. — Тернопіль : Астон, 2019. — 256 с. : іл.

ISBN 978-966-308-748-1

Підручник завершує серію навчальних видань рівня стандарту, створених для старшої школи. Видання реалізовує компетентісний потенціал галузі «іноземні мови», передбачений програмою, чинною з 2018 року. Інтегровані змістові лінії «Екологічна безпека та сталий розвиток», «Громадянська відповідальність», «Здоров’я та безпека» та «Підприємливість та фінансова грамотність» знаходять свою реалізацію в тематиці навчального матеріалу та характері завдань.

© О. Д. Карпюк, 2019

            ISBN 978-966-308-748-1                          © ТОВ “Видавництво Астон”, 2019

UNIT, pages

Grammar

Focus

Reading / Listening /

Speaking

Writing

STARTER, pp. 5-16

 

English is the Language of International Communication.

Learning English.

 

1

BEING

A STUDENT, pp. 17-40

Reading: Independent

Language Learning

Listening / Speaking: Get

Ready for Your Finals

Making notes. Doing summary.

2

MAKE UP

YOUR MIND pp. 41-70

Direct and

Reported

Speech,

Future-inthe-Past

Reading: Fill that Gap

Listening / Speaking: Where to Study? Choose Your Future Profession.

Application letter.

3

FAMILY

RELATIONSHIP, pp. 71-94

Conditionals

III

Reading: Teen Terror

Listening / Speaking:

Relationship with Parents.

Generation Gap.

A letter to the editor.

4

EATING OUT, pp. 95-118

Reading: Eating Out in Ukraine.

Listening / Speaking: Choose a restaurant. Order Your Meal.

A report.

5

INVENTIONS AND

LIFESTYLES, pp. 119-144

Adverb

Clauses with Time:

till, untill

Reading: New Technologies. Listening / Speaking: Mobile Phones and the Internet.

An article. (I)

Contents

3


 

6

NATURE

AND THE

ENVIRONMENT, pp. 145-170

Relative

Clauses

Reading: Natural Wonders of Ukraine.

Listening / Speaking: Environmental Problems. The Ways Out.

Opinion essay.

7

SPEAKING

ABOUT ART, pp. 171-202

Reading: The Picture (after ‘The Broken Bridge’ by P. Pullman) Painting.

A review.

8

YOUTH

IN MIND pp. 203-226

The Infi nitive

Reading: Being a Good Citizen.

Listening / Speaking: Dealing with Emotions. Young People and Life Challenges.

An essay suggesting solutions to problems.

9

PEOPLE

AND SOCIETY pp. 227-250

Reading: Ukraine: from Past to Future.

Listening / Speaking:

International Institutions and Organisations. Active Social Life Position.

An article. (II)

APPENDIX

pp. 251-255

  Vocabulary                          



Focus on Reading and Vocabulary

1    Read and discuss the letter in class.

Congratulations! You’re back to school again and you will be called a school leaver now as this year is the last one of your study at secondary school.

In ten months you’re going to take your fi nals and make up your mind  what to do in your personal future. You should be a good time manager and work hard to prepare for your exams as well as for making your own choice after school.

Learning is a precious gift to be treasured always. Whether you are from Kyiv or London, you all must appreciate and embrace study skills as the key to achievement of your dreams.

Why do you need to know English? English is becoming a global language. At least half a billion people in the world use English at home or work. Problems of the 21st century, such as problems of war and peace, democracy, ecology and demography cannot be solved if people cannot speak the same language. Interpreters take time and now time is as precious as never before. So, dear boys and girls, don’t waste your time. Go on studying English each and every day.

And fi nally, I’d like to wish you all a long, fruitful and happy life! Yours sincerely, the author of the book


a)  Choose the correct word and complete each sentence.

1     Could you

(translate / interpret) this paragraph into English, please?

2     I’m sorry, I can’t read your handwriting. What does this word (say / mean)?

3     Can anyone tell me the (meaning / understanding) of ‘shiver’?

4     How do you (pronounce / spell) ‘accomodation’? Does it have one ‘m’ or ‘mm’?

b)  Speak on what you fi nd to be the easiest and the most diffi cult         grammar, spelling,

pronunciation, vocabulary, about learning English. Choose

reading, writing, speaking

from the box and explain why.

 Ask and answer the questions in pairs.

zzHow do you organise your learning process? zzHow much time do you need to do English tasks? zzAre you a motivated learner or you are forced to learn English? zzHow often do you speak English outside the classroom?

zzHow often do you write in English? zzHow often do you read in English? zzHave you got any chance to watch English video?

a)  Read the article quickly. Refer the paragraphs (1-5) to the headings (A-E) on page 8.

1     Language is the most powerful tool we have for reaching out to others. We can use it to express our feelings, to spread our ideas, and even to establish peace.

2     Learning English is like learning to swim or play ball. We learn to swim by swimming, to play ball by playing ball, and to speak English by speaking English.

3     Acquiring the ability to use a language automatically, that is to think without stopping to think, is a process of habit formation[1].

Forming a habit, any kind of habit, requires[2] much practice.

4     Learning English efficiently requires that you put your mind on what you are doing and have the intention and will to learn. The time you have is so short that you cannot afford to waste3 it by giving less than your full cooperation in class and in home studies. In other words, you have to build up language habits in English just as you build up language habits in your mother tongue4.

5     Good luck to you then in your learning English! It’s up to you. Nobody can learn to swim for you. Nobody can learn English for you. You have to learn it by yourself, and you will learn if you really want to and are willing to practise. Language is not to be taught, language is to be learnt.

c     A  Concentration will bring its own reward.

c     B  Language is the key to the outer world.

c     C  Teaching or learning?

c     D  Just another habit.

c     E  Learning English through action.

b)  Read the article again and discuss the questions in groups.

1     What does the author mean saying that learning English is like learning to swim?

2     Do you have any opportunity to speak English?

3     What do you prefer — to read or speak English?

4     What does it mean “to acquire the ability to use a language automatically”?

5     What does it mean ‘the process of habit formation’?

6     What does the author mean saying that “language is not to be taught, language is to be learnt”?



Summer Holiday Courses

Three-week, one-month or six-week courses for students of all standards, which combine daily language classes with a full

B

programme of sports (tennis, swimming, volleyball, etc.), social activities (discos, quizzes, fi lm club, etc.) and outings (London, Stratford-upon-Avon, Bath, etc.).

Home from Home

We place students with experienced and qualifi ed teachers throughout Britain for individual study programmes in the

C    teacher’s own home. An excellent choice for those who wish to improve their English fast, but who are not keen on returning to the classroom. High standards of comfort in a friendly but peaceful atmosphere.

Business Department

Courses in most European languages are offered for adults wishing to study outside offi ce hours, including weekends. Our D         qualifi ed teachers are always native speakers, whether of Danish, English or Greek origin. You will study hard in very small groups with lots of attention to individual needs. Courses last between three and six months.

Part-time Courses

Morning classes 15 hours per week, afternoon classes 15 hours per week. Examination preparation 4 or 6 hours per

E

week, afternoons or evenings. All teachers are highly experienced and well qualifi ed. Minimum course — one month. Central location, easy access by bus or underground.

This small school offers a wide range of courses, both halfday and evenings, from fi ve to fi fteen hours per week. In an attractive building near Edinburgh’s main business centre, it is

F

easy to reach by public transport. Modern equipment and experienced staff make it an obvious choice for any business person or student studying English in Scotland.

 In groups, speak on why you want to learn English.

Use the scheme below.

 In groups of three or four, try to fi nd as many words as you can which are identical in English and your own language (for example: radio, lift). The winner is the group with the longest list. Set a time limit.

 a) Skim the short article in one minute. Which of the following sentences describes the main idea of the text?

a     It is important to speak English if you want to be successful in business.

b     Most of the world’s mail is written in English. c English is the most widely used language in the world.




Focus on Speaking

     Match each question (1-6) with the appropriate answer (a-f).

Work in pairs.

2     What do you do

in your free time?

3     Do you plan to study abroad?

4     Do you have any brothers or sisters?

5     What’s your job?

6     Where do you live?

b     I’m afraid I don’t like it very much. I think it’s really diffi cult, especially the grammar.

c     I haven’t really decided yet. I guess I’d like to one day, maybe in Canada or Australia.

d     Actually, my parents moved around a lot and I’ve lived in many cities. Now I live in Odesa. e I have a part-time job in a local shop. In fact, I’ve worked there for more than three years. f       It depends. I often go out with my friends, but sometimes I enjoy just reading in my room.

1 Do you enjoy    a Well, I have one brother and one learning English?sister.

Using words or expressions like ‘actually’,

‘well’, ‘I guess’ or ‘It depends’ will make you sound more natural when you speak. 2 Role-play the situation in pairs.

Student A, you’re the examiner. Choose some questions from task 1. For each question think of follow-up questions (why, when, where, who with, etc.) and interview student B for 4 or 5 minutes. Listen to the student B’s answers carefully. Did he or she give short or extended[3] answers?

Student B, you are the student.

Imagine you are in the exam. Introduce yourself briefl y and then listen to the examiner’s questions. Answer as fully as possible, giving two or three additional pieces of information for each question. Follow the Useful Tips. When you’ve fi nished, change roles with your

A: Where do you live?

B: Now I live in London, but before that I have been studying in Ireland — for 2 years. Actually, it was great. I was living in the countryside and it was very peaceful. Not like London — it’s so busy and noisy! I guess I’ll get used to London eventually — it just takes time to adjust, doesn’t it?

 a) Write ten sentences about yourself. Five should be true and fi ve should be false. Choose topics in the box below.

                            Where you come from            Your favourite kind of music

                             Your age                                 Countries you’ve visited

                             Your family                            What you’re going to do this weekend

                            Your leisure activities            A book you’re reading at the moment

                            Your personality                     What you did yesterday evening

                            A problem you have                Something important that’s

                           What languages you speak                         happened to you recently

b) Give a piece of paper to the person sitting next to you. Can he/she tell which sentences are true and which are false?


 a) Ask and answer the questions in pairs. zzHow do you begin letters in English? zzHow do you end a letter to a close friend? zzHow do you end a letter to a stranger? zzName the main parts of a letter.

b)  Read the instructions below and write a letter.


c)  Check your writing after you have fi nished it, using a checklist below. Use it every time you practise writing something.

Checklist

ü

Have you included all the notes?

 

Have you used paragraphs?

 

Have you written the right number of words?

 

Have you linked the points clearly?

 

Have you started sentences in different ways so that it is interesting to read?

 

Have you checked your grammar or spelling mistakes?

 

Have you used a range of vocabulary?

Are there any words you have used too many times?

 

Have you started and ended the letter or email correctly?

 

Have you used the right style for the person you're writing to?

 

5Discuss the following questions in groups.

1     How long have you been learning English?

2     Why do people need English?

3     When have you had an opportunity to speak or read English?

4     Have you ever been to an English-speaking country?

5     What do you think about the idea that a language gets rusty[4] if it is not practised?

6     Can you follow TV programmes in English on satellite television?

7     Can you understand songs in English?

8     Do you have problems learning English? What are they?

9     Have you ever taken private lessons?

10   What do you fi nd easy about English, and what do you fi nd diffi cult (think about pronunciation, learning new vocabulary, grammar, spelling, listening, reading, understanding, translating, etc.)?



Focus on Reading and Vocabulary

        a) Think and say who is the best in your class in the following subjects:

b) Work in groups. Interview one of the students to fi nd out what helps him/her to achieve good results in this or that subject. Mention the items below.

1     reading supplementary information on the subject

2     doing extra activities on the subject

3     attending subject courses or clubs

4     responsibility for their own learning

5     working out their own learning strategies

6     use all resources available

7     high self-motivation

8     good time management

9     good memory

10   knowledge about their learning type

c)  Share your results with other groups.

Read the magazine article. Choose the paragraph from A-H (page 20) which best suits each gap (1-7). There is an extra paragraph.


a     And additional reason is that their learning is more personalised because they are doing things in the language that they are actually interested in, such as listening to their favourite bands singing in the target language.

b     First of all, language learners should know how to use resources like dictionaries. This is important, because it allows the learners to work on their own without a teacher. For example, if you know how to use a dictionary, you can look up words and check spellings on your own.

c     For example, they like watching fi lms in the language they are learning. However, they don’t just read the subtitles. They try to listen to how things are said, and might even try and follow what they are watching without looking at the subtitles at all.

d    


However, independent learners not only write down new words and their meanings. They also make a note of other important information connected with the word, such as its pronunciation and other words that usually go with it. They also write down examples of the word in context. All this information makes it easier for them to actually use the words they have recorded.

e     Reading in the target language is another favoured strategy. Such learners will be browsing the Internet or fl icking through magazines dealing with subjects that they are interested in.

f      So why is it that independent learners seem to learn more? What is it about using the language outside the classroom that makes it more memorable?

g     There have been some spectacular results. A recent survey in Sweden concluded that children who had access to one at home scored signifi cantly higher in English tests that those who didn’t.

h     They don’t worry about using the language in shops when they go abroad or if a foreign tourist stops them to ask for directions. In fact, they will eagerly grab the opportunity to practise their foreign language skills.

teachers or students to provide information and training

7     ... be in charge of something or someone, so that you make decisions and can be blamed if something bad happens

8     ... a well-planned series of actions for achieving an aim

9     ... exactly

10  


... enjoyable or unusual, and worth remembering4Complete the sentences on the basis of the article.

1     If you take responsibility for your own learning, you will …

2     Autonomous learner doesn’t need a …

3     Independent language learners use …

4     The important resources for autonomous learner are …

5     They use the Internet to …

6     If you want to improve your chances of learning at least one foreign language well, you should …

Develop Your Vocabulary

1         Organise the phrases in the box according to the headings (1, 2).

1  A good teacher (is) …                          2  A good student (is) …

makes good progress, a good listener, good at explaining things, uses modern methods, concerned about the students, always marks homework on time, pays attention in class, works hard

to pass an exam / to take an exam

Look: I am going to take the exam in June.

I really hope I’ll pass! If I don’t pass, I will take the exam again in November.

know / fi nd out

If you know something, you already have the information.

Andy knows what time the train leaves.

If you fi nd something out, you learn new information for the fi rst time.

I found it out recently.

learn, teach or study?

To learn is to get new knowledge or skills.

I want to learn how to drive.

When you teach someone, you give him/her new knowledge or skills.

My dad taught me how to drive.

When you study you go to classes, read books, etc. try to understand new ideas and facts.

He is studying biology at university.

2         Match the words with their defi nitions.


1     to assist

2     to attend3 to get to know

4 to join

a to become a member of an organisation b to help c to spend time with someone or something so that you gradually learn more about them d to go to an event, place, etc.


Build Up Your Grammar

     a) Refresh what you learnt about Conditionals last year.

Put the type (I or II) into the boxes to complete the rules.

1     Conditionals  are used for future results, predictions, promises, threats and warnings.

2     Conditionals  are used for unreal situations in the present and for the situations that are unlike to happen in the future.

b) Refer each sentence to the correct type of Conditionals

(I or II).

               c 1  Virtual friends would be more interesting than real friends.

c   2  If Anthony gets a scholarship, he will be studying  at Cambridge this time next year.

c   3  We won’t finish this job on time unless we start right awa , so let’s get down to work.

               c 4  What would you do if you won the lottery?

               c 5  If you worked harder, you’d probably do better.

               c 6  If we miss the last bus, my dad will come and pick us up.

The conditional clause can start with if, even if or unless.

It’ll be great if Garry comes.

It’ll be boring unless Garry comes. Carl won’t go to the party  even if you beg him.

2        Fill in the blanks with if, even if or unless.

1     David will come … you invite him.

2     David won’t know about the party … you tell him.

3     Clive hates parties and won’t come … you invite him.

4     This is too big a job. We won’t finish it on time … we start right away.

5     We won’t finish this job on time … we start right awa , so let’s get down to work.

The verb in the conditional clauses of the 1st type is in a present tense even though it refers to a future event.

Present Simple: We’ll have a barbecue if the weather is fine

Present Perfect: I’ll cook you something if you haven’t eaten.

Present Continuous: If you’re doing your homework when I arrive, I’ll be as quiet as a mouse.

Present Perfect Continuous: He’ll be tired when he gets home if he’s been working all day.

3        Fill in the gaps with the appropriate form of the verb in brackets.

1     I won’t disturb you if you … when I arrive. (work)

2     I’ll lend you the video if you … it. (not see)

3     He will be in a bad mood when we arrive if he … for long. (wait)

4     They’ll get lost unless they … there before. (be)

In 1st CONDITIONALS the verb in the main clause can be in any of future tenses, structure going to, or Present Simple or Present Continuous in future meaning.

Future Simple: Paul will do it if you ask him.

Future Perfect: They’ll have arrived by one pm unless their plane is late.

Future Continuous: Sarah will be waiting for us outside the cinema unless it’s raining.

Future Perfect Continuous: If they don’t come in the next five minutes, we’ll have been waiting for over an hour. going to: I’m going to scream if you do that again.

Present Continuous: I’m meeting Tanya after school if she doesn’t have choir practice.

Present Simple: The plane arrives at three if it’s on schedule.

4        Fill in the gaps with the appropriate form of the verb in brackets.

1     If Andy gets a scholarship, he … at Cambridge this time next year. (study)

2     If we don’t get there soon, they … all the food and nothing will be left. (eat)

3     If we don’t stop soon, we … for three hours without a break. (drive) 4 Sue has made a decision. She … to Liz unless she apologises. (not talk)

5        It’s all been arranged. We … the party at Bill’s if his parents go away for the weekend. (have)

If the future result is not certain, we use the modal verbs that express possibility: may, might, can or could.

If Hamlet kills Claudius, the guilt could drive him crazy.


If you go to Sarah’s round dinnertime, you might get something to eat.

You may get lost if you go there by the back roads.

You can do it if you try.

5Fill in the gaps with different modal verbs.

1     If we don’t invite Jeffrey, he … be offended.

2     Be careful. If you stand on the table, it … collapse.

3     If you don’t start preparing for the exam, you … fail.

4     We … get there quicker if we take the motorway.

 a) Choose ten of the following pieces of advice that may be given to a person as the most important ones if he or she is scared before an exam. a Always believe in yourself. b Be confi dent and think positive.

c     Think calm thoughts, ignore negative thoughts.

d     Learn to concentrate.

e     Plan your time. Take breaks. f      Use your imagination.

g     Surround yourself with certain colours which are believed to help in stress situations.

h     Fresh air, fresh mind. i      Focus on just one subject at a time.

j       Write the keywords (things) on papers for notes and stick them in places you come across.

k     Choose the music that makes you feel relaxed. l Never give up. m Speak to others when you feel as though you need an extra support. n Remember that you are more than your exam results!

o Watch your diet.

b) Share your results with a partner. Explain your choice.

 Match the words from the box with their defi nitions (a-k).

Use a dictionary to check.

assessment, average, to boost, to pace, distraction, to reckon, to steer clear (of), to cheat, superstition, exhausted, to revise

a     ... if you add together several quantities and divide the sum by the total number of quantities you’ll get it

b     ... to behave in a dishonest way in order to win or get an advantage

c     ... a process in which you make a judgement about someone’s knowledge or skills

d     ... to increase something e ... extremely tired or having no energy


f      ... to study lessons again in

order to learn them before an examination

g     ... to set a controlled regular speed for yourself

h     ... a belief that some objects or actions are luck and some are unluck, based on old ideas of magic

i       ... a pleasant and not very serious activity (that can drive your attention away from  serious things)

                     an assessment


                         [39sesm3nt] a distraction [di9str2kSn] a superstition [0su:p39stiSn] to boost [bu:st] to cheat [tSI:t] to reckon [9rek3n] to pace [peis] average [92v3ridz] exhausted [ig9xc:stid] z to steer clear (of)

j       ... this word is spoken to think that something is a fact k ... to try to avoid something unnecessary or annoying

Listen to the conversation between two friends and name the pieces of advice that one gives another.

Listen again and decide if the opinions below are expressed by Sara, Tony or both of them. Note ‘S’ for Sara, ‘T’ for Tony or ‘B’ for both.

Focus on Speaking

          1    In pairs, ask and answer the questions.

1     Do you write notes in pencil in your course book and revise them for tests? Why (not)?

2     Do you try talking to a partner during the school breaks and after classes only in English?

3     Do you revise new words every day? Why (not)?

4     Do you only work hard a few days before an exam? Why (not)?

5     Do you ever help your group mates if they don’t understand anything? Why (not)?

6     Do you regularly make a list of your common mistakes? Why (not)?

7     Are you sure you know how to use your dictionary? Why (not)?

8     Do you study only the material that was given at the lesson and nothing else? Why (not)?

9     Do you have special time or special day for studying? Why (not)?

10   Do you keep a list of useful vocabulary in a special notebook?

Why (not)?

11   Do you give the tests to yourself or study with friends and test each other? Why (not)?

12   Do you only learn what the teacher tells you to? Why (not)?

13   Do you have time only to attend the

 In pairs, complete the dialogues with the sentences (a-c) and dramatise them.

1                                                                          a No, I think I’ll definitely fail

     A: …                                                   that exam.

     B: Was it really so bad?                 b That history exam was really

     A: …                                                   awful.

B: That was really bad luck.           c Yes, it was. Only a couple of Do you think you managed  the topics, which I reviewed to do enough to pass?            for the exam, came up.

A: …

B: Oh, come on, don’t be so pessimistic.

2                                                                          a I’d just started on the third and last

A: Now come on, calm       question when my mind suddenly down, it’s not the end      went blank. I couldn’t remember of the world. It was             anything of what I’d reviewed for just an exam.     that topic.

     B: …                                     b Well yes, but…

A: Why? What happened?       c But it was absolutely awful. I just don’t know why it happened.

B: …

A: But you answered the first two questions

B: …

A: Then stop worrying. I’m sure you did enough on those to pass.

 Work in groups. Read the situation and prepare a five-minute tal on how to do well in school exams. Use the ‘Useful Tips’ below.

zzSome classmates of yours


A Short Talk zzplan your talk, but DO NOT read it zzinclude all important information zzpresent your points in a simple,

clear and direct way

zzuse informal language zzuse transitional  words / phrases

keep complaining about their grades. They claim that they spend hours preparing for the exams, but results are disastrous. Your results are impressive. You have decided to help your classmates.


Focus on Writing


       1       Get some information and look through the examples below.

 Read about some ways of making notes and discuss the questions in groups.

zzWhich of the offered methods of note taking would suit you best?

Why?

a)  FLOW CHART (Having Friends for Dinner)

b)  CLUSTERING (Travelling to the Island of Fuji)

c)  LISTING (Traditional Holidays Are Dying Out)

1     the idea of a traditional holiday has changed signifi cantly in the past decade

2     people in general have become more demanding and expect better quality for their money

3     love of adventure has always been a part of the human nature

4     new means of transport have enabled us to travel more easily and faster

5     more people can afford these new types of holidays due to more reasonable prices

 Choose one of the topic sentences below and make notes.

Write a paragraph in 80-100 words.

1    
Mathematics has always been my favourite subject at school.

2     Independent language learning has several advantages.

4 Read and discuss the information in pairs.




Viktor: Tomorrow morning. I study at a language school and when I

(go) to class tomorrow the grades will be on the notice board. My name … (be) the fi rst on the list because my surname begins with ‘A’.

Journalist: How … you … (celebrate) if you … (pass)?

Viktor: I … (go) to a cafe with other students from my class. Well, with the students who have passed.

Journalist: And what will you do if you … (pass)? … you … (carry) on studying English?

Viktor: Yes, I’d like … (take) the CAE1 exam next year.

Journalist: And if you … (not, pass)?

Viktor: I … (take) the exam again in June.

 Do the project. Search for the information on the international exams in English and prepare a short presentation.

Use the instructions below.

1     Search for PET, FCE and CAE in the Internet.

2     Write your presentation using the material you have found, the following phrases and the plan below.

3     Do the presentation in class using the Helpful Tips.




zzThe third group should listen to both groups and decide whether to accept or reject the motion providing arguments for their decision. Before making the decision, the third group can put questions to both groups.

2   Allow time for the groups to prepare their arguments.

3   Group presentations.











Focus on Reading and Vocabulary

1   Work in small groups. Read and discuss the following.

Here are some qualities that employers often look for when selecting candidates for a job. Do you think that these qualities are acquired more at school or outside school?

zzto be willing to learn zzto be willing to travel

zzto be able to cope with diffi cult situations zzto be open-minded zzto work in a team zzto communicate well with people zzto show initiative zzto show responsibility

zzto show persistence (the ability to keep going when things get tough)

Read the article quickly and decide which of the messages below (A-C) is the main message of the article.

Many school-leavers in the UK take what is called a gap year — a year between leaving school and further education.

In this gap year, they do voluntary or paid work, often abroad.

A   Students who take a gap year and use it well have an advantage over those who go straight from school to university.

B   Students who take a gap year mature more quickly.

C   There are many ways in which a school-leaver can usefully spend a year between school and university.

FILL  THAT  GAP

(1)          People who take a year out before going to university and use that time to gain more skills are more attractive candidates for jobs than those who go straight from school to university, according to the research for the Department for Education. The research says


that employers are particularly interested in the skills that students pick up when travelling, volunteering and working, because they do not trust universities to teach the arts of communication, teamwork and leadership.

(2)          There are many reasons why there is a growing number of students who take a gap year. There are school-leavers who are happy to be out of the school system at last and want to have some time to do something interesting or crazy before they go back into the educational system. There are those who want to earn money to pay their university fees. There are those who feel they                      confi dence

                     [9kAnfid3ns]

an employer [im9plci3]

a fee [fI:] a founder [9faUnd3] persistence [p39sist3ns] a volunteer [0vAl3n9ti3] to mature [m39tSU3] to trust [tryst] extended [ik9stendid] faint-hearted [0feint 9h4:tid] isolated [9ais3leitid] remote [ri9m3Ut] tough [tyf] overseas [03Uv39sI:x] z  to conduct a survey z  to get insight (into) z  to work on

(a project)


They can take part in an adventure project, like an expedition to some remote corner of the earth, which can be really exciting and it has the advantage of travelling as part of a group and making some life-long friends. They can work on a conservation or environmental project, like conducting an underwater survey of a coral reef or monitoring endangered species. They can do temporary or seasonal work abroad and this way get insight into a very different way of life. They can join a humanitarian project, such as doing social work with people in need. Or they can join a structured work experience programme and gain valuable experience and practical skills in their chosen fi eld. Mr Underwood says, “I matured during my gap year. I grew up. You come back with a real sense of achievement and a new perspective on life.”

(4) But some locations aren’t for the faint-hearted. Voluntary work can be tough. You may be out in the middle of nowhere, feeling isolated and having trouble coping with the complete culture shock. So it’s important to research the opportunities fully and take time to read what other ‘gappers’ have to say about their experience of volunteering overseas. And it’s also important to plan the year properly. According to the research of the Department for Education and Skills, too many students fail to plan properly and do not take advantage of the opportunities on offer. This can turn the gap into a blank hole. As Mr Underwood says, “There’s a great difference between doing a structured placement and going on an extended holiday in some exotic place. Students who are doing volunteering get an awful lot of good experiences. Employers are falling over themselves for those maturing skills, which they think universities don’t give.”

 Read the article again paying attention to the words in bold and consulting a dictionary if necessary. Decide which of the following messages (a-g) is not included in it.

a     Students who do voluntary or paid work in their gap year have a better chance of getting a job after university.

b     Employers look for much more than educational qualifi cations.

c     Many students use their gap year to pay for their university education.

d     Voluntary work in another culture can broaden your view of the world.

e     Some students can have negative gap year experiences. f            A number of students do not use their gap year well.

g Some students fi nd it diffi cult to adjust to further education after a gap year.

 Match the words with their defi nitions.

1     confi dencea to become fully grown or developed

2     extendedb someone who does something without

3     faint-heartedbeing paid

4     isolated

5     to mature

6     overseas

7     persistence

8     tough

9     to trust

10   a volunteer

c     the belief that you have the ability to do things well or deal with the situation successfully

d     a quality that gives a person ability to continue to do something although this is diffi cult

e     abroad

to believe that someone is honest and will not harm you, cheat on you, etc. g diffi cult h increased, longer in time or bigger in size not trying very hard, because you do not want to do something, or you are not confi dent that you can succeed feeling alone and unable to meet or speak to other people

 Find the words or phrases in the article that mean the following (the number of the paragraph, in which the word appears, is in brackets).

d carefully watching a situation to see how it changes — ... (3) e a clear understanding of something, especially of something complicated — ... (3)

f      people who are not prepared to make a lot of effort or are easily demotivated — ... (4)

g     in a remote place — ... (4) h being very eager for something — ... (4)

 Look for fi ve types of gap year activities in paragraph 3 of the article. Ask and answer the questions in pairs.

1   To which types do the following activities belong?a working with homeless children b protecting the habitat of white-headed vultures[5]c searching for dinosaur fossils[6] in Patagonia d working in a mobile phone company e picking olives in Spain

2   Which of the types of gap year activities would interest an employer who is looking for someone who a is adventurous and has strong endurance3 skills? b can adapt to different cultures? c has practical skills in the fi eld of work? d has a caring personality?

Develop Your Vocabulary

WORK or JOB?

Work is something you do to earn money. This noun is uncountable.

She enjoys her work in the hospital.

Job is used to talk about the particular type of work activity which you do.

He’s looking for a job in computer programming.

POSSIBILITY, OCCASION or OPPORTUNITY?

A possibility is a chance that something may happen or be true.

‘Possibility’ cannot be followed by an infi nitive.

Is there a possibility of getting a job in your organisation?

An occasion is an event, or a time when something happens.

‘Occasion’ does not mean ‘chance’ or ‘opportunity’.

Birthdays are always special occasions.

An opportunity is a possibility of doing something, or a situation which gives you the possibility of doing something.

The trip to Paris gave me an opportunity to speak French.

I have more opportunity to travel than my parents did.

1 Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.

1     It was hard physical (job / work), you know, lifting people, helping them into wheelchairs and pushing them.

2     I got my fi rst (job / work) as an assistant receptionist in a hotel when I was just 18.

3     It wasn’t a very well-paid (job / work), but then fi rst (jobs / works) often aren’t.

4     I thought it was a great (opportunity / occasion / possibility) to get some work experience.

5     And on some (opportunities / possibilities / occasions) I was left on my own as the person in charge of the whole of this enormous hotel.

 Brush up your vocabulary. Choose the best word to complete each sentence. Use a dictionary to help you.

1     I plan to have a long (career / occupation) in advertising, but I know I will have to work hard to succeed.

2     The annual (salary / money) for this job is £35,000 a year.

3     I’ve got a holiday job, delivering newspapers. The (salary / pay) is quite good. It’s £5.00 an hour.

4     When did your (occupation / employment) with this company begin?

5     So, would you like to arrange a loan with our bank, Mr Johnson?

Do you mind if I ask you a few questions first? What is your (occupation / employment)?

 

Word Formation

assist        

 assistant, assistance

employ      

 (un)employment, employer, employee, unemployed

occupy      

 occupation

retire         

 retired, retirement

succeed

 success, (un)successful

 Complete the sentences by changing the words in brackets into correct forms.

1     My granddad had a long career. He started work as an assistant and worked his way to the top. (assist)

2     Being a firefighter is a very stressful … (occupy)

3     It took Mark a long time to find a new job. He was … for nearly two years. (employ)

4     It takes a lot of hard work to be … in this business. (succeed)

5     Mary is 60 next week and she’s leaving, so remember to wish her

‘Happy ...’. (retire)

Build Up Your Grammar

Direct Speech(Пряма мова)

Direct speech is the words that people actually say. When we write direct speech, we use speech marks (“ ”). We usually use said when we write direct speech: “I’m very happy,” she said.

“What about you?”

Reported Speech (Непряма мова)

Reported Speech is used to express what others say (said, have said, etc). When we report a statement (твердження) in the present we can use say or tell: My friends say I am lucky. (It means they always say this about me.) When we report statements in the past we use said or told: My friends told me I was lucky. (It means they say this about the situation in the past.)

With tell the object pronoun must be used:

They told me (that)… She told him (that)…

     Study the examples, then write ‘say’ or ‘tell’ in the blanks to complete the sentences below.

“I have my lunch at school,” he said.

He said (that) he had his lunch at school.

He said to Sally (that) he had his lunch at school.

He told Sally (that) he had his lunch at school.

1     Jane … (that) she wanted to learn how to use reported speech.

2     Mary … us (that) she had done her homework already.

3     She … to Tom (that) she was going to join the judo club at school.

4     Lucy … me (that) she couldn’t come to the party.

5     Our teacher … (that) he wasn’t going to give us any homework for Monday.

6     They … us (that) the pupils got a lot of work to do.

7     Suzan … (that) she hadn’t visited her granny yet.

8     Nobody … me (that) I had to do this.

Reported Speech: Tenses

form    We usually change the tenses and certain words when we report what someone said.

               DIRECT SPEECH                          REPORTED SPEECH

present simple                             past simple 

‘My sister is a ballet dancer.’      She said (that) her sister was  a ballet dancer.

present continuous                   past continuous 

‘I’m writing to my boyfriend.’      She said (that) she was writing  to her boyfriend.

past simple                                  past perfect simple 

‘We went for a walk.’                    They said (that) they had gone 

for a walk.

past continuous                         past perfect continuous 

‘I was walking in the forest    He said (that) he had been walking in all day.’        the forest all day.

present perfect simple              past perfect simple 

‘I have cooked the dinner.’         She said (that) she had cooked  the dinner.

present perfect continuous              past perfect continuous  ‘I’ve been learning English       He said (that) he had been 

for a year.’                                     learning English 

for a year.

Notes:

zzI sometimes changes to he or she. zzMy sometimes changes to her or his. Our changes to their.

zzThe adjectives this, that, these and those usually change to the.

e.g. ‘I like these grapes.’      He/She said he/she liked the grapes. zzThe pronouns this and that usually change to it.

e.g. ‘I want to paint this blue.’          ‘He/She said he/she wanted to paint it blue. zzThe pronouns these and those usually change to them.

 Read, then tell about everything Natasha said about her experience. Use the Reported Speech.

I’VE GOT A WHOLE NEW WAY OF LOOKING AT THE WORLD

Natasha Anderson, 19, had not planned to take a gap year this year. “I didn’t get the grades I needed for the university.

I’ll take my exams again next June. At fi rst, I didn’t know what to do, but after a couple of months of doing nothing and feeling bad about myself, I contacted a gap year agency and now here I am, far from home.”

“I’ve been here for fi ve weeks so far. I’ve been helping build a water system, working alongside professionals. We’re based in a permanent tented camp, but for the last two weeks I’ve been staying in a small camp some distance from the main one. It’s all very exciting. Before I came here, I had just been sitting around watching daytime TV and getting bored.”

“I’ve learned so much while I’ve been here. For example, I’ve been learning Spanish since I arrived, and that might be very useful for me later. I’ve met so many interesting people. I’ve got to know the locals and to understand their point of view. I realised how much of what I thought was true was just the way my particular culture viewed the world. In fact, I’ve now got a whole new way of looking at the world. Not only that, I now feel much more confi dent about myself.”


3Change the sentences from direct into reported speech.

1     “The concert fi nished at four,” John said.

2     “I’ve fi nished the report,” said Mary.

3     “I’ll be late,” she said to me.

4     “We’ll have dinner in a cafe,” they said to their mother.

5     “I’m joining the Maths Club at school,” he said.

6    
“The bell is ringing,” Rosie said.

7     “Nobody has to do it,” my mum said.

8     “They can speak about it later,” Bill noticed.

 Read what Charlie says.

Then report his statements to another person.

Example: Charlie said (that) he had fi nished his work already.

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

now

 at that time, then

tonight, today, this week, etc

 that night, that day, that week, etc

yesterday, last night/month, etc

            

 the day before, the previous night/month, etc

tomorrow, next year, etc

 the day after, the next year, etc

two days/weeks ago

 two days/weeks before

this, these

 that, those

here

 there

ago

 before

Reported Speech (Commands and Requests) To report a command we use ‘tell’.

“Go to the library.” — The teacher told Jack to go to the library.

“Don’t stand up!” — The head teacher told the children not to stand up.

To report a request we use ‘ask’.

“Could you fill in the form, please?” —

                            The clerk asked him to fill i the form.

“Don’t use a pencil, please.” — 

              She asked him not to use a pencil.

5        Make up and complete the sentences using the table below.

The librarian

The parents

The teachers

tell(s)

ask(s)

the little        children

Mike

Helen the young        readers

(not)

to make dog’s ears … to tear the pages … to lose books … to return books in time … to use book-marks … to cut out …

to wash their hands … to write … to make drawings … to colour … to keep the books … to put the books …

6        Rewrite the requests.

Example:“Mike, can you help me find a book about monsters?

She asked Mike to help her find a book about monsters

1     “Amy, can you send the e-mail for me?”

2     “Sally, please, don’t copy my homework.”

3     “Mum, please, let me go to the disco!”

4     “Ron, can you turn your music down?”

5     “Please, don’t make me tidy my room, dad.”

6     “Tom, please give me your new CD!”

7        Report the following sentences.

1     “Close the door, please,” the conductor says to a passenger.

2     “Open fi re!” the offi cer ordered the soldiers.

3     “Bring me a sheet of paper,” Mike said to Ann.

4    
The client said to the cook, “Please, warm the supper up.”

5     The teacher said to the children, “Don’t make such a noise.”

6     Mike said to Sue, “Don’t come tonight.”

7     Ann said to her dad, “Please, give me that sandwich.” 8 Mr Baxter said to his wife, “Don’t be so kind to the children.” 9 “Don’t close the window!” Jack said.

Listen to the information about what each of the fi ve English-speaking countries has to offer for students who are thinking of going overseas to study and answer the following questions in no more than three words. Make notes if you need.

1     What type of university preparation course is available in the UK?

2     On which education system are New Zealand programmes founded?

3     Which two values are extremely important to Americans?

4     Which US educational programmes are two years in length?

5     Who concluded that Canada is one of the best countries in the world to live in? (From IELTS express Intermediate Coursebook, 2004.)

3Match the words from the ‘Word File’ with their defi nitions (1-9).

1     … is known and admired by a lot of people, especially for some special skill, achievement, etc.

2     … is attractive or interesting

3     … is the right to do what you want without being restricted by anyone

4     … is the freedom and the right to do whatever you want without being afraid of authority

5     … is a variety including a range of different people or things

6     … is someone who has completed a university degree course, especially for a fi rst degree

7     … is a course of study including several different subjects, taught in the fi rst year at some universities in Britain

8     … is funded by ordinary people in a country, who are not members of the government

9     … is thought about in a good way


a) Listen to the information again and refer the following countries to the appropriate statements (1-5).

Focus on Speaking

         In pairs, speak on how people fi nd information about jobs in Ukraine. 2 In groups, discuss the questions below.

1     When were you able to give a defi nite answer about your future profession? Who helped you to make your choice?

2     Has your choice of profession been changed from time to time as you grew older? Why?

3     Do you think you’ll have to change your mind after you fi nish school?

What reasons could make you think about another profession?

4     What should a young boy (girl) do to be well suited for a chosen job?

5     Can you explain why new jobs are constantly appearing? What might be especially attractive in a new job?

 In pairs, complete the dialogues with your own endings and dramatise them in class.

a     “Have you chosen your future profession?”

“Strange as it may seem, I haven’t yet.”

“Well, I think it is natural that you hesitate. There are so many occupations, that it is not easy to decide.”

b     “Have you heard the news?”

“What news?”

“Nick has made up his mind to try to enter the teachers’ college.” “Oh, my! It’s unbelievable that he will become a teacher. He

c     “There’s no doubt that she should become a doctor.” “Why do you think so?” “I’ve known her for many years as a very kind-hearted girl. Besides, she comes from a doctor’s family. For several generations they all have been doctors.”

 Interview your classmates about their future jobs.

Use the questions below. Work in pairs.

zzHave they already made decisions? zzDo they realise what they particularly enjoy about their jobs? zzDo they know what they should learn and be good at in order to be successful in their jobs?

Focus on Writing

     Refresh your knowledge on application letters. Compare the structures of two types of applications and fi nd out the difference between them. Work in pairs.

                      A JOB                                          A COURSE


FORMAL GREETING

INTRODUCTORY

PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 1

stating reason(s) for writing

BODY PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 2-3-4

education & training

& qualifi cations

(previous work experience, skills, qualities, suitability)

CONCLUDING

PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 5

writing closing remarks with other important information

(job interview, references)

FORMAL ENDING writer’s full name FORMAL GREETING

INTRODUCTORY

PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 1

stating reason(s) for writing

BODY PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 2-3

qualifi cations & reason for applying

for a course

CONCLUDING

PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 4 writing closing remarks

FORMAL ENDING writer’s full name






4    


Start the fi nal paragraph with “I would very much appreciate …”.

5     Write your name under your signature.

2Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.

1     I don’t think there’s much (possibility / opportunity) for us choosing him for the job.

2     I only wear this suit on special (occasions / opportunities).

3    
Did you get a(n) (possibility / opportunity) to speak to Matt yesterday?

4     She’s just written to our company applying for a (work / job).

5     I’m a qualifi ed engineer, so my aim is to fi nd (work / job) in that fi eld if I can.


                                 a) every             b) this               с) last

                                 a) from               b) of                 с) among

                                 a) however         b) but               с) because        d) although

a) have            с) need            d) must Your older friend has just returned from the army. But he hasn’t chosen a trade for himself yet. A special job service for young people has been opened recently in your town. They consult young people about the opportunities in getting jobs. Your friend asks you to go there and fi nd out everything for him.

1    
Go to the job centre and have a consultation about the opportunities for vocational training and choosing a trade. Find out if the local authorities are obliged to assist young people in fi nding a job.

2     Go back to your friend and tell him about your visit. Discuss all the opportunities together and choose a job for him.

5Read and discuss the questions in groups.

TAKING A GAP YEAR IN UKRAINE

You’re going to attend an International Youth Action Conference that includes a section on gap years. You have been asked to present Ukraine.

1  In your group, prepare a short presentation. Your presentation should include zzthe present attitude among young people in

Ukraine towards taking a gap year; zzthe present opportunities for young people in


Ukraine to have a gap year-type experience; zzyour view on the advantages and disadvantages for Ukrainian students of taking a gap year;

zzrecommendations on what action, if any, should be taken in Ukraine concerning gap years. 2  Use the phrases from the “Useful Language” and make sure that your presentation has an Introduction, a Body, a Conclusion, and an Ending.

3  Give your presentation to the class and answer any questions the class might have.











Focus on Reading and Vocabulary

               1    Work in small groups. Read and discuss the following.

1     Do you get on well with your parents?

2     Do your parents trust you?

3     Do you sometimes talk back to them?

4     Are you often grounded?

5     What did you do the last time you were grounded?

6     Do you always obey your parents?

7     Do you think you are a good child to your parents?

8     Are your parents often nervous?

9     Do they keep their promises?

10   Are your parents violent?

11   Do you often slam1 the door and go to your room?

12   Can you rely on your parents?

13   Can they rely on you?

14   Are your parents understanding?

15   Do your parents always have time to listen to your problems?

16   Do your parents know about all your problems?

17   What do you like about your parents? What do you dislike?

18   What would you do if you were in your parents’ place?

19   Would you behave the same way or differently?

20   What are the possible confl icts between children and parents?

21   What do you and your parents usually argue about? Is it:

zzschool and marks? zzstaying out late? zzpocket money? zzfriends? zzclothes? zzposters on the wall?

zztelephone bills? zzyour untidy room?

zzdoing the housework? zzdoing your homework? zzlistening to music too loudly? zzwatching TV?

zzbrothers and sisters?

zzplaying computer games? zzgoing to the disco? zzwearing make-up?


    Read the newspaper article and match the comments (1-10) made by people with the parts (a-k) of George’s story on

c    [7] Perhaps George doesn’t really see the problems his daughters have. After all, this is a serious eating disorder and he treats it lightly.

c    2 George doesn’t seem to want his daughters to grow up and be adults in their own right.

c    3 George says Susie’s behaviour got worse, but perhaps she was just rejecting her father’s values in order to fi nd her own.

Perhaps she was starting to look for her own identity.

c    4 George has a clear idea of the sort of boy who is right for his daughters — white, well-off and around their age.

c    5 This could have been a ‘wake-up’ call for her father to see what he could lose if he didn’t start respecting her individuality.

c    6 He wants Susie to listen to him, but does he listen to her?

c    7 George clearly sees himself as the victim in the affair.

c    8 Perhaps George is over-ambitious for his daughters and resents the sacrifi ces he made. You can’t buy someone’s love.

c    9 Maybe George unquestioningly took on the values of his parents and now resents Susie’s questioning of his values.

c    10 George has worked hard all his life for his family and now feels very frustrated that his daughter isn’t turning out the way he wanted.

GEORGE’S  STORY

 I’m a respectable businessman and all I’d been trying to do was keep my daughter away from drugs and bad company, and I ended up in a police cell.

I’ve got two daughters, Helen and Susie. Helen’s 17 and Susie’s 15. I’ve had no trouble with Helen, apart from a bit of bulimia1. Susie’s the problem. She used to be a lovely girl with her dolls and toys, but a few months ago her behaviour started to deteriorate. She started dating people who were much poorer than her and staying out later at night. It was really worrying and annoying. Her American boyfriend was much older than her, not at all suitable for her.

We had some rows2 about this, and after one row she stormed out and went missing for a whole weekend. I think she was taking drugs. So then I started


her, ‘You see what happens?’ I told her she’d only got herself to blame. After that, I hoped she would start listening to me. But she didn’t.

Then last week she wanted to go out again. I had had enough. I told her, ‘You’re going to do as I tell you.’ But she shouted she’d do what she liked. I grabbed her by the wrists, but she pulled herself free and ran out of the house. I was sick with worry. And then the police came and arrested me for assault! I was taken to the police station like a common criminal. After a few hours, they released[8] me on bail, and I haven’t

                     an adolescent

                       [02d39lesnt] to assault [39sc:lt] to blame [bleim] to escape [i9skeip] to interfere [0int39fi3] to obey [39bei] to prevent [pri9vent] to reject [ri9dzekt] to remain [ri9mein] to resent [ri9xent] inevitable [in9evit3bl] rebellious [ri9belj3s] z to be grounded z to be jailed z to run out of z in order to


been charged. But it was really unpleasant. I’m just a normal father trying to save my little girl.

My girls were lovely when they were younger.

I drove them to piano lessons and drove them back. My wife always made sure they were dressed really nicely. We gave them everything we could, the sort of things I never had when I

was a child. They were my pride and joy. I don’t understand this rebellious stuff. I never

spoke back to my parents. I never went out drinking. In those days, if you k didn’t like something you just put up with it. I was working when I was 16, and I’ve spent my life building up a business for my family, so they would have a better future. And now this! I feel like my world has fallen apart.

 Read the article and the George’s story again and guess the meanings of the words from the ‘Words for You’. Then check yourself consulting a dictionary.

4Work with a partner and discuss the following questions.

1     How do you feel about the fact that George was jailed?

2     If you were Susie, would you have gone to the police? Why (not)?

3     How would you have handled the situation if you had been in George’s shoes?

4    
Why do you think George acted the way he did? Why do you think Susie acted the way she did? Justify your answer by referring to their characters, childhood and environment.

 Work in groups and do the task below.

Suppose you had the opportunity to talk to any of the people mentioned in the article, what questions would you ask them? Write some questions and then discuss with your mates how these people might answer them.

Develop Your Vocabulary

1        Brush up some personality describing adjectives.

a)  Group up the adjectives into the appropriate columns.

tactful responsible talkative strict

fussy polite rude

tidy

hard-working quiet nervous sensitive

tactless lazy mature relaxed

usually positive

 

usually negative

could be either

critical

b)  Add one of these prefi xes un-, im-, ir-, in- to each of the words from the box to make opposites.

For example:critical — uncritical critical, mature, polite, responsible, sensitive, tidy

2        Refresh your knowledge of word formation.

a)  Rephrase the sentences, adding the appropriate suffi x to the noun in italics.

-ful     -ish     -less     -ly     -y

For example: Alec did it without care. Alec was careless.

1     Don’t be such a fool. Stop being … .

2     The magazine comes out every week.

The magazine comes out … .

3     Look at all the dirt on your hands. Your hands are … .

4     The situation is without hope. The situation is … .

b)  Fill in the gaps with the relevant form of the word on the right.

1     Sarah is not very tolerant of people who don’t think the same as she does.

2     Dave always makes a … contribution to the class discussions.

3     Lyn thinks she deserves special … .

tolerance value treat

Build Up Your Grammar

3rd CONDITIONAL

We use the Third Conditional for the imaginary situations in the past.

Example: If it had been sunny, we should have gone sailing.

                (But it wasn’t sunny so we didn’t go sailing.) We can also use:

zother modals to show how possible or sure the result was.

Example:If it had been sunny, we could / might have gone sailing.

zthe Perfect Continuous

Example: If I had been feeling tired, I wouldn’t have been driving. z passive forms

Example:The medicine shouldn’t have been discovered if there                    hadn’t been an accident.

+ 3rd form

                                  If + Past Perfect            would have

(Past Participle) Positive     If it had been sunny,  we would have    gone sailing.

Negative      If I hadn’t gone skiing, I wouldn’t have    broken my leg.

Question If you had had the would you have         bought the money,    house?

     Read each sentence (1-6). Write ‘T’ for each true sentence (a-f) or ‘F’ for the false one.

1   If I had had time, I would have watched It’s a Wonderful Life.     a T  I didn’t have time to watch It’s a Wonderful Life.

2   I would have recorded the film if my DVD hadn’t been broken    b   I recorded the film

3   John wouldn’t have met Linda if he hadn’t gone to his brother’s party.

    c   John didn’t go to the party.

4   John would have been happier if he had become an architect.     d   John became an architect.

5   The film wouldn’t have been so good if James Stewart hadn’tplayed the part of George Bailey.     e   James Stewart played the part of George Bailey.

6   The enterprise wouldn’t have been successful if they hadn’t provided such a strong marketing company.     f   The enterprise isn’t successful.

2        Choose the correct form of the 3rd Conditional.

1     If the Titanic (didn’t hit / hadn’t hit) an iceberg, it (wouldn’t have sunk / doesn’t sink).

2     If the Aztecs (had defeated / defeated) Cortes’ soldiers, the Spanish (mightn’t conquered / mightn’t have conquered) Mexico.

3     What (happened / would have happened) if Columbus (thought

/ had thought) the world was flat

4     If the Tsar’s soldiers (hadn’t shot / wouldn’t shoot) demonstrating workers in 1905, there (mightn’t been / mightn’t have been) a revolution in Russia.

5     John Kennedy (couldn’t be assassinated / mightn’t have been assassinated) in 1963 if he (hadn’t been travelling / hadn’t travelling) in an open-top car.

3        Write sentences using the 3rd Conditional.

1     I / recognise / you / if / it / not be / dark

I’d have recognised you if it hadn’t been dark.

2     If / my alarm / not ring / this morning / I / be / late for work

.........................................................................................................

3     If / you / ask / politely / I / lend / you / my car

.........................................................................................................

4     If / we / save / more money / we / might / be able to / afford /  a holiday abroad

.........................................................................................................

5     If / you / read / the instructions / you / not break / the washing machine

.........................................................................................................

6     If / you / not remind / me / I / forget / pay / my tax bill

.........................................................................................................

 Complete the sentences following one of the patterns for the Conditional III (see ‘Grammar Point’).

1     I would have enjoyed the party much more if … .

2     It … if the sea hadn’t been so rough.

3     Would you have been able to come next Tuesday if …?

4     If you had taken my advice … .

5     If I had realised that you were really serious in what you said … .

6     If it hadn’t been for the fact that his father had influence … 7 If he had told me the truth in the first place … 8 Would you have lent him the money if … ?

 Refresh your knowledge of Conditionals I, II, III and make up the sentences using the prompts below.

Example: to rain — not to go there

                 If it rains, I will not go there.

                 If it rained, I would not go there.

                 If it had rained, I would not have gone there.

1     to have money — to buy a new car

2     to employ her — not to have the right qualification

3     to pass the exam — to study more

4     to win the game — to train hard

5     to buy the house — to be cheap

6     to be offered the job — to take it

 Choose the Conditional II or Conditional III to complete each sentence. Use negatives if they are required.

1     I would go skiing more often if we lived (live) closer to the ski resorts.

2     The snow … (clean) if I had had a shovel.

3     If I had a key, I … (let) you inside.

4     If John … (be) in town, he would invite you to this new restaurant.

5     If I … (know) you were coming, I would have thrown a party.

6     If he had given her his email address, she … (send) him the price list.

7     If we … (get) lost, we would have arrived on time.

8     Where would you live if you … (have) this house?

Focus on Listening

1 In pairs, ask and answer the questions.

zzWhich of the personality describing adjectives in task 1 on page 77 describe your parents’ attitude to you as a teenager? Why? zzWhich adjectives describe your attitude to your parents as a teenager? Why?

 a) Read the sentences and guess the meanings of the words in bold.

approach, n — They introduced a new approach to teaching languages.


judgement, n — “In my judgement we should accept the proposal.” “Your judgement is not fair,” she answered with a protest in her eyes.

assume, v — He didn’t see her car, so he assumed she had gone out. annoy, v — Sheila annoyed Bill with her unpleasant screamy voice.

bring up, v — Tom was brought up a Catholic. “In my day, children were brought up to respect their parents,” granny said.

irritating, adj — She has an irritating habit of interrupting everybody. intention, n — They came with the intention of visiting the museum.

negotiation, n — This contract is the result of long and diffi cult negotiations between the businessmen of both companies.

b) Work in pairs. Check your answers using a dictionary.

Take turns.

Listen again and answer the questions.

1     What is the main idea of the new approach to dealing with diffi cult teenagers that Penny Palmano offers?

2     How many children does Palmano have?

3     Has she got any problems with clearing up at home?

4     Do teenagers annoy their parents intentionally?                              an approach

5     Why can’t many teenagers                              [39pr3UtS] make good decisions and            a generation [0dzen39reiSn] control their emotions?    an intention [in9tenSn]

6     What does Penny believe the            a judgement [9dzydzm3nt] keys to happiness for all are?     a negotiation [ni0g3USI9eiSn]

7     What does Palmano advise to to annoy [39nci] do if a teenager comes home a to assume [39sju:m] little bit later than it was agreed? to overcome [03Uv39kym]

8     Is it important to criticise a      irritating [9iriteitiN] teenager for having an untidy    to bring up room? Why?

Focus on Speaking

        Read and express your opinion on the following.

zzMany people say we have a responsibility to look after the elderly people in our family or community. Why is it important to take care of them? How should we take care of elderly people?

 Ask and answer the questions in pairs.

1     Can you give some examples of the generation gap from your own experience?

2     Can this gap be overcome? What causes it?

3     Can you imagine a situation, in which you and your parents exchange roles? What would be the same, and what would be different?

4     What is your relationship with your grandparents?

5     Can you compare your relationship with your parents to their relationship with their parents?

3Discuss the following questions ingroups.

zzWhen couples have their fi rst-born child, they become parents and face an utterly1 new stage in their lives. What should parents do to be successful?


zzWhat parents shouldn’t do to be successful?

zzIn their turn teenagers are old enough to realise that adults are not saints and may make mistakes and that the so-called generation gap should not necessarily spoil their relations.

What should good children do?

4Read and comment on the following statements.


b) Imagine you are Max or Kate. What would you say to your dad (mum)? Role-play the situations in pairs.



As to a psychologist who specialises in adolescence, it is clear to me that the problems confronting young people are increasing. More teenage girls are getting pregnant and there are more single mothers. There is also a higher incidence of teenage boys dropping out of school and more gangs on the street corners. 22 percent of boys up to age 18 are reported by a school or other authority for delinquency. Moreover, suicide rates among young men are climbing and a third of teenagers suffer depression at some point.

But what are parents to do? Should they be more liberal and risk losing authority in the child’s eyes? Or should they be more authoritarian and risk alienating[9] their children so much they won’t talk about their fears and concerns? Should they try to stop them having sex or encourage safe sex? It is no easy thing to fi nd a balance between discipline and tolerance. No one seems to know what the rules are any more.

However, unless we start to address these questions as a society, and that means government, schools and parents, things will only get worse.

Yours faithfully,

Dr Margaret Haster

zzWhich of the statements below (A-C) best summarises her point of view? a Parents should be more strict with their children. b Parents should be less strict with their children.

c We don’t know whether parents should be more strict or less strict with their children. 2 In groups, discuss the following questions.

zzWhat’s your view on ‘the balance between discipline and tolerance’ that Dr Haster mentions? Where would you draw the line?

 a) Read the situation and make notes which will help you to write the letter. Work in pairs.

A local newspaper has recently published a series of articles about young people. In most of the articles, young people are described as irresponsible, rude and looking only for cheap entertainment. These opinions are mainly based on a few recent incidents in the local discotheque.

You’re going to write a letter to the editor expressing your disapproval not only with the editorial policy of treating the topic, but also with the perception[10] of young people.

 Look back at Dr Haster’s letter and answer the questions in pairs.

1     The letter has four paragraphs. What is the main idea or purpose of each one?

2     Find examples of the use of facts to support opinions. Why does the writer use them?

3     Find uses of transitional phrases. Why are they used?

4     Find examples of rhetorical questions, i.e. questions that the writer does not expect an answer to. Why does Dr Haster use them?

 Margaret Haster’s letter appeared in the ‘Letters to the Editor’ column of a newspaper. Write an answer to Margaret Haster that could be put in the column. Follow the instructions below.

First, identify the points in the letter that you need to answer (the questions in the 3rd paragraph).

Second, write down some ideas (you can use your ideas from the discussion above and the one on the ‘Teen Terror’ article at the beginning of this unit).

Next, organise your ideas into paragraphs, making sure you have support for your opinions. Then, write your letter using paragraphs (don’t forget introduction), but don’t overuse them.

Finally, check your work for mistakes.


There are (1) … everywhere: in families, between neighbours or between the boys and the girls in your class. What are the (2) … of these confl icts? Perhaps the neighbours (3) … because your football lands in their garden, or because your music is too loud. May (4) …  say hasty things about your hairstyle or about the way you dress. Perhaps your mother has a serious (5) … with you because of your boyfriend. Perhaps your brother and his best friend have become bitter rivals because they are (6) … with the same girl. Or a friend in your class cannot (7) … which classmates  or teachers he/she should invite to a party.


And if you open a newspaper, almost every day you will fi nd reports about individuals, groups of people or countries that do not (8) … each other at all. Lies, misunderstandings, prejudice1, (9) … and discrimination often cause serious problems which can lead to (10) … or even war. 2 Write sentences using Conditional III.

1     As a young child Ellen Macarthur went on a sailing trip with her aunt. A few years later she took up sailing.

If Ellen Macarthur hadn’t gone on a sailing trip with her aunt, she might not have taken up sailing.

2     She saved up her school dinner money. She was able to buy a boat.

If she ………………………………………….. money, ………………………………………….. a boat.

3     She decided not to study to be a vet. She became a sailor.

She ………………………………………….. a sailor ………………………………………….. a vet.

4     At 18 she sailed around Britain single-handed. She won the Young Sailor of the Year Award.

She ………………………………………….. the Young Sailor of the Year Award if ………………………………………….. single-handed.

5     She had a good boat. She broke the round-the-world record by 31 hours.

If she ………………………………………….., she

………………………………………….. by 31 hours.

6     The navigational equipment worked. The boat’s generator didn’t fail.

If the boat’s generator ………………………………………….., the navigational equipment …………………………………………... .

3Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.

1     If you … (fi nd) a skeleton in the cellar don’t mention it to anyone.

2     If you pass your examination we … (have) a celebration.

3     What … (happen) if I press this button?

4     I should have voted for her if I … (have) a vote then.

5     If you go to Paris where you … (stay)?

6     If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you … (choose)?

7     The fl ight may be cancelled if the fog … (get) thick.

8     If the milkman … (come), tell him to leave two pints.

9     Someone … (sit) on your glasses if you leave them there.

10   You would play better bridge if you … (not talk) so much.

11   What I … (do) if I hear the burglar alarm?

12   If you ... (read) the instructions carefully you wouldn’t have answered the wrong question.

 Divide into two groups. The fi rst one writes the list of the ways to describe successful relationships, the second group writes the list of the ways to describe unsuccessful relationships.

The winner is the group with the longest list. 6Role-play the situations (1, 2) in pairs.

1     You belong to a very close family who have always done things together. You’d like to spend more time with your friends, especially at weekends. But your parents always organise family activities that fi ll up the whole weekend, and say you’re too young to go out on your own. What would you do and say to your parents?

2     Susan is 16. Every year she, her parents and her younger brother who is 14 go on a family holiday to their house by the lake. A week before the holiday Susan’s boyfriend Andrew who is 18

asks her to join him and a group of friends on a camping trip. She wants to go but knows that it will not be easy to persuade her father. Also, she does not want to upset or disappoint her parents.

She decides to speak to her father and mother after dinner.

 In groups, read and make notes on your answers to the questions below and organise them into sections. Use your notes to give your speech. (See tips on presentation on page 35 and the letter on pages 85, 86).

WHAT  ABOUT  UKRAINE?

Dr Margaret Haster is carrying out research into how the generation gap is perceived in different cultures in Europe. She will be visiting schools in Ukraine to hear the viewpoints of Ukrainian children.

She has sent you the following questions that she would like to discuss with you. zzWhat do parents expect from their children? zzWhat do children expect from their parents?

zzWhere do you most learn your social survival skills from: family, school or peers? zzTo what extent is there a generation gap? How do you feel about it?

 Do the individual project ‘Three Generations’ following the items below.

1 Interview your grandmother or grandfather, or the grandparents of one of your friends. Think carefully what questions you are going to ask them. (Ask them about their childhood and their relationship with their own parents and grandparents.) 2 Ask your parents the same questions.

3     Answer the same questions yourself.

4     Compare the answers and discuss the generation gap. (What is the same, what is different.)

5     You can decide on the questions, each of you within the group is going to ask, so that you have a greater range of answers to compare. Try to reach some kind of conclusion on the generation gap question.



Grammar







Focus on Reading

      1     In pairs, ask and answer the questions.

1     What kinds of food do you know? Give u know? Give as many nouns denoting food as you food as you can.

2    
What dishes do you know? Give as w? Give as many names of dishes as you can. s you can.

3     What is understood by a ‘course’? ‘course’?

What attributes may qualify this word? ify this word?

4     What can be boiled?

5     What is an omelette made of? e of?

6     What kind of meal is a fi ve o’clock tea

in England? Do you know other names w other names for this meal?

7     What food is Ukraine famous for?ous for?

8     Do you enjoy Ukrainian dishes?

1 Restaurant business has been

                a fi xed price

developing rapidly in Kyiv. As

                      [0fikst 9prais]

a rule, restaurants open at a quality [9kwAl3tI]

11:00 and work until midnight; abundant [39bynd3nt]

actually, nowadays most of customary [9kyst3m3rI]

them close even later — “when distinctive [di9stiNktiv]

the last customer is gone”. In garnished [9g4:niSt]

Kyiv restaurants experienced

inferior [in9fi3rI3] interior [in9ti3rI3]

masters of cuisine will offer you

a wide choice of dishes to suit minced [9minst]

any taste. If you want to have

relatively [9rel3tivlI]

supper at a certain restaurant, rapidly [9r2pidlI]

instead of eating elsewhere, it is best for you to order a table in advance.

2     At your service there is also a network of Ukrainian restaurants of fast food which offer a choice of dishes from traditional Ukrainian cuisine: varenyky (dumplings fi lled with cabbage, potatoes, mushrooms, etc.), salads, beer and juices. You can also have a cheap and tasty dinner at a Domashnia Kuhnia (‘domestic cuisine’) quality food network.

3     The city centre is particularly abundant in restaurants, cafes and bars. Each restaurant is noted for an original interior and a distinctive cuisine. We do hope that in our list of restaurants you will fi nd the right one for you: American, Italian, German, French, Japanese, etc.

4     Ukrainian food restaurants are presented in a separate section at the top of the list. Ukrainian cuisine is rich in traditions. At restaurants specialising in Ukrainian food you will have a chance to taste the famous Ukrainian Borshch — a savory red-— a savory redcoloured soup which has such ingredients uch ingredients as minced beet, carrots, potatoes tatoes and other vegetables. Borshch hch is always garnished with sour ur

cream. As a rule, borshch is eaten with pampushky, small rolls rubbed with garlic. Kulish is a dish of millet[11] cooked in meat soup; lard, onion and garlic are added to the dish before it can be served. Pechenia is stewed pork and potatoes (to which mushrooms or vegetables can be added). This dish is served in a clay pot. Carp in Sour Cream is a fried riverine[12] fi sh (carp) with a sour cream sauce. Coming to the sweets we would recommend Cherry varenyky, an old Ukrainian dish. They are delicious, especially when served with cream.

 5 In addition to dishes we also recommend you to taste Ukrainianmade juices such as Halychyna, Sandora or Sadochok. Not inferior to Fanta or Sprite are Ukrainian nonalcoholic drinks

Rosynka-Ginseng, Zhyvchyk-Apple or Zhyvchyk-Lemon. Good at refreshing are mineral waters Obolon, or Sofi a Kyivska. There is a wide choice of medicinal mineral waters as well: Myrhorodska, Morshynska, Truskavetska, Poliana Kvasova, etc.

 Read the text again and say if the statements below are true or false.

1     Most of the restaurants work 24 hours a day in Kyiv.

2     Business lunch is a set menu at a fi xed price.

3     Domashnia Kuhnia is a very expensive restaurant.

4     Ukrainian food restaurants are located in the city centre.

5     Pechenia is served in a clay pot.

6     Ukrainian beer is not worse than other European brands.

7     Fanta and Sprite are Ukrainian-made juices.

 a) Work in pairs. Look at the menus below and guess where they come from (1-4).

1     a pizzeria                                       3  a British pub


2     Ratatouille is made with

3     Ratafi a is made from

4     Pasta is made from

5     A seafood cocktail is served with

6     Hamburgers are often served with

b beef and vegetables c almonds d tomatoes and lettuce e fl our, eggs and water f red peppers, aubergines

and courgettes


Develop Your Vocabulary

food, dish or meal?

food — something that people and animals eat or plants absorb to keep them alive: baby food. There was lots of food and drink at the party. dish — food prepared in a particular way as part of a meal: a chicken / vegetarian dish meal — an occasion when food is eaten, or the food which is eaten on such an occasion:

I have my main meal at midday.

     You must come round for a meal sometime.

     Choose ‘food’, ‘dish’ or ‘meal’ and complete the sentences.

a     good part of the (1) food grown here is used in the school’s daily

(2) … .

b     The (3) … cooked here includes a range of (4) … from pasta to stuffed vine leaves and delicious Italian omelettes fi lled with herbs and vegetables.

c     Today’s midday (5) … consists of home-made pesto and tomato sandwiches.

2        Match the verbs with the phrases. Use a dictionary to help you.

1     made with

2     range of

3     stuff with

4     roast

5     bake

6     served with

a cook in an oven without using oil or fat b list of ingredients in a dish c accompanies a main dish d fi ll with something e cook in oil or fat in an oven or over a fi re f             number of similar things

3        Complete the text with the words from the box.

French food is one of the reasons a great many people come to

Paris but there are other types of (1) … as well. Two Chinatowns, one near Belleville and the other south of the Place d’Italie, have excellent (2) … . In the Belleville area you are spoilt for (3) … as there are also many Algerian, Tunisian and Moroccan restaurants. But if you are looking for (4) … food there is very little choice, although there are some good places in the Opera quarter.

There are a few (5) … restaurants in Paris although North African establishments will serve you couscous [9ku:sku:s] without any meat. However, you can get a good salad from many restaurants and many, if not most, cafes will make you a vegetarian dish on (6) … if you are prepared to wait some more time before you eat.

Build Up Your Grammar

REPORTED SPEECH

When we report what someone has said, we can:

1   repeat their exact words:

Doctor described Mr G’s condition as a ‘non-life closer to death’.

2   report what they said:

Alison Clarke said that the Government should intervene immediately.

3   report the idea of what they said using a reporting verb:

Brutus decides to explain why Julius Caesar had to be killed.

Don Quixote was still recommended

He was threatened with death and torture.

zzIf you want to report a statement, you use a ‘that-clause’:

Alison Clarke said that the Government should intervene immediately.

Note: ‘that’ can be omitted.

zzIf you want to report a question, you use an ‘If-clause’ or a ‘Wh-clause’:

We asked three people what they thought.

We asked them if they thought they had made the right decision.

Note: there is no inversion. zzIf you want to report an order, a request or a piece of advice, you use a ‘to-clause’:

She told him to go away.    He asked her to come in.

        Choose the correct verb form.

1     Jane told me that she (had been / was) there the day before.

2     He asked me if I (would / will go) to the concert with him.

3     My family wanted to know when (had I seen / I had seen) him.

4     He says that he always (drinks / has drunk) two cups of coffee in the morning.

5     My sister said that she (ate / eats) her lunch at noon.

 Rewrite the sentences in reported speech.

1     “Take these bags, please!” she asked me. 

She asked me to take those bags.

2     “When did you paint this room, yesterday or last week?” my parents inquired.

3     “Were you sitting in a pub when the accident happened?” she asked.

4     “We have never tried any drugs,” they claim.

5     “They are going to assess our written exams tomorrow,” said a student.

 Turn the sentences into direct speech.

1     My class mistress wanted to know what I had done during the last lesson.

“What have you done during the lesson?” my class mistress asked.

2     Tom says that they didn’t call him so he hasn’t done it.

3     She told me that her grandpa took a spoon of honey every single morning.

4     She reported that they were planning a trip to Paris the following week.

5     She wondered if those were his best paintings.

 a) Read the text  and make up a dialogue by transforming the sentences into direct speech. Dramatise the dialogue in pairs.

After having entered a cafe a customer asked a waiter if he might sit in a certain place. The waiter offered him to sit in any place he preferred including the one he asked about. The customer asked if he could see the menu. The waiter gave him the menu and asked if the customer would make an order immediately. The customer agreed and explained that he was short of time. He pointed out at some of the dishes on the menu saying he would like to have them. For not to make a mistake the waiter repeated the dishes again and asked the customer to confirm his order.

b) Report the dialogues.

A

Paula:  Here we are. Dinner’s ready. Come to the table, everybody.

Donna:  Thank you, Paula. Everything looks wonderful, and it smells delicious, too.

Paula:  I’ll put the salad in the middle of the table. Shall I serve you?

Donna:  No, that’s all right. We can help ourselves. Sit down and relax.

Paula:  Peter, would you pour some juice, please? Ken, help yourself to vegetables, too.

B

Waiter:  Welcome to the restaurant, folks. What’ll it be?

Harry:  What do you recommend?

Waiter:  Well, the crab salad’s always a big hit.

Harry:  Susan, would you like the crab salad?

Susan:  I’d love the crab salad.

Harry:  Michelle, would you like to try the crab salad, too?

Michelle: OK.

Harry:  We’ll have three crab salads and a bottle of lemonade.

Focus on Listening

     Speak on the following questions in pairs. zzWhich kind of restaurants do you like to go to?

c     expensive restaurants

c     small, local restaurants

c     family restaurants

c     fast food restaurants

c     self-service restaurants zzWhat do you usually eat when you go out for a meal?

2  a) Listen to a man’s story about his visit to a restaurant and tick (ü) the information that he provides.

c a  when he went

c b  what the weather was like

                                    c                     c  how he was dressed                          a bistro [9bI:str3U]

c                             d  what he did before going to a dressing [9dresiN] a reservation [0rex39veiSn]

    the restaurant

                                        c           e  how often he goes there        staff [st4:f]

                                  c                 f   what his friend ate          veggie [9vedzI]


c                             g  how much he paid for the     sophisticated [s39fistikeitid] undercooked

    meal

c h  what his friend thought of the                [0ynd39kUkt]     meal

b) Listen again and describe your own experience.

You should say:  z where you ate zzwho you went with zzwhat you ate zzexplain how you felt about the experience


b) Copy the form below. Listen again and complete the food

 a) Read the questions (a-h) and think when a waiter might ask them: before or during the meal?

a     Can I take your coat?

b     Is everything OK with your meal? c Are you ready to order? d Would you like anything to drink fi rst? e Here’s your main course … the steak? f           Have you made a reservation? g Would you like some more wine? h Can I get you any dessert?

b) Write each question in a proper column.

Before the meal

During the meal

 

 

Focus on Speaking

        In pairs, speak on the following items.

1     Do you always have dinner at home or do you sometimes eat out?

2     What do you usually order for the main course (dessert)? What do you usually drink?

3     Are national dishes served in restaurants?

4     What is the difference between a regular and a self-service restaurant? Which is generally less expensive?

5     Why are many self-service cafes opened throughout the country nowadays?

 Read and dramatise the conversation in a group of three.

Waiter: We have a few specials on the menu this evening. First there’s a lovely pepper steak served with beans and potatoes. And we have a delicious shrimp dish in garlic sauce served over rice.

Eva:  Which one would you recommend?              a customer [9kyst3m3]

      Waiter:  I think the steak is the best       nutritions [nju9triSnx]

                         thing on the menu.                    a passion [9p2Sn]

     Eva:        OK, I’ll have that then.               canned [k2nd]

Waiter:  How would you like your      enthusiastic [in08ju:xI92stik] steak?    beforehand

     Eva:        Medium rare.                                 [bi9fc:h2nd]

Waiter:  Anything to drink?

     Eva:        What kind of juice have you got?

Waiter:  Orange, apple and pineapple.

Eva:        A glass of apple juice, uice, please.

Waiter:  Sure.

     Eva:       Actually, I’d rather r

have carrots and beans with my steak.

Waiter:  I’ll check with the chef, but I’m sure that won’t be a problem.

Eva:  Great.

(A little later.)

Waiter:  Would you like some coffee or dessert?

Martin:  I could go for some coffee. And you?

Eva:  Nothing for me, thanks.

Waiter:  American coffee, sir?

Martin:  I’d rather have cappuccino. And the check, please.

Waiter:  Right away.

 Role-play the situation in a group of four. Use the phrases from the ‘Useful Language’ box.

Students A and B, you are the customers. Ask about the dishes on the menu and decide what to have. Unfortunately, the meal and the service are not very good, so you will need to complain.

Student C, you are the waiter. Welcome your customers. Explain the dishes on the menu, take their order and serve the food.

Student D, you are the manager. Deal with any problems and try to keep the customers happy!

Eating Out

Things you can say                       Things you might hear

I’ve booked a table for eight Follow me, please. o’clock.    Are you ready to order?

For starter I’d like …                Would you like anything to drink?

Oh, it looks lovely! Thank you. Would you like dessert?

I’ll have an orange juice.         This is our house special.

Can I have the bill, please?

 Do the individual project. Prepare a traditional menu with English translations for a restaurant in your town or area.

Focus on Writing

Reports

Reports are formal pieces of writing about a specifi c person, place, event, plan, etc. They are always directed to others usually in written form in response to their request to provide information.

Reports can take the form of:

1   an assessment report

2   a proposal report

3   a survey report

     Guess and match the parts of a report (1-3) with their contents (a-c).

 In pairs, analyse the plans for writing both types of the reports and speak on the difference between them.


To:

From:

Subject: Date:

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 1 presenting the content

and the aim of the report

BODY PARAGRAPHS

Paragraph 2-3[13]detailed presentation of

assessment of the positive/

negative aspects of the topic in separate paragraphs

CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 4 summarising the presented

assessment and expressing

your opinion or giving suggestions

To:

From:

Subject: Date:

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 1 presenting the content

and the aim of the report

BODY PARAGRAPHS

Paragraph 2-3 detailed presentation of

suggestions or recommendations in separate paragraphs

(+ reasons & justifi cations)

CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH

Paragraph 4 summarising the presented

proposals and, if needed, stating

your opinion with the choice of the best proposal


 In groups, read the situation and analyse the information on page 110.

You are a teacher of English in a secondary  school. You have decided to take a group of your students to England not only to improve their knowledge of English, but also to introduce them to the customs and the way of life in England.

Before taking your students for a three-week course you decide to visit and check the college your students have chosen to stay at.

The following is the report that will be presented to the students’ parents at the meeting prior to the fi nal decision being made.

St James’s Languages International

SUBHEADINGS            GOOD POINTS                    BAD POINTS

PRICE                       zzeverything included            zzrelatively expensive (transportation,        (£ 1,700)

accommodation)

LOCATION              zzGreenfi eld (a small town zzshort distance from near London)        London (students

zztypical English town         can go on their own) zzdrinking in local pubs

COURSE(S)        zzsafe for young people zzstudents have the zzcourses in general      option of taking only English, specialised           morning classes courses as well        zzstudents do their zzsmall groups        assignments

                                             (up to 10 students)                  unsupervised

zz5 classes a day

(25 per week)

COLLEGE      zzexcellent academic          zzrenting sport FACILITIES    facilities (college library,         equipment must be computer rooms, study           paid extra rooms)

zzsuperb sports facilities (swimming pools, playgrounds, tennis courts…)

ACCOM-             zza choice between a            zzsome families allow

MODATION             residential course or     too much freedom to staying with a family     students

zzfood provided in a college zzstudents might not canteen (3 meals)         be accustomed to

canteen food

EXCURSION(S) zza whole day trip to

London

zza whole day trip to Oxford and Stratford-on-Avon

 Read the situation and write a report following the instructions below.

You have noticed that the number of students eating junk food during the breaks in your school is increasing. You have spoken to some members of the Students’ Council. They have decided to launch a campaign called ‘Teenagers for Healthy Food’. You have been asked to contribute by writing a report with suggestions for a more balanced diet.

1 Write a report. Include the following information: zzthe harmful effects of junk food on students’ health zzalternative healthier diets

zzhow  to start changing their eating habits zzhow  this change will have benefi cial effects on their health 2 Write 200-250 words.

conclusion) conclusions) 3 Check.

for the task

punctuation)

WHAT TO EAT IN PARIS

The French national passion for good cuisine makes eating out one of the greatest pleasures

see people eating — in restaurants, bistros, tea

                 salons, cafes and wine bars.                                           Croissants

Most restaurants serve French food but     These fl aky pastry there is a range of Chinese, Vietnamese and             crescents are eaten


North African eateries in many areas as well as        freshly-(1)baked for Italian, Greek, Lebanese and Indian places. breakfast.


Moules Marinieres Mussels are (2) … in a garlic-fl avoured wine stock.

Coquille Saint-Jacques Andouillettes Scallops are classically à la Lyonnaise cooked with butter with These sausages made (3) … mushrooms in from pork intestines


white wine, lemon juice          are (4) … or fried and and butter.       served with onions.

 Use the verbs in brackets to report the following statements.

1   Robert: I’ll tell the teacher! (threaten)

2   James (to Cheryl): You should see a doctor. (advise)

3   Charles (to Ben): No, I won’t lend you my Walkman. (refuse)

4   Michael: I’m sorry I broke the window. (apologise)

5   Colin: Yes, I did go out with Jennifer on Saturday. (admit)

6   Mark (to Eliza): You’ve taken my pen! (accuse)

 Work in groups.

a)       
Read the information and discuss the problem.“One man’s meat is another man’s poison,” one English lish proverb says. There is a wide range of nutritious foods in the world. However, eating habits differ from country tо country. In some societies certain foods are taboo. An eccentric millionaire once invited guests from several countries tо a banquet and offered them the menu below. All the foods are popular r in some parts of the world, but are not eaten in others.

b)       Look at this menu and answer the questions below.















Focus on Reading

b) In pairs, change the words of the poem so that it refl ects your ‘bare necessities’. Then read your poem to the class.

 a) Read about mobile phones and choose the correct answer (А, В, С or D) on page 122.

MOBILE PHONES

The love affair with mobile phones is worldwide. The Germans call them “handy”; the Singaporeans refer to them (1) “prawns” because a popular model looks (2) … a prawn when opened; the Finns have (3) … them “kannykka” or “kanny”, meaning an extension of the hand; everywhere they are establishing (4) … as one of the world’s most successful consumer products. Mobiles have two qualities (5) …  make them much more powerful (6) … their fi xed-line brothers: they travel around with you and they know (7) … you are. This means you can keep in (8) … with people – and increasingly with information - wherever you (9) … to be. The most obvious  reason (10) … mobile phones are so popular is that the quality is going up (11) … the same time as prices are coming down.

HISTORY

Analogue technology (the so-called fi rst generation) 12) … people a taste for mobile communications. Digital technology (the second generation) improved mobile communications. Digital technology (the second generation) improved reception and enabled a range of sophisticated services to (13) … offered. The third generation of digital phones will make (14) … possible for mobile-phone users to access 15) … Internet at lightning speed.

1

A like

B

as

C

with

D

the

2

A how

B

like

C

of

D

as

3

A named

B

name

C

naming

D

names

4

A it

B

they

C

themselves

D

itself

5

A -

B

who

C

that

D

what

6

A than

B

that

C

then

D

there

7

A what

B

how

C

when

D

where

8

A connect

B

call

C

touch

D

news

9

A try

B

happen

C

must

D

going

10

A which

B

what

C

why

D

whose

11

A at

B

in

C

of

D

with

12

A give

B

giving

C

gave

D

given

13

A be

B

have

C

has

D

-

14

A that

B

it

C

there

D

them

15

A -

B

an

C

of

D

the

3a) Before reading the article say if the Internet may affect all


aspects of our lives.

b) Read the article and match the aspects (A-l) with the

              problems (1-9).                                           a consumer 

YOU HAVE AN INTERNET                          [k3n9sju:m3] ADDICTION WHEN ...           a handset [9h2ndset]

a range [reindz]

1 …: You start introducing yourself stuff [styf]

as „Jim at I-I-Net dot net dot...“ a victim [9viktim]

All of your friends have signs

to enable [i9neibl]

in their names. You don’t know average [92v3ridz]

the sex of three of your closest

cellular [9seljul3]

friends, because they have

digital [9didzitl]


neutral nicknames and you never sophisticated [s39fistikeitid]

bothered to ask. l emergency service

2…: You kiss your boyfriend’s home l to install 

page. Your girlfriend drapes a software

blond wig over your monitor

to remind you of what she looks like. Your wife says communication

is important in a marriage...so you buy y another computer and d install a second phone line so the two of you can chat.e line so the two of you can chat.

3…: You step out of your room and realize that your parents have moved and you don’t have a clue when it happened. You can’t call your mother...she doesn’t have a modem.

4…: Your dog has its own home page... And your dog’s home page is actually good.

5…: You code your homework in HTML and give your teacher the URL.

6…: You wake up at 3 a.m. to go to the bathroom and stop and check your e-mail on the way back to bed. It says “no new messages”.

So you check it again.

7…: Your bookmark takes 15 minutes to scroll from top to bottom. When looking at a pageful of someone else’s links, you notice all of them are already highlighted in purple.

8…: Your phone bill comes to your doorstep in a box.

9…: Your heart races faster and beats irregularly each time you see a new WWW site address in print or on TV, even though you’ve never had heart problems before.

10 Other: You refer to going to the bathroom as downloading. As your car crashes through the guardrail on a mountain road, your fi rst instinct is to search for the “back” button.

 Parents

B   E-mail

 Pets

 Making friends

E   Money

 Schoolwork

 Dating and marriage

 Health

 I   Surfi ng

                         (from www.math.psu.edu/tseng/NetAddict.html)

c) In pairs discuss the questions below.

lDo you show any of these signs?

lDo you think you are addicted to the Internet or to your cellular phone to a certain degree? Why?

Develop Your Vocabulary

     Read the names of natural and social sciences for four minutes. Then close the books and working in pairs, name all the sciences you remember in turns. The winner is the person whose word was the last.

Natural sciences: physics (acoustics, astronomy, dynamics, mechanics, optics), chemistry (analytical, organic, biochemistry, materials science), Earth sciences (geology, geography, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, seismology), biology (anatomy, botany, epidemiology, genetics, histology, immunology, microbiology, physiology, virology, zoology), computer science, information science, cybernetics, engineering (agricultural, biomedical, civil, electrical, mechanical), health science (dentistry; medicine - dermatology, gynaecology, immunology, internal medicine, neurology, ophthalmology, pathology, paediatrics, pharmacology, psychiatry, radiology, toxicology; veterinary medicine), environmental science

Social sciences: anthropology, archaeology, economics, linguistics, political science, psychology (behaviour analysis, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, neuropsychology, personality psychology, social psychology.)

 Match the science with its defi nition.

c cryogenics / c astronautics / c ethnology / c ergonomics /

c astrophysics /  c cybernetics / c civil engineering / c geopolitics

1     design and construction of roads, bridges, buildings

2     science of very low temperatures

3     science of communication and control in machines and brain

4     study of work environments and conditions

5     scientifi c study of the chemical nature and natural forces infl uencing stars

6     study of the infl uence of a country’s position on its politics

7     scientifi c study of space travel

8     scientifi c study of human races and their characteristics

 Complete the sentences with the suitable types of inventions from the box.

appliances / device / gadgets / machine / machinery / motor

1     Empty the washing … .

2     They have installed all the latest household … .

3     The factory’s current technology requires new industrial … .

4     The tin-opener is a handy … .

5     … are small mechanical tools.

6     … bikes are dangerous to ride.

 Choose the best answer.

1     The batteries have … Get another set.

a)               died     b) stopped       с) run out         d) gone off

2     There has been a power … and now the lights are not working.

a)               cut       b) run   c) stop             d) break

3     The dishwasher broke …yesterday. We’ll have to get a new one.

a)               out       b) over             c) up    d) down

4     I can’t plug in the lawn mower because the cable is too short.

Please bring me the … lead.

a)               wire     b) power          c) external       d) extension

5     This pipe is leaking. I’ll need a … to turn this bolt.

a)               spanner b) screwdriver           c) hammer       d) torch 5 Match the nouns below with their meanings (1-10) on page 126.

c scanner / c chat room / c megabyte / c newsgroup / c server /  c attachment / c spam / c database / c spreadsheet / c RAM /

 c template / c CD-ROM / c palmtop / c terminal

1     online conversation between a group of people

2     website where people get information about a certain topic they are interested in

3     file sent together with an e-mail messag

4     unwanted material sent to your computer (ads etc.)

5     large collection of information

6     measure for computer memory

7     memory in a computer used for temporary storage of information

8     programme which puts figures in grids for easier calculatio

9     model for writing similar kinds of texts, e.g. letters

10   compact disc with read-only memory

11   central computer

12   computer served by a central computer

13   small computer which fits in your han

14   machine that transfers documents into a computer

Build Up Your Grammar

Adverb Clauses with Time

Adverb clauses can be joined by time conjunctions (сполучниками часу) like ‘when’, ‘as soon as’, ‘until’, ‘after’, ‘before’, ‘while’ etc. A time conjunction gives us information about when two events happen, relative to each other.

When’ is a conjunction that means ‘at that moment, at that time’.

When I arrive, I will phone you.

I wasn’t watching TV when you called me.

Until’ and ‘till’ are conjunctions that express ‘up to a time in the past or future’. ‘Till’ is usually only used in spoken English.

We waited until he finishe his homework.

I’ll wait till you finis .

‘Not until / till’ can mean the same as ‘not before’.

We won’t be seeing each other until / before Christmas holidays begin.

Warning!  We can’t use until or till to mean ‘in advance of’. 

In this case we use ‘before’:

Please return your registration form before you  leave the room.


NOTE

Note. Punctuation. When an adverb clause begins the sentence, use a comma to separate the two clauses.

When he arrived into town, he gave me a call.

When the adverb clause fi nishes the sentence, there is no need for a comma. He gave me a call when he arrived into town.

     Notice the different tenses used in relationship to the clause beginning with ‘when.’ a  He was talking on the phone when I arrived. b  When she called, he had already eaten lunch. c  I washed the dishes when my daughter fell asleep. d  We’ll go to lunch when you come to visit.

 Choose the correct verb form to complete each sentence.

1 When you come back, I … the programme.

a) download      b) will have downloaded   c) will download 2 We will delete that fi le when the boss …  .

a) tells us to      b) will tell us to   c) will have told us to 3 Jane was looking for the wire when Bob …  .

       a) has come in          b) came in           c) would come in

4     When Eric retires from that company, he … there for ten years.

a)       will be working            b) will work      c) will have been working

5     The young generation always surfs the Internet when they … new information.

a)       need   b) will need      c) needs

6     Until she … for the network, she wasn’t able to be in contact with me.

a)       would register             b) registered   c) had registered 7 You can use my printer till you …  .

a) will get yours fi xed  b) would get yours fi xed 

c) get yours fi xed

8 I use my nickname when I … messages online.

a) send            b) sent        c) will send

 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms.

1     Kevin … (change) his password when he realized that someone else was using his page.

2     When Kate buys herself a new computer next week, she … (use) her old one for fi ve years.

3     We need to check the database until Mr. Smith … (arrive).

4     Until she returns, you … (hide) all of the appliances.

5     I … (fi x) the printer for two hours when Jake entered the room.

6     Helen … (not leave) the offi ce till her boss allowed her to.

7     They … (not improve) the website until you require to do this.

8     Life had not been so convenient as nowadays until the Internet … (invent).

 Correct the mistakes printed in bold. Explain your corrections.

1     We will be waiting here until he plugged in the laptop.

2     I forbid you to use the computer till you have been sixteen.

3     When Sophia comes back next month, it is three years since she was away.

4     Scientists fi nd it diffi cult to cure many illnesses until the level of technology was improved.

5     She never uses her mobile when the battery had been low.

6     Last week, Sam requires a refund when he discovers that his new digital camera is broken.

7     Until you bought me a cellular, I used a land-line phone.

8     Tomorrow Tom pay the connection fee when he go to work.

 Finish the sentences on your own.

1     I will remind you about the attachment when …  .

2     When Ben retires next week, …  .

3     Till you are ready, I …  .

4     Lilly was in the chat room until …  .

5     Press this button when …  .

6     Until the industrial revolution started, …  .

7     This machine needs more power when …  .

8     We will be surfi ng the Internet till …  .

Focus on Listening

     All these words have something to do with new technology. Say which of them relate to computers, music, mobile phones, or the Internet. Give explanations.

Cyberspace / an MP3 player / texting / an iPod / online /

Wikipedia / to download / YouTube / a website / a gigabyte /  a password / a hacker / MySpace / a blogger / a virus / a gadget / Facebook / a laptop

a)  In groups discuss the questions below.

l Why are mobile phones so popular among teenagers? l How can new technology make classes more interesting?

b)  b)     Listen to the information and compare your answers     to those statements.  

1     New technology has changed the way teenagers learn, think and … with their family and friends in the 21st  …, which is why they are often called GenTech.

2     Most teenagers aged 12 to 15 have their own mobile phone, and many of them spend most of their pocket money on topping up their … .

3     The fact that you can talk to your friends anytime and save money by … is a great advantage, but many parents and psychologists are worried about the growing number of teens … to their mobile phones.

4     According to some psychologists, mobile phones give young people prestige, while … a mobile phone call or text message makes them feel … and boosts their self-confi dence.

5     In addition to computer labs which facilitate learning, some history teachers have … video games based on history lessons, while in some schools students can re-create novels and plays on … as part of their English homework.

 a) Ask and answer the following questions in pairs.

l Can you download your favourite songs and fi lms free of charge due to the Internet? l Is the Internet attractive to you? Why?

b)    b)      Listen to the attractions of the Internet, then agree or     disagree with the statements.  

 In groups discuss the following information.

WHAT ARE THE DANGERS OF THE INTERNET?

Instead of going out, these days, teenagers mostly make friends online, since they spend hours on the Internet. But, are these longlasting and reliable friendships? Are computers becoming their best friends since they spend hours playing computer games? Does so much available information make teens more educated or does it reduce their ability to think for themselves? By sharing their typical teenage problems online, teen bloggers, who write more than half the blogs in the world, often reveal personal information, which puts them in danger from stalkers. It is even less safe on Facebook and MySpace, where people post their personal details and photos for everyone to see. Unlike television programmes,

Internet content is not limited by any legal restrictions, so even young children can be exposed to harmful content, such as pornography.

a)  Match the words on the left with the words on the right to get the right phrases from tasks 2 - 4.

1     to top up

2     to boost

3     to facilitate

4     free

5     long-lasting

6     to share

7     harmful

8     legal

c of charge

c learning

c cell phone

c self-confi dence

c problems

c content

c restrictions

c friendship

b)  Check the meaning of these phrases.

 Answer the following questions.

1     How often do you top up your cell phone?

2     What material from the Internet do you download free of charge?

3     Do you sometimes share your problems online?

4     Have you made any long-lasting friendships in cyberspace?

5     Do teachers at your school use new technology to facilitate learning?

6     Have you ever come across any harmful content on the Internet?

Are there any legal restrictions for teenagers in Ukraine?

7     What can boost your self-confi dence?

 Take a minute to prepare a mini talk about the positive and negative effects of new technology on the lives of teenagers today.

1     Why is the new generation of teenagers called GenTech?

2     Why are mobile phones so popular among teenagers?

3     How can new technology make classes more interesting?

4     What are the attractions of the Internet?

5     What are the dangers of the Internet?

Focus on Speaking

               Choose ten top inventions from the box below.

Explain your choice.

electric stove, plastic, computer game, automobile, gramophone, world wide web, lawn-mower, adjustable spanner, hovercraft, diesel engine, liquid crystal display, thermometer, light bulb, laser, synthetic rubber, binary numeral system, fertilizer, nuclear chain reaction, hot-air balloon, dynamite, adding machine. X-ray machine, compact disc, saxophone, cat’s eye, steam locomotive, blue jeans, induction motor, wireless communication, robotics, paper clip, battery, contact lenses

 Work in small groups.

a)       Look at the photos and say whether these inventions     have had a good or bad effect on people’s lifestyles.     Think of arguments that give different points of viewnts of view      about each invention.

b)       Discuss the following:

lHave our lives always been improved? Have we become too passive?

lAre we too dependent on technology? How dangerous could it be?

3Discuss why the following inventions would be totally useless.


l    nonstick Sellotape l solar-powered fl ash light l a black highlighter pen l glow-in-the-dark sunglasses

l    smooth sandpaper l waterproof sponge/teabags l AC adapter for solarpowered calculator

l    fi reproof matches/cigarettes l battery-powered battery charger

l    seatbelts for motorbikes l hand-powered chainsaw l infl atable dartboard l silent alarm clock l double-sided playing cards l ejector seats for helicopters


4a) Read what people say about how they use the internet.

 Work in groups. Prepare a fi ve-minute talk about the dangers of reckless surfi ng of the Internet.

a Think about your classmates who are using the Internet on a daily basis. They download information for their school projects, visit various web pages, join chat rooms, etc. b Search for the information for safe

Giving advice


usage of the Internet.

Make sure you...

c Address the following issues:

Be careful you don’t...

ldownloading copyright material

Never...

lspyware programmes

Always...

lchatting with people you do not

You should /

know and give advice how to avoid

shouldn’t...

these dangers.


Focus on Writing

Articles are pieces of writing published in magazines, newspapers, newsletters, leafl ets and brochures. They can cover a wide range of topics and their aim is to give information or express opinions.

According to their purpose articles can be classifi ed as discursive (giving an opinion or making suggestions), descriptive (giving information about people, places and events), narrative, etc. They can be written in either a formal or informal style depending on the audience and the topic presented.

    Take a few copies of various English magazines and

newspapers. Look through them and choose three or four ose three or four with appealing or provoking headlines. Skim through the articles and answer the following questions.

lWhat are the articles about?

lWhat is their purpose? l In your opinion, are they good articles? Why?

 Read about what a gadget is and answer the question.

According to the dictionary, a gadget is a device having a unique purpose and function. Most people would fi nd it extremely diffi cult to live without smart phones, camcorders, laptops, DVDs or television.

Nobody wants to go back to the days when there was no television, no dishwashers and certainly no cell phones.ell phones. l Have these modern gadgets ets changed our world and made it a better place or have they turned us into slaves?

 Follow the instructions and write an article (150-200 words) about young people and technology to your school magazine.

You  should  address the following  issues:

lWhich three gadgets do most students fi nd to be “cool”? l What are the good and the bad sides of using technology in students’ daily lives?

lHow can technology change students’ lives in the future?

You need to give your article

TITLE

an attractive title.

You should start your     If you could choose, what would you ask article in an interesting way       your parents for your next birthday? (address your readers - ask          The three most popular xxxxxxxxxxx xxx them a direct question). xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx.

When you change the topic,

There are many good xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

start with a new paragraph. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

On the other hand, the bad sides xxxxx

Use an informal and lively xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

style.

Technology will play an important xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

In conclusion, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Finish your article with an xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. interesting conclusion.

CHECKLIST

Have you included all the required information? Is the layout appropriate? Re-read the article and check for mistakes (vocabulary, grammar, spelling, punctuation). Count the number of words.

 Write an article (220-240 words) on one of the topics below.

lMy Mobile Phone — Love It or Hate It?

lThe Internet — Infi nite Possibilities l People and Machines — How I See the Future

 Fill in the gaps with the words below. Some of the words will need to be changed to fi t the sentences.

Writing or translating without a word … would be an impossible task nowadays. Think only of the many … we all make when we write, and later the editing that takes place after we have written our texts.


So, you … on the PC or … , … your word program by clicking on one of the many … available on your screen. And you start writing your document. You need to create and name your … and directories, … or mark your text, use the commands ‘copy’, ‘cut’ and … to move parts of the text about and ‘save’ to … your data.

 Find out the main idea of each message below (1-6).

Choose from the ideas a-f. There is one extra letter that you do not need. There is an example (g) at the beginning.

c g 1  Your battery is now empty. Please can you recharge it?

c 2  Ask a crew member if you wish to use electronic equipment     during the fl ight.

c 3  Defend your PC from hackers and viruses.


remove this fi le now?

a Your message has not been sent for technical reasons. b You do not have enough money to telephone anybody.

c      You can only use electronic equipment when the aircraft has stopped.

d     You can delete a possible virus from your PC immediately.e You can buy protection for your computer on-line.

f       Do not use laptops or phones without fi rst checking with the staff while on board.

g    

There is not enough energy for you to use this device.

  Listen to the radio programme about a summer science school. Copy and complete the notes below with a word or a number. You will hear the words or numbers that you need.

SUMMER SCIENCE SCHOOL

The school started: (1) … years ago.

An example activity this year is cutting open a (2) … .

The course lasts (3) … days.

For more information, call: (4) … .

The next session that you can do takes place in (5) … .

5Role-play the situation in pairs. Use the phrases from the

1     List the advantages and disadvantages of computers and the Internet. Which list is longer?

2    
Do you think modern ways of communication (e.g. e-mail, mobile phones, etc.) are more impersonal than traditional ones (e.g. letters, face to face)? How have mobile phones and the Internet changed the way we keep in touch with friends and family? Do you send text messages from your holiday rather than postcards?

Think of other examples.

3     Which modern inventions help most to make your life easier?

Choose three and give reasons.

4     Put the following inventions in your order of importance: airplane, assembly line, telephone, car, television, radio, mobile phone, computer, penicillin, nylon, atomic bomb, Internet, printing press.

Explain your choice.













Focus on Reading

          a) Remember what you know about national parks and reserves. Match the halves of the sentences in both columns below.

1     A national park is a park          c    type of protected areas.

2     There is a common idea about            c    1 for outdoor recreation national parks: the conservation of          and camping ‘wild nature’ for posterity and as a        opportunities.

3     The International Union for      c    for conservation Conservation of Nature (IUCN),      purposes.

                               has defined “National Park” as                              c the natural wonders of

4     National parks are almost always        the land in which the

                               open to visitors                                          national park is located.

5     Most national parks are designed       c    symbol of national to educate the public on the pride. importance of conservation

b) Give your own definition to ‘national park’. Explain your statement.

 a) Read the article and find the territories of hese areas on the map of Ukraine. Use a dictionary if necessary.

NATURAL WONDERS OF UKRAINE

Herbs of buffalo, wildebeest and zebras are roaming in the steppes of Kherson Region between Odessa and Crimea. Hey, what zebras?

This is not Africa! Well, indeed – but it is really inside the 2300 hectare

Askania Nova Reserve – the brainchild of a 19th century Odesa German who acted on his slightly mad idea of importing animals from different continents to this unique natural steppe.

In addition to the above-mentioned species, the reserve boasts Przevalski horses from Mongolia, camels, Central Asian saiga antelopes and all types of birds, from pink flamingos to rare steppe eagl s. But perhaps the main attraction here is the virgin steppe – flat as a skating rink. Apart from its zoo and gardens, the reserve is closed to visitors for most of summer because of steppe fire dange . So late spring and early autumn are the best times to take a safari                      conservation 

in a horse-drawn cart.                                                 [0kAns39vei1n]

Another large chunk of virgin steppe          heritage [9heritidz] that you admire is actually out in the             recreation [0rekri9ei1n] Black sea. The isle of Dzharylhach is           reproduction [0rI:pr39dyk1n] separated from the mainland by a narrow     reserve [ri9xE:v] strait. It is also teeming with all kinds of             value [9v2lju:] wildlife – though, admittedly not African,         virgin [9vE:dzin] which makes it all the more authentic.           to admire [3d9mai3]

Dzharylhach and its bay is part of the            to constitute [9kAnstitju:t] Dzharylhach National Nature Park. Its        to preserve [pri9xE:v] area of 56 square km and length of 42 km      precious [9pre13s] make it the Black Sea’s biggest island.    unvaluable [0yn9v2lju3bl] It has clean sandy beaches and mineral   varying [9vea9rai6] springs. In the middle of the island there is a fresh water spring, and more than four hundred small salty lakes are scattered all over its territory. The unique flora and fauna of Dzharylhach have been well preserved. It is a habitat for wild boars, deer, mouflon, as well as numerous seagulls an cormorant, hunting crabs, raps whelk and shrimp.

The Shatskiy National Nature Park lies 160 km northwest of Lutsk in the corner between Belarus and Poland, and has some 200 lakes, rivers and streams. Shatsky National Natural Park  was established in 1983 and aimed to preserve, reconstitute and to use effectively Volyn Polissia natural complexes and objects of special evironmental, recreational, educational and aesthetic value.

The park is located on the territory of Shatsk Region in northwest part of Volyn Oblast. The general area of the park is 490 square kilometres. Two ecological paths, Svitiazianka and Lisova Pisnia, are working in the Shatsk NNP. Shatsk lake group is one of the biggest in Europe. On its territory there are more than thirty lakes of varying sizes. Their total area is almost 70 square kilometers. They constitute one of the biggest European groupings of lakes. Among them is Svitiaz, the deepest lake in Ukraine.

Forests occupy 52.5% of general park area. According to the

Ramsar Water and Moor Protection agreement, the Shatsk lakes’ lands, which are situated between the Prypiat and the western Bug, are considered to be one of the most important areas in Ukraine. In this territory, migrating birds can find places for their reproduction as w ll as food and rest on their way from the north to warmer countries.

The national park together with the local administration, manage the main nature protection tasks. Due to these achievements, the park was included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (as West Polesie Transboundary Biosphere Reserve) within the frameworks of the UNESCO “Man and the Biosphere Programme” on April 30, 2002. By this act, the Shats’k lakes were referred to as some of the most precious complexes of the Earth. In Ukraine, Svitiaz Lake is considered to be one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Ukraine.

In the Shatsk Lakes territory, 1180 species of plants belonging to 124 families are found. Pine and blueberry forests dominate the territory of the park. Alder and birch forests grow in the lowlands.

Fauna is represented by typical woodlands species: elk, wild boar, roe deer, rabbits, squirrels. 332 vertebrate species have been noted in the park: 55 mammals, 241 birds, 7 amphibians, and 29 fish, hich represent 11 families.

Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, Europe’s largest wetland, and the 4th part of it is located in Ukraine’s far southwest where the Danube dumps water and silt into the Black Sea. Few make the effort to reach this far-flung wedge of fertile territot , but those who do are rewarded with astoundingly beautiful scenery, colourful birdlife, and serene evenings in drowsy Vylcovo, fancifully nicknamed the ‘Ukrainian Venice’ thanks to its network of canals.

Carpathian Biosphere Reserve was declared a Unesco Biosphere reserve in 1992. This protected area is made up of six separate locations, four of which can be found around Rakhiv. Some 90% of the reserve is made up of virgin forest, home to rare flora and fau a. The Museum of Forest Ecology stands on the hill behind the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve headquarters building. The exhibition is very informative, rich and colourful.

Carpathian National Natural Park is the largest national park, which was founded in 1980. It covers 503 sq km of wooded mountains and hills, but only about a quarter of the area is completely protected.

Parts of it shelter small numbers of animals and alpine meadows are carpeted with species of fl ora. A special gift of nature is that the National Park – is a source of mineral water of different types, that’s why many objects in it are closely related to recreational and medicinal activities here.

           (from guidebook ‘Lonely Planet’: Southern Ukraine, p.182)

b) Read the article again and complete the sentences.

Elk, wild boar, roe deer, rabbits, squirrels are typical species for … … is one of the biggest lake groups in Europe.

… is the place where the Museum of Forest Ecology opens its doors to visitors.

… is closed to visitors for most of summer because of steppe fi re danger.

… is a habitat for wild boars, deer, moufl on, as well as numerous seagulls and others.

… is the area where only a quarter of the territory is completely protected.

… is Europe’s largest wetland, the fourth part of which is situated in Ukraine.

 In groups discuss the question.

Use the phrases from the box below.

l Why are the national parks important?

unique wildlife; protection of biodiversity; conservation effort; to protect

the best of our natural heritage; to form economic and social wellbeing; to deliver invaluable economic, social, cultural and health benefi ts; to

provide safe environments in which animals and plants can survive and

thrive, to provide life-sustaining services vital for the wellbeing of our environment and society

 Work in groups. Search for the information and prepare a presentation about one of the national parks of Ukraine. Use slides with images or design a poster.

Develop Your Vocabulary

prevent, v — to stop something from happening or someone from doing something: Label your suitcases to prevent confusion. avoid, v — to stay away from someone or something: 

We left early to avoid the traffic protect, v — to keep someone or something safe from  injury, damage or loss: It’s important to protect  your skin from the harmful effects of the sun.

     Read and choose the verb ‘prevent’, ‘avoid’ or ‘protect’ to complete each sentence. Put it in the appropriate form if necessary.

1     The government has opened a nature reserve to … people from hunting endangered species.

2     This cream is perfect for … you from insect bites.

3     The new law … people from building houses near the National Park.

4     I think we should set out early to … the worst of the traffic

5     You ought to be wearing a hat to … your head from the sun.

 Match the definition (a-k) with the words (1-11).

a the air, water and land where people, animals and plants live b the way in which plants, animals and natural features of a place affect and depend on each other

c the natural home of a plant or animal d the natural system in which, for example, an insect eats a plant, a bird eats the insect, an animal eats the bird, etc. with the result that all these different forms of life depend on each other

e     general increase in the temperature of the world, caused by pollution from cars, factories, etc.

f      changes in the weather around the world, which result in much higher or lower temperatures, violent storms, floods, etc


g     the gradual warming of the Earth caused by pollution that stops heat from leaving the

Earth’s atmosphere h a layer of natural gases around

the Earth. The ozone layer protects the Earth from the harmful effects of the sun, but pollution is causing a hole in it

i     a tropical forest with tall trees growing very close together, in an area where it rains a lot. It is very important for the balance of the Earth’s ecology

c    e 1  global warming

c    2  the ozone layer

c    3  climate change

c    4  the greenhouse effect

c    5  ecology

c    6  the environment

c    7  the food chain

c    8  habitat

c    9  rainforest

c    10  deforestation

c    11  endangered species


j       a situation, in which most of the trees in an area are cut down or destroyed, resulting in great damage to the environment

k      a type of plant or animal that is likely to stop existing completely, for example because of hunting or pollution

 Complete the sentences with some of the words and word combinations above (see task 2). Put them in correct forms.

1     … cover about 6% of the Earth’s surface.

2     The white rhino is close to become …

3     New laws are being introduced to protect …

4     The hole in … is thought to be responsible for an increase in cases of skin cancer[14].

5     Many consumers don’t want to eat … foods.

6     There are dangerously high … levels in our rivers.

7     The rapid pace of … in Malaysia makes the world community to worry.

8     Scientists are predicting a substantial rise of … over the next 20 years.

9     The threat to life higher up … .

10   An international conference on … took place in Paris last Monday.

Build Up Your Grammar

RELATIVE PRONOUNS (ВІДНОСНІ ЗАЙМЕННИКИ)

                                                     Pronoun                               Use

who / that   for people whose       possessive of ‘who’ which / that       for things where         for places when          for time why    for reasons

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE 

(Обмежувальне означальне речення)

We use defining relative clauses to define a noun by givin essential information about it. The clause tells us exactly which person, thing, time or place the speaker or writer means.

Herbs of buffalo and zebras which roam in the steppes of Kherson Region attract a lot of visitors.

With defining relative clauses, we can use ‘that’ instead of ‘who’ and ‘which’.

Lily is the woman who/that visited our national nature park in Polissya region.

Another large chunk of steppe which/that you can find in Ukraine is actually out in the Black Sea.

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE 

(Описове означальне речення)

We use non-defining relative clauses to give additional, nonessential information. They provide more facts about a person, thing, time or place that is already identified. Commas are used before and after the relative clause.

Carpathian National Natural Park, which was founded in 1980, is the largest national park in Ukraine.

We can’t use ‘that’ in non-defi ning relative clauses.

Michael, who had never been to Ukraine before, was impressed by the beauty of our natural wonders.

Askania Nova Reserve, which was established in 1898, is the member of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO.   Answer the Nature Quiz and compare your answers in pairs.

Then go back to the text ‘Natural Wonders of Ukraine’ to check your answers.

NATURE QUIZ

1     What is the time of the year when many tourists have a safari trip at the Askania Nova Reserve?

a)  late autumn b) late winter  c) late spring

2     What is the name of the explorer who studied wild horses?

a)  Darwin                      b) Przewalski  c) Columbus

3     What is the name of the park where you can fi nd sandy beaches and mineral springs?

a)  Carpathian Biosphere Reserve       b) Askania Nova

c) Dzharylhach National Nature Park

4     What is the name of the lake that is considered to be one of the seven natural wonders of Ukraine?

a)  Svitiaz                       b) Yalpuh                    c) Donuzlav

5     What is the name of the reserve which is Europe’s largest wetland?

a)  Carpathian Biosphere Reserve

b)  Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

c)  Shatskiy Nature Park

 Look at the underlined relative pronouns in task 1. Find the category below they refer to.

 Complete the statements with ‘who’, ‘which’, ‘that’, ‘where’, ‘when’ or ‘whose’. Sometimes there is more than one correct answer.

1     Climate change is a serious issue ....is affecting many countries.

2     She is the girl ... father is a famous explorer.

3     Habitat is the air, water and land .... people, animals and plants live. 4 This is the map ... will show you  where national nature park is.

5     Pollution is especially bad in big cities…the number of cars is increasing every year.

6     We live in a time … many wild animals become extinct.

 Choose all the possible completions for each sentence.

1     I met the woman… works at Askania Nova Reserve.

a)  who            b) that c) which           d) whose

2     Where is the newspaper … has the article about the greenhouse effect?

a)  who            b) which          c) where          d) that

3     Did I tell you about a scientist … lived in the rainforest?

a)  who            b) that c) which           d)         whose

4     The forest… is across the street from our house is going to be destroyed soon.

a)  who            b) that c) which           d) where

5     The report on exhaust fumes … Michael is writing must be finished by Thursday.

a)  who            b) that c) which           d) whose

5Match the beginnings with the endings to make correct


sentences.

1     African safari tours

2     Otto Finsch was a famous naturalist

3     I met the veterinarian

4     Saiga antelopes are animals

5     Vylkove is a small Ukrainian town

6     Acid rain is natural phenomenon

a     which come from Central Asia.

b     which causes damage to forests.

c      that is also known as the “Ukrainian Venice”. d that we offer are very

interesting.

e who saved many homeless animals. f        who was born in Germany.


 Combine the sentences using relative clauses as in the example.

Example: That is the place. The deforestation occurred there.

That is the place where the deforestation occurred.

1     Askania Nova Reserve is a beautiful place. People can find all types of birds there.

2     There was a time. Dinosaurs dominated our planet then.

3     Shatsk lake group covers a large area. There are over thirty lakes there.

4     I like the article about environmental problems. You wrote it.

5     That is the man. His first novel about wild nature became a bes seller.

 Correct the mistakes in the relative clauses.

1     In our town, there were many people did not care about the environment.

2     I enjoyed visiting the nature park whose you recommended.

3     I still remember the man which taught me to climb trees when I was a little boy.

4     The scientists appear on national television are often amateurs.

5     People which work for the hunger program say that thousands of people worldwide die from starvation every single day of the year.

6     While the boy was at the Askania Nova Reserve, he took many pictures of zebras who were roaming in the steppe.

 Use the correct relative pronoun to complete the text.

UNUSUAL SOUP

The dishes (1) who / that / whose people choose to eat say something about the people (2) which / when / who eat them and the traditions of the place (3) when / where / why they live. One of the most unusual and very expensive soups that some people in China make is bird’s nest soup. The thing you may notice (4) that / when / where you taste this dish for the first time is its sweetness. This is a taste of the bird’s saliva[15], (5) where / which / who the birds use to build their nests. Before you start preparing this unusual dish, you need to get rid of the feathers (6) whose / that / who are attached to the nest. Those people (7) that / which / whose job it is to collect these nests often face many risks because a bird’s nest may be diffi cult to reach.

Focus on Listening

     In pairs, think how the phenomena in both the columns can be connected and comment on them.


A

1     global warming

2     earthquakes

3     destruction of forests

4     (tropical forests in particular) highly developed and booming economy

5    
world population growth

6     agricultural

mismanagement

7     development of new technologies

B

a water shortages b climate change c heat waves, intense

rainstorms and fl oods

d growing demand for energy e land erosion f increasing production of

carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas)

g growing demand for

comfort, electric devices, machines, etc.


b) Listen again and complete the sentences.

1     Acid rain is a result …

2     It damages …

3     Cars burn …

4     Some gases react with …

5     Acid rain can take the form of …

6     Governments need to …

7     It’s better to use electric appliances only …

 Choose one of the problems below and discuss it in pairs.

Explain:

1     why you fi nd this problem urgent

2     what possible attitudes to this problem can exist

3     if there is anything possible to do to change the situation for better 4 what in particular you think can be done

lshortage of fresh water

lwaste dumping

lair, water and soil pollution

lradioactive pollution

lglobal warming

lclimatic change

lburying nuclear wastes

ultraviolet light

lforest destruction and deforestation

lendangered plants and animals

lexcessive exploitation of environmental resources

lextinction of species

ldisruption of ecological balances

loverspending of energy resources

lforest fi res

lland erosion and fl ooding

 Read and speak on the reasons of the greenhouse effect.

Now scientists are more or less sure about the greenhouse effect, which makes the Earth warmer by trapping energy in the atmosphere because certain gases (carbon dioxide[16], methane and some others) prevent heat from escaping into space. Look at the picture and say how people increase the amount of such gases in the atmosphere. Add some more examples to illustrate your answer.

Focus on Speaking

         a) Work in pairs. Analise the list of the environmental problems and speak what you’ve already known about them.

lwater problems

ldestruction of rainforests

lrising sea levels

lindustrial pollution

lclimate change

lendangered species / threats to wildlife

 a) Read fi ve short conversations.

For each one choose a word                              an interference from the box to describe the                [0int39fi3r3ns] speaker’s main purpose.      pesticides [9pestisaidx]

to complain [k3m9plein]

                                           encourage, persuade,               to convince [k3n9vins]

                                    recommend, decide, advise,              to dig [dig]

promise, agree, disagree, to persuade [p39sweid] remind, complain       to remind [ri9maind]

harmful [9h4:mfl]

                      Conversation 1: ...................................... renewable [ri9nju:3bl]

                      Conversation 2: ......................................    sustainable

Conversation 3: ......................................   [s39stein3bl] Conversation 4: ......................................

Conversation 5: ......................................

1

Male:      Let’s plant a tree in the back garden. It will be great for wildlife and it will give us some shade in the summer.

Female:  Oh, I don’t know. Won’t it be expensive, and demand a lot of hard work?

Male:      Not really. I’ll do all the digging. It’ll look great when it’s done, trust me. You’re always talking about the ways of helping the environment. Well, this is a really good way to start.

Female:  Oh, OK, then. What kind of tree shall we get?

2

Male:      What are you going to do about your car? It broke down again yesterday, didn’t it?

Female:  Yes. I’m not sure what to do. I could sell it and buy a bike. Or I could try and fi x it one more time.

Male:      You know it will only break down again. It always does!

Female:  You’re right. I’ll sell it. That way I’ll get fi t and help the environment at the same time!

3

Male:      I went to the bottle bank today, and guess what? It was completely full!

Female:  Oh that’s a shame. Did you have to bring all the glass home again?

Male:      Yes. There was a sign saying not to leave anything on the ground. I really don’t understand — why they can’t empty it more often. What’s the point of having a bottle bank if you can’t put any bottles into it?

Female:  You’re right. Maybe you should write a letter.

4

Female:  I think nuclear power stations are the best way to make energy because they don’t make any pollution.

Male:     That’s not true. Just think about the waste they produce.

Some of it is dangerous for thousands of years.

Female:  There are safe ways to store it now — they can bury it deep under the ground.

Male:      Well, I don’t think that’s safe — I would like to see more electricity being made from wind and the sun.

5

Male:      Did you get that book about the environment I asked you to buy for me?

Female:  Oh, sorry. I completely forgot. What’s it called?

Male:      How to Save the Planet. It costs £8.99 and you can get it from Wetherby’s bookshop.

Female:  OK. I’ll get it for you tomorrow when I go to town.

b) Choose and dramatise any conversation in pairs.

 Ask and answer the questions in pairs.

1     Why do people at the beginning of the new millennium spend so much time and effort drawing public attention to the problem of ecology?

2     What ecological problems that the humanity faces nowadays in your opinion are the most urgent?

3     Why are scientists concerned so much about the greenhouse effect and the process of global warming?

4     Do you think global warming is caused by human activities?

Which ones?

5     Can you say that the climate in the place where you live is changing? How? Do you find these changes for better or for worse? Can you give the examples of climate changes in other places of the planet?

6     Do you think humankind can solve the world’s ecological problems? If so, in what way?

 Discuss the questions in groups.

1     Which of these environmental problems do you think are the most serious in Ukraine? Why?

2     How do you think they will affect our country in the future?

2a) Work in pairs. Read the statement, agree or disagree with it.

*The number of body paragraphs depends on the number of viewpoints you want to present.

b) Complete the plan for the essay by writing down your ideas.

Paragraph 1: The present situation and your opinion:

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

Paragraph 2: First reason for your opinion:

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

Paragraph 3: Second and third reasons for your opinion:

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

Paragraph 4: Action we can take; consequences if we don’t take it:

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

c) In pairs, make a list of words connected with the environment that you could use when writing the essay.

 a) Read the sample essay without paying attention to the gaps and compare the plan for this essay with the plan you made in task 2b.

Environmentalists have been warning us for many years about the effects of human activity on the environment. (1) Despite being aware of the dangers, we continue to harm it, and for (2) … I believe that our children will live in a worse world than we do.

I think there are two aspects of human activity, which are especially dangerous. (3) … is atmospheric pollution, which is caused by exhaust fumes and industry. This will lead to changes in the climate and make sea levels rise. As a (4) …, our children will live in a warmer world and people living near the coast may have to leave their homes.

(5) … is the destruction of our natural environment such as rainforests and countryside. (6) …, we are damaging the habitats of many animals and plants that live there and these will become extinct.

(7) …, urgent action is needed to protect the environment by reducing pollution and creating nature reserves. (8) …, the world our children live in will be much less pleasant than ours.

b)  Add useful vocabulary from the essay to the list you have made in task 2c.

c)  Complete the sample essay with the words or phrases from the box.

consequently, despite, this reason, in my opinion, result, the fi rst, the second aspect, unless we do so

 Read the thesis statement and write a plan of a possible essay.

Advances in technology have solved many problems. However, they have also created the new ones. Discuss some of these new problems and give your opinion on how they should be dealt with.

 a) Read the following writing task and follow the  steps mentioned in task 2 (a-c).

You have had a class discussion on things you can do to protect the environment. Your teacher has asked you to write an essay giving your opinion on the following statement:

b) Write the essay following your plan. Use some of the transitional words and phrases from the box below.

GIVING AN OPINION


        In my opinion / view ...

My opinion is that …

It is my belief / opinion / view …

It seems / appears to me …

As far as I am concerned …

The way I see it …

I (strongly / fi rmly) believe …

I think / feel …

I am (not) convinced …

I agree / disagree that / with …

I am inclined to believe that … I couldn’t agree / disagree more that / with


1     Global warming is a general increase in the temperature ....is affecting many countries.

2     Michael is the man ... daughter is a well-known scientist.

3     A tropical forest is an area .... tall trees grow very close together.

4     This is the lady ... can show you the way to national parks without a car.

5    
Deforestation is really bad in the mountains… many trees are cut down every year.

6     We live in a time … some animals may stop existing because of hunting and pollution.

 Read the texts below and say what the writer’s purpose is in each case. Circle the best verb for each.


Some years ago in a number of countries there was a campaign of protest against McDonald’s restaurants, which used beef produced in Argentina, where the cattle for this beef was raised on the land cleared from rain forests. Imagine that you’ve joined the campaign and are picketing one of such restaurants. What will you say to people, who are going to visit McDonald’s, trying to stop them from doing it?

4In groups, read and discuss the problem.













Focus on Reading

     In pairs, try to write as many names of actors and actresses as you can. Set time limits.

 In groups, try to brush up words connected with painting (trends, styles, etc.) you learnt in the tenth form. You can arrange a competition. Set time limits.

 Ask and answer the following questions in pairs.

1     Are you interested in art? What art in particular?

2     Painting and sculpture are visual arts, aren’t they?

Which of them do you think is more exciting for you?

3     What world-famous artists do you know / like?

4     Who is your favourite painter? Why?

5     Which of the two genres — portrait or landscape painting — attracts you more? Do you know any well-known portraitists / landscapists?

 a) Listen, then read the text and say what of a greater interest for the girl is: the stories, she imagines watching pictures, or technical things, the painters use in their works.

THE PICTURE

(after ‘The Broken Bridge’ by Ph. Pullman)

Ginny, the main character of the story, is 16. She’s turning out to be a brilliant artist like her mother, who died when she was a baby. In the extract you’re going to read Ginny sees her mother’s picture in the art gallery.

When Ginny was fi rst becoming interested in art and the history of painting, Dad had given her a big book with hundreds of reproductions in it. She’d pored over it with more than delight — with a kind of greed, in fact. She absorbed           everything the book told her about the Renaissance, and the Impressionists, and the Cubists, about Boticelli and Monet and Picasso, and she breathed it all in like oxygen she hadn’t known she was missing. And among the pictures in the book, there were two that made          her gasp. One was Whistler’s Arrangement[17]in Grey and Black, the portrait of his mother sitting on an upright


Arrangement in Grey and Black, Whistler


chair, and the other was El Greco’s View of Toledo. She remembered her reaction quite clearly: a sudden intake of breath, caused by sheer surprise at the arrangement of shapes and colours. It was a physical shock.

And when she looked at the big painting that dominated the end wall, the same thing happened. It would have affected her the same way whoever had painted it, because it was a masterpiece. What it showed was a middle-aged black man, in a uniform with epaulettes [0ep39lets] and medals, in the act of falling on to the red-carpeted fl oor of a well furnished room. He’d been eating a meal, and on the table beside him there was a plate of yellow soup. Beyond him, through the open door and at the open window, stood a crowd of people, watching:

white people and black, old and young, richly dressed and povertystricken. Some of them carried objects that helped you understand who they were: a wad of dollar bills for a banker, a clutch of guns[18] for an arms dealer, a chicken for a peasant; and the expressions on their faces told Ginny that they’d all in some ways been victims or accomplices[19] of the man who was dying.

And all that was important, but just as important was the strange discord of the particular red of the carpet and the particular yellow of the soup, so that you knew it was something signifi     cant, and you guessed the soup had been poisoned. And the way the dying man was isolated by the acid red from every other shape in the picture, so that it looked as if he were sinking    out      of         sight in a pool of blood. And mainly what was important was the thing that was impossible to         put      into     words: the arrangements of the shapes on the canvas. These same elements put together differently would have been an interesting picture, but put together like this, they made Ginny catch        her      breath.

She began thinking of what her mother had wanted to say by the picture.     View of Toledo, El Greco

Tell the story of the corrupt[20] offi cer?

Yes… But not mainly. What she had probably wanted to do was just to see what happened when she put that red and that yellow together. That was what could start it. Some little technical thing like that. And the shape of the man as he falls… Because there’s no shadow, you can’t see easily where he is in relation to the fl oor. He seems to be fl     oating in space, almost. But at the same time no one could say that the picture wasn’t technically correct. It was amazing, brilliant! Ginny felt        a          lump   in her throat.

b) Read the text again paying attention to the words in bold and using a dictionary.

Then choose the right answer (a-c) to each question.

1   What impression did the book given by her father make on Ginny?

a)  She liked the chapters devoted to Boticelli, Monet and Picasso.

b)  She had a mixed feeling of pleasure and disbelief.

c)  She felt that she had badly needed a book like that.

2   What did Ginny feel when she fi rst looked at her favourite reproductions of Whistler and El Greco?

a)  The two pictures struck her as extremely original.

b)  The girl was overwhelmed by the deep emotions the pictures awakened.

c)  The girl was surprised by the colours and shapes in the pictures.

3   What type did the picture on the wall belong to?

a)  It was a genre painting.

b)  It was a portrait.

c)  It was a battle scene.

4   Besides the office ’s victims, who were the people in the crowd?

a)  His relatives.

b)  His partners in crime.

c)  His enemies.

5   How could one guess that the soup in the picture had been poisoned?

a)  By the position of the plate.

b)  By the discord of colours.

c)  By the dark shade.

6   What did Ginny’s mother want to express by painting her


masterpiece?

a)  She wanted to tell a story.

b)  She wanted to experiment with some painting techniques.

c)  She wanted to tell a story and make it more effective by using some special techniques.

    In     the       text,     fin        the       words which  mean the following:

1     to study something closely

2     to take something in gradually

3     straight up

4     to have the most important noticeable place

5     with furniture in it

6     a person who works on the land

7     a person who helps another person to do wrong

8     special, distinctive

                  ban arrangement 

          (of) [39reindzm3nt] a shadow [9S2d3U] a victim [9viktim] to absorb [3b9sc:b] to affect [39fekt] to enliven [in9laivn] to float [fl3Ut] sheer [Si3] significant [sig9nifik3nt]

to catch somebody’s breath

to feel a lump in somebody’s throat

to make somebody gasp

to pore over something with delight

to put into words

to be sinking out  of sight


9     extremely unnaturally bright

10  important, meaningful

11  not near any others, separated

12  some liquid poured or dropped on a surface

13  practising the dishonest use of power and position

 Say when people experience such feelings or behave in the following way. Give examples.

1     pore over something with delight

2     breathe something in

3     miss something

4     gasp

5     have a shock

6     fi nd something impossible to put into words

7     catch one’s breath

8     feel amazed

9     feel a lump in one’s throat

 Work in pairs.

a) Imagine that you’re Ginny and speak about your interest                                      in         art         and      the       fi          rst       impression     of         your    mother’s         picture. b) Speak about a strong impression a particular picture      once made on you. Describe the picture.

c) Speak about the pictures and artists mentioned in the text.     Use encyclopedias and / or Internet links.

 Complete the sentences. Take turns in pairs.

1     My preference lies with the genre of portrait because …

2     I personally like genre paintings. They are …

3     I prefer landscape to other genres. You see …

4     I care much for still lives …

5     I prefer battle pieces …

Develop Your Vocabulary

Art is a way of representing things, expressing ideas, using pictures, sculpture, films, plays and other objects that people can look t. This is a book about Italian art in the 17th century. What kind of art do you like?

Work of art — something produced by an artist, especially  something that is of very high quality: Several  priceless works of art were stolen from  the museum.

1 a) Read and guess the meanings of the words in bold.

entertain, v

The play failed to entertain the audience.

We’re entertaining our neighbours this evening.

a) to invite people to your home for a party

b) to do something that amuses or interests people

c) to take people to a restaurant for a meal

entertainer, n

I like street entertainers. He is a very popular television entertainer.

a)  someone who does tricks

b)  someone who sings

с) a person who entertains professionally, e.g. by singing or telling jokes

entertainment, n This law is applied to theatres, cinemas and other places of entertainment.

It’s not a serious film, but it s

a)  such things as films, television,performances, etc. that amuse or interest people

b)  a performance or show

c)  an act of entertaining

good entertainment.

b) Choose the appropriate item (a), (b) or (c) to explain each word.

 Read the passages (A-D) and guess what entertainment they describe.

  ballet            mime           musical              music hall

A    It is a form of entertainment for an audience, which may include drama, dancing, music, mime, puppetry and so on.

B    It is the art of combining sounds into a unifi ed whole, typically in accordance with fi xed patterns and for an aesthetic purpose.

C    It is a modern form of art and entertainment which borrows from the other arts, such as music, drama and literature, but is dependent for its origin on technological development.

D    In ancient Greece it was a realistic comedy with speech and exaggerated gestures. But in common usage it is applied to acting in which gestures, movements and facial expressions replace dialogue. It has developed as a form of theatre, particularly in France. 3Group up the words and expressions into two columns.

heartwarming, well acted, lots of twists and turns, too long, a bit boring, very surprising, gripping, utterly believable, original, predictable

positive

negative

 

 

        Match  the       words from    the       box      with     their    defi      nitions.

1       cast all the people who act in a fi lm

2       … the most important actor or actress in a fi lm

3       … person who makes a fi lm

4       … music of a fi lm    audience, cast,

5       … story of a fi lm      director, plot,

6       … a part of a fi lm happening in one place  scene, script,

7       … people who watch a fi lm in a cinema     sequel, soundtrack,

8       … a fi lm which continues the story of an special effects, star, earlier fi lm           subtitles

9       … images, often created by a computer

10    … words of the fil

11    … transcription (usually translation) of the dialogue of a fil that appears at the bottom of the screen

5Match the sentences in both columns.

1     The film was set in the 19th a He was the director. century in Italy and England. b          This was her role in the

2     It was based on a novel by film

E.M. Forster. c It was situated in that

3 It was filmed / shot on place at that time.

location in Florence.

d The actors originally spoke

4     It was directed by James

English.

Ivory.

5     Helena Bonham-Carter        e It was an adaptation of the played the part of Lucy.           book.

6     It was dubbed into other       f           It was filmed in the real languages.    place, not in a studio.

Build Up Your Grammar

THE PARTICIPLE  (Дієприкметник)

The Participle is a non-finite ( езособова) form of the verb that can function as an adjective or an adverb.

Example: A broken cup lay on the floo .

     They passed me talking loudly.

There are three forms of participle: Present           Participle         (Participle      I), Past            Participle (Participle II) Perfect         Participle.

Examples:

The   Present           Participle: Reading English books I wrote out new words.

(Обставина, що вказує на одночасність дії з дією присудка) The Past    Participle:      The faded leaves fell to the ground. 

The book taken from the library was interesting.

Written in pencil, the article was difficult to read

(Означення по відношенню до іменника)

The   Perfect            Participle:Having missed the train he spent the night at the       station.     Having            finishe school he went to Oxford.

(Позначення причини або передування дії по  відношенню до дії, вираженої присудком)

1   Get to know all the forms of the Participle.

Форма дієприкметника

Неперехідні дієслова

Перехідні дієслова

Active Voice

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Present Participle

(Participle I)

going

asking

being  asked

Past Participle

(Participle II)

gone

asked

Perfect 

Participle

having          gone

having asked

having  been  asked

 a) Read the text and write out all participle forms of the verb.

                Defin            their       functions.

THE APPROACHING STORM BY G. MORLAND

George Morland (1763-1804) was an outstanding English artist of the 18th century and a brilliant painter of landscape. Like many artists, he turned to nature for inspiration. He had an instinctive feeling for nature. Among his pictures The Approaching Storm is truly remarkable. It is, indeed, a masterpiece of the world painting. Looking at the picture, you can easily understand how keenly the artist felt nature in every detail. He was able to impart a sinister atmosphere of the coming storm. You feel the threatening silence before the storm. The sky is overcast. The fi rst gust of wind shakes the trees, the next moment it will start raining.

The artist enlivens the landscape by two horses and a dog huddling[21] together in a little group, seeking protection from a man in danger. This landscape is a typical example of sentimental and poetic painting.

b) Describe the picture close to the text using participle forms of the verbs.

 Match the examples (a-e) with the names of different participle forms.

1   Present Participle

2   Past Participle

3   Perfect Participle

4   Passive Participle

5   Perfect Passive Participle

a being spoken b            having been spoken c speaking d having spoken e spoken

 Open the brackets and use the Present Participle or Perfect Participle form.

1       … (to write) out all the new words, I started to learn them.

2       … (to live) in Kyiv, he was able to see all the ancient monuments.

3       … (to hear) my friend’s voice, I left the room to open the door.

4       We went home, … (to look) through the documents.

5       … (to drink) coffee she was talking to her pal.

6       … (to go) down the street, the boy was looking back from time to time.

7       … (to throw) the ball, the little girl ran home.

 Change the sentences using a participle form as in the example.

Example:After he had received all the necessary documents, he went to the police station.  

Having received all the necessary documents he went to the police station.

1     After Mary had passed all her examinations, she went to the seaside.

2     After he had returned from the expedition, he made a very interesting report.

3     As they had lived in Spain for four years, they knew Spanish very well.

4     As Peter had lost the key, he could not enter the house.

5     As the soldiers had been wounded, they were taken to the hospital.

 Choose the correct form of the participles.

1     John, (having    been    seen    /           being  seen), finally admitted to his parents that he smokes.

2     The placement test, (carried    out      /           carrying          out) by our teachers, could give us a detailed picture of our student’s knowledge.

3     The carpet (covered     /           covering) the floor in his dining room was bought in Iran.

4     Football fans were (asked        /           asking) to head towards the exit.

5     The documentary on animals, (being   recorded        /           recorded) yesterday, will be shown to our students.

 Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Participle or Past Participle.

1     The hunters were absolutely silent … (follow) the tiger’s footsteps.

2     The president climbed the stage, … (follow) by his family.

3     He arranged the whole trip for the English tourists … (wish) to visit the Carpathian Mountains.

4     She had to stay at the customs for 5 hours, … (need) some extra medical papers for her dog to be allowed to enter.

5     … (shock) by his boss’ terrible behaviour, Helen decided to quit the post.


Focus on Listening

  In pairs, interview each other.

Do you have similar or different tastes?

zIs watching a fi lm more interesting than reading a book?


 Look at the statements below. Tick (ü) in the appropriate column for True, False or Don’t know. Then listen again and check.

 

True

False

Don’t know

a     The fi lm takes place in the north of England.

b     It is based on a true story.

c      Both of the main actors are very good. d The ending is rather weak. e It is Kevin Hadley’s fi rst fi lm. f The movie is only suitable for adults.

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

cü

c

c

c

c

c

think of?                                      Street Scene (1935). By L.S. Lowry

  a) Listen to someone talking about paintings, ?

then match the paintings (A-F) with the following comments about them (1-6).

1     I’d fi nd it rather disturbing.

2     It’s a very warm painting.

3     Suitable for a hall.

4    


Interesting for a few moments.

5     I’d grow bored with it rather quickly.

6     A very peaceful painting.

b)  Listen again and decide which pictures he would put on a wall in his home.

c)  Work in pairs. Check each other’s answers.



 In pairs, study the advertisements on pages 187-188 and discuss what you would choose to see.discuss what you would choose to see.

3 a) Look at the works by Ukrainian painters and say in what Three Ages. By F. Krychevskyi

                    A Town. By S. Rybak                          Water-mill. By V. Shtenberg

                    Still-life. By A. Manevich                         The Bridge. By O. Ekster

b) Work in groups. Speak about each picture. Use the phrases from the ‘Useful Language’ box below. Don’t forget to mention:

zthe subject (that is represented or depicted)

zthe composition (how the space of the picture is used)

zthe colours (how different colours are handled)

zthe details (what they are and how they are related to the subject)

zthe general impression the picture makes

               Some helpful words and phrases to describe      a picture:

zthe space of the picture is symmetrically / asymmetrically divided;

zin the foreground / background / far distance;

zthe shapes echo with each other / contrast each other;

zthe picture is painted in warm / cold colours;

zthe dominating colours are…;

zthe colours are bright, pale, brilliant, intense, luminous, soft,  pure, pastel, delicate, etc.;

zthe colours contrast with each other / blend together; zthe sitter / model.

These words describe a positive impression of a picture:

za masterpiece that can (could) stand the test of time;

za romantic, lyrical, charming, appealing, powerful, original, outstanding painting;

zthe artist demonstrates a great sense of space, a real talent as a colourist and the precision of drawing;

zthe artist managed to capture the sitter’s expression,  the atmosphere of the place and the mood  of the moment.

 In groups, speak on the statements (1-6) on page 191. Highlight the following points about each of them:

zWhat does it mean?

zDo you agree? Why (not)?

1     It’s hard to overestimate the role of art in one’s life.

2     Art forms our outlook and enriches our inner world.

3     Art has a great educational signifi cance.

4     Art brings people up — makes them more humane and kind.

5     Art holds up people’s spirits in the tragic moments of their lives.

6     The language of art is universal.

Focus on Writing

        a) Read the information and put 6-8 questions to it.

Reviews are brief descriptions of books, fi lms, CDs, TV programmes, etc. They can be either formal or semi-formal in style, depending on the type of publications they appear in and who the target readers are. They are published in newspapers, journals, periodicals or magazines.

A review usually consists of:

zan introduction  which briefl y states all the background information concerning a book / fi lm / TV programme, etc. (the title, the type, the author or director, the theme, main characters, etc.);

za body    consisting of two or more paragraphs giving an outline of the plot (you should NOT under any circumstances reveal the end), including an evaluation of and comments on various features, such as the direction, acting, cast, main characters, plot, sound effects, screen play, special effects, music, etc., or to put it briefl y, all the good and bad points of the fi lm, book, etc.;

  a conclusion which includes a general assessment and/or a recommendation supported by relevant reasons.

We often use present      tenses when reviewing a fi lm, a book, etc. to make the description vivid and lively. We also use a variety of adjectives to make it more interesting and appealing to the reader.

2        Match      review parts   (1-3)    with     their    contents         (а-с).

1   Introductory paragraph

2   Body paragraphs

3   Concluding paragraph

a     chronological outline of the plot with an evaluation of various features

b     general assessment and/or possible recommendation with justifi cations

c     stating all the background information

3        Put the parts of the review below into the correct order.

                                                                                                            Write  a          review of         a          book                                                                                                                        /  fi          lm        you      have                                                                                                           recently  read    or        seen.  

Use the expressions from the box below.

Expressions  for       Writing           Reviews

zbackground

This fascinating / highly provoking / well-written / original book is …

This chilling / realistic / magnifi cent / spectacular fi lm is …

The book / fi lm tells the story of … / is based on …

The book / fi lm is set in / takes place in …

The book / fi lm was written / directed by …

The fi lm stars …

It is a comedy / action / historical / science fi ction / war / western / romantic / disaster / mystery / horror / biographic … fi lm.

zplot

The story begins / is about / focuses on …

The book / fi lm reaches a tragic / dramatic climax / culmination when …

The story of the book / fi lm unfolds …

          The book / fi lm ends …                                Note:

          In the end, the book / fi lm …                        Don’t forget to use

zevaluation   and      comments      on        various           various transitional features  words / phrases to

          The plot is …                                                  express contrast, to add

       The book / fi lm is … written / directed by …  points, to give examples,

         The cast is … / The fi lm has a … cast.           to express your opinion

          The acting …                                                 and to conclude. (See

          The script is …                                              pages 168-169 of the

         The book / fi lm is pretty / rather …                Appendix in ‘English 11’

zrecommendations                                            textbook.)

I would (highly / strongly / thoroughly / defi nitely) / wouldn’t recommend it because …

It is (not) worth seeing …

You should defi nitely read / see …



In European art in the late 18th and early 19th centuries there appeared a group of artists who followed their feelings and (0) emotions rather than logical thought or reason, and who preferred wild, natural beauty to things made by man. Realism followed Romanticism in the 19th century. (1) … paintings show things as they really are, as they appear to most people. In the 20th century there appeared such art movements as Impressionism, Surrealism, such styles as (2) … and Expressionism.

1870s by Claude Monet and his friends. They painted outdoors and developed a sketchy, ‘impressionistic’ style, trying to capture the changing

(3) … of natural light.

Surrealism appeared in the 20th century. Salvador

AN ACTOR IN A ZOO

One day an actor went to the zoo, and while (0) being there, he tried, (1) … his job the day before, to earn some money as a street performer, (2) … his artistic skills at the same time.


A crowd, (3) … by his performance, started to gather around him. (4) … that, a zoo manager invited him into his offi ce. The actor was offered a job, to take the place of their lost gorilla.

The next day, (5) … as a gorilla, he was entertaining visitors, (6) … to catch a glimpse of his



zAre the actors good in their parts? Why or why not?

zIs it interesting, memorable, entertaining? Why?


zWhat specifi cally did you like / dislike? Why?

zDid you agree with the main theme / purpose? Why or why not?

zDid the director do a good job? Why or why not?

zWould you recommend the fi lm to your friends? Why or why not?

    Imagine       you      are       a          fi          lm        critic.  Choose           the       last      fi          lm        you         saw     and      follow the instructions below. Work in groups.

1    
First, give the title and the genre. Mention the director, actors, special effects, duration, country of origin (Britain, Italy, France), etc.

2     Tell the story. What is the fi lm about? Who are the characters?

What happens in the fi lm?

3     Give your opinion — why you like / don’t like the fi lm.

4     Recommend / don’t recommend the fi lm.

You begin the conversation and have to decide on which option (only one) to choose. Remember to:

1   discuss all the options;

2   take an active part in the conversation and be polite;

3   come up with ideas;

4   give good reasons;

5   fi nd out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account; 6  invite your friend to come up with suggestions; 7  come to an agreement.


 In groups, discuss the following items.

1     What makes good art? Do you think art can be great if it is not linked with people’s lives, their interests and ideals? Give your reasons.

2     How does art help us understand the outside world?

3     What purpose does a true art serve?

Share your opinions: 

               Real art appeals to the heart and mind of man,               to his feelings and ideals and it proclaims life.

              Art is life, pretence of art is death.

5     True art elevates the mind and the soul of people.









Focus on Reading

      1    Brainstorm the activities that give you the opportunities:

zzto develop your independent thinking and independence of character zzto develop responsibility for your own actions

zzto understand the value of help, advice and encouragement

 Read what young people say about citizenship projects they have been involved in (A-F, pp. 204-206) and refer each question (1-8) to the appropriate person.

1     c Which project(s):

2     c had very little equipment for the job?

3     c benefi ted the local economy?

4     c was part of normal school lessons?

5     c deals with a problem largely caused by local people?

6     c requires being taught skills?

8 c can involve helping injured people?



zzlearnt about the project in a newspaper? Naz zzhad previously been helped by the project? ...


zzfound the project different from what they had expected? ... zzsays the project was physically demanding? ... zzwent on the project after leaving school? ... zzsays you can learn from those you help? ... zzsays they have developed as a person?

 a) Work in pairs. Pay attention to the words in bold in task 2 and guess their meanings.

b) Match the words with their defi nitions.

1     to benefi t

2     non-existing

3     to handle

4     to dump

5     exhausting

a     is not present one; isn’t being used nowadays

b     making you feel extremely tired c to put something, such as a bag, books, etc. in a careless, untidy way

d to bring advantages to someone or improve lives in some way e to deal with something by doing what is


necessary

 Do the individual project ‘Citizenship for Young People’ and make a presentation. Read the situation and follow the instructions below.

You are a PR (public relations) expert for an independent educational organisation called Citizenship for Young People whose goal is to encourage and enable young people to play an effective role in democratic society. The local school authorities have asked you to give a presentation on your organisation.

1     Brainstorm the ideas.

2     Include the following points:

z  basic information z  programmes z  goals z  plans for future                an addict [92dikt]       a citizen [9sitixn] drug [dryg] government [9gyv3nm3nt] hardship [9h4:dSip] a participant [p4:9tisip3nt] a pregnancy [9pregn3nsI] to benefi t [9benifit] to handle [9h2ndl] exhausting [ig9xc:stiN] non-existent

        [0nAn ig9xist3nt] worldwide [9wE:ldwaid] z to get dumped z to get training (on) z to raise money

(for)


3     Revise the rules for making and giving a presentation (see page 37).

4     Give your presentation in class.

Develop Your Vocabulary

          a) Guess the meanings of the following words (1-6) and match them with their definitions (a-f)

1     selfis  a feeling sure of their abilities and worth

2     self-disciplined           b are able to control themselves and

3     self-interested            make themselves work hard or

4     self-confiden  behave in a particular way without

5     self-educated             needing anyone else to tell them what

6     self-possessed           to do

c     always want to do what is best for themselves rather than for anyone else

d     care only about themselves, and not about other people

e     are calm and confident and in control of their emotions f have learnt a skill by themselves

b) Say which of the characteristics above are positive? Why?

self-confiden or self-assured?

The words self-confident and self-assured are very close in meaning. They both are used to show that a person can deal with a situation successfully and is not worried that he/she could do something wrong or fail.

The adjective self-assured Self-confident people are sure usually stresses that people are         that they have abilities and are very confident in the way the    attractive and that other people deal with other people, especially        like them.

in public situations when other            Self-confident people are people’s attention is fixed on them   not afraid or nervous in social Dr Lauren was a very self-          situations.

assured woman. She answered         As a child he was always selfthe difficult questions of the        confiden , happily joining in adult audience in a very assured way.         conversations.

 Find Ukrainian equivalents for these words and word combinations.

1  a self-addressed     envelope 2  self-admiration

3   self-centred

4   self-coloured

5  self-discipline 6  self-educated

7   self-importance

8   self-love

9   self-made

10   self-mockery

11   self-neglect

12   self-pity

13   self-reproach

14   self-sacrifi ce

 Think about word-formation in English and name the antonyms to the following adjectives:

1   tolerant   6  dependent   11  supportive

2   fl exible   7  civilised       12  reasonable

3   patient    8  controlled    13  willing

4   tidy         9  fair   14  moral

5   ashamed            10  polite          15  balanced

 Work in pairs. Read and explain the meanings of the following words. Use the synonyms.

It is generally believed that teenagers tend to become: zzrebellious

zzill-mannered, impertinent[22] or cheeky zzaggressive and violent zzskeptical or cynical zzintolerant and infl exible zzimpatient and fl ighty zzclumsy[23] and awkward zzuntidy or scruffy[24]zztoo self-assured or cocky zzover-ambitious

zzshy of talking about their problems zzafraid to be seen as losers

zzscared of being lonely, bullied or rejected

b) Speak on the question. zzWhy do adults often see the age between 13 and 19 as ‘diffi cult’?

Build Up Your Grammar

The Infinitive is the base form of a verb that you will find in       dictionary. There are, however, four other forms of the infinitive: the perfect infinitive, the perfect continuous infinitive, the continuous infinitive and the passive infinitiv The present infinitive has two forms to-infinitiv = to + base           zero infinitiv = base

The negative infinitive is formed by putting ‘not in front of any  form of the infinitiv

I decided not to go to London.

He asked me not to be late.

         Match the names of the different infinitive fo ms (1-6) with the examples (a-f).

1   Present Infinitiv

2   Perfect Infinitiv

3   Present Continuos Infinitiv

4   Perfect Continuos Infinitiv

5   Present Infinitive Passiv

6   Perfect Infinitive Passiv

a to have sent b to send c to be sent d to have been sending e to have been sent f      to be sending

USE OF TO-INFINITIVES

The to-infinitive form is used in many sentence constructions, ften zzto express the purpose or intention of an action. In this case ‘to’ has the same meaning as in order to or so as to.

I am calling to ask you about dad.

You sister has gone to finish her homework. zzto express someone’s opinion about something.

It is good for you to learn a foreign language.

It is a stupid way to behave.

zzto indicate what smth can or will be used for The children need a garden to play in.

I would like a sandwich to eat.

1     They made us (to follow / follow) them.

2     He tried to avoid (to crash / crashing) into the truck.

3     The Browns can’t afford (to stay / staying) at the Ritz.

4     She finally managed not to drop / not dropping) a ball while juggling.

5     The boy doesn’t seem (to understand / understanding) what he has to do.

6     He kept (to avoid / avoiding) eye contact.

7     When she returned to the room, I couldn’t help (to notice / noticing) that she’d smeared[25] her lipstick.

8     I don’t mind (to work / working) alone.

9     Emma suggested (to go / going) for a walk.

10   I’m glad he decided (to stay / staying). I’d hate (to see / seeing) him go.

 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets (Infi nitive or Gerund).

1     Don’t forget … (do) your homework tonight.

2     Frank says he promises … (give up) … (smoke).

3     I’m fi nishing … (read) the article.

4     Cheer up and keep … (smile).

5     Bob wrote to me he was looking forward to … (see) us at Christmas.

6     I have no idea what … (choose) for a dessert.

7     How many times a week do you have … (go / shop)?

 Match the beginnings (1-5) with the endings to make sentences.

1   My Math teacher pretended

2   My Music teacher made

3   My boss reminded

4   I’d hate

5   I let

a              people to forget my birthday.

b             me to check my email. c the children watch a video. d not to see me at the disco. e me take the exam.

 Complete each sentence with the correct form of the appropriate verb from the box.

1     Remember … your grandmother a card on her birthday next week.

2     She stopped … at a poster and missed the train.

3     Do you remember … alone for the fi rst time?

4     I’ll never forget … three weeks in the rainforest.

5     Don’t forget … your email before you leave home.

6     He tried … his hair colour, but he still looked awful.

7     Please stop … me at work, my boss doesn’t allow personal calls.

8     I tried … my boss, but he was on a climbing holiday.


Focus on Listening

1   In pairs, ask and answer the questions.

z    How are you feeling at the moment?

z    Which of the following adjectives is the closest to the way             you are feeling now?


a     Emotions are exciting.

b     We need emotions in order to survive.

c     Without emotions, we’re just like robots. d Emotions create problems.

e     We need to be aware of our emotions.

f      We should control our emotions and be sensitive towards those of other people.

What about other ideas?

b) Listen again and say which of the ideas in task (a) best summarises the main message of the article.

                an anxiety

                     [2N9xaietI]

an envy [9envI] a handicap [9h2ndik2p] an intelligence [in9telidz3ns] an illiteracy [i9lit3r3sI] a rage [reidz] a response [ri9spAns] to stunt [stynt] contented [k3n9tentid] vulnerable [9vyln3r3bl] z to carry away z to gain control

3  Listen and sing along.

        Here is a little song I wrote. You might want to sing it note for note, ‘Don’t worry, be happy!’ In every life we have some trouble When you worry you make it double. Don’t worry, be happy … Ain’t got no place to lay your head,

Somebody came and took your bed.

Don’t worry, be happy. The landlord say your rent is late, He may have no litigate1.

Don’t worry, be happy.

Look at me — I am happy. Don’t worry, be happy.

Here I give you my phone number.

When you worry call me, I make you happy.

Ain’t got no cash, ain’t got no style, Ain’t got no girl to make you smile. But don’t worry, be happy. ‘Cause when you worry Your face will frown2. And that will bring  everybody down. So don’t worry, be happy (now) …

There is this little song I wrote. I hope you learn it note for note Like good little children. Don’t worry, be happy.

Listen to what I say,

In your life expect some trouble. But when you worry

You make it double.

Don’t worry, be happy

Don’t worry, don’t do it, be happy, Put a smile on your face. Don’t bring everybody down like this. Don’t worry, it will soon past


Focus on Speaking

    Look through the list of problems that may worry teenagers.

Put them in order of importance. Explain your choice. You can add your own items.

c physical health

     c eating disorders                                                 an abuse [39bju:s]

     c suicide                                                       bullying [9bUliN]

     c sexually transmitted disease             a disease [di9xI:x]

     c abuse (emotional, physical, sexual)  a disorder [dis9c:d3]

     c bullying                                              a suicide [9su:isaid]

     c pregnancy and sex                            to embarrass [im9b2r3s]

     c appearances and clothes                  to expose [ik9sp3Ux]

      c relationships with friends,                  to frustrate [fry9streit]

      c family and others                               to neglect [ni9glekt]

      c drugs                                                 outrageous [aUt9reidz3s]

     c school marks                                     sexually [9sekS3lI]

c participating in youth movements

c their future

c the possibility of earning money

c being overworked at school

 Speak on certain dangers and hardships that may occur in young people’s lives and discuss the questions on page 216 in pairs. Use some of the following ideas.the following ideas.

Modern life exposes young people to certain young people to certain dangers and hardships. Some teens may:. Some teens may:

zzbelieve that only fi t, healthy and glamorous people can be a success and copy fashion uccess and copy fashion models and pop starsars

zzbecome fans of a sports team or a pop sports team or a pop singer and dedicate their lives to this e their lives to this passion

zzbecome net addicts and spend too much s and spend too much time with the computerputer

zzget bored or depressed and think that nothing interesting can happen to them

zztry to earn their own money and begin to neglect their school and homework

zzfail to think of what to do with themselves in their spare time and waste the best years of their lives

zzforget that parents remain the most important people in teenagers’ lives and become unsupportive

zzgive up too easily when they feel that too much pressure is put on them

zzruin their health at a young age zzfall victims to crime

1     Do you have a lot of problems? How do you try to solve them?

2     Do you ask anybody for advice? Do you talk about your problems with other people?

3     What kinds of problems do your classmates usually have?

4     Have you ever solved somebody else’s problem?

5     Have you ever written to an advice column? Do you often read the advice columns in magazines? What can you learn from the answers? Are all problems of equal importance?

6     In what way are today’s young Ukrainians different from those of the same age six or seven years ago?

 Work in pairs and try to describe a typical Ukrainian teenager.

Use the phrases below if you think they are appropriate.

— can’t get along with adults or their peers

— feel self-conscious about their looks — experiment with their appearances

— loudly protest against being treated like children

— seek independence in everything

— have low or high self-esteem — lose self-confi dence

— develop complexes (like inferiority or superiority complexes)

— try to look cool in front of (in the eyes of) their friends

— embarrass their parents by outrageous or unsocial behaviour

Focus on Writing

Essays Suggesting Solutions to Problems

An essay discussing problems and providing solutions is a type of discursive essay where you present the problem, its causes, and then suggest solutions, at the same time anticipating1 likely results or effects. An essay of this type consists of:

zzan introduction in which you state the problem with its causes and current effects;

zza body in which you give your suggestions with their  expected results;

zza conclusion in which you give a summary  of your opinion.

     Work in groups. Read the situation and discuss the problems. Give your opinion on the suggested solutions and results.

Hundreds and hundreds of teenagers regularly go out at the weekend.

They spend their time in discos, talking to friends, smoking, drinking, etc.

We all see them in the early morning hours, some of them barely able to walk. Binge1 drinking is obviously becoming a serious problem among teenagers. What might be done about it?

problems

solutions

results

The law on the sales of alcohol to minors2 is not obeyed.

strict implementation of the law, high fines for o fenders

alcohol not sold to minors (minors stay sober)

The working hours of discos are too long

change the working hours, make them more suitable for minors

teenagers would still have fun, but be home on time

The youngsters are staying out late. (lack of sleep)

different working hours of discos, places for teenagers

healthier lifestyle for teenagers

1a binge [bindz] — гульня, пиятика

2a minor [9mainC] — неповнолітній; підліток

wrong role models

provide new models, introduce new values

different models and values to follow

lack of information on the dangers of drinking

parents talking to teenagers, school providing relevant information

teenagers aware of the dangers

 Describe the community you live in. Answer the questions and complete the table below.

Do you like living there? In your opinion, what are the benefi ts of having a fl at there? Are there any problems you would like to point out?

problems

solutions

results

 

 

 

 In groups, choose one of the topics (1-9) and discuss it.

Complete the table ‘Problems. Solutions. Results’ above.

See the example in task 1.

1              How can my generation make our home town a

 Write an essay suggesting solutions to the problem on one of the topics above. Use a formal style and appropriate transitional words / phrases.



EMOTIONAL MATURITY1

emotion

break

fi ght

frustrate angry behave anxious

success

real person

According to psychologists, we become … mature when we outgrow our childish anger and fear.

Do you remember what made you angry when you were a young child? Typically, young children get angry over possessions2. For example, they get angry if a toy … or if it won’t do what they want it to do; they … with each other over toys. They also get angry when their parents want them to do something that they don’t want to do. They scream, shout, lie on the fl oor and beat it with their hands and legs and seem quite out of control. Early childhood can be a very … time. In adolescence, however, the major cause of … comes from social situations. Adolescents are easily annoyed by the … of others and feel offended3 and embarrassed by what others say or do. Adults, on the other hand, become angry when their sense of abstract  justice  is offended.

With regard to fear, children are afraid of things like dogs, storms and the dark, and some of these fears continue in adolescence and adulthood. Early adolescence is a time of worry about family and school, and in middle adolescence there is also … about boy-girl relationships, career and religion. In late adolescence, people typically suffer from a feeling of personal inadequacy; they feel that they are not being … and not working hard enough; they worry about the impression they make on others.

Becoming mature is about not running away from … , not taking … things and not getting angry in trivial situations. It’s all about adapting to the world and fi nding

8

2              Choose the correct forms on the verbs (Infi nitive or Ing-form) to complete the letter.

Hi George,

How are you? I’m on holiday by the sea. I’d hoped (to go / going) abroad but I couldn’t afford (fl ying / to fl y) anywhere because I started

(to save / saving) too late. But I don’t mind (not to travel / not travelling) abroad because this is a great place. My brother encouraged me (to come / coming). I’d love you (seeing / to see) it. You should try (to get / getting) a few days holiday so you can come here. My landlady will let you

(share / to share) my room. I hope (hear / to hear) from you soon.

      Love,

                                        Timophy                        P.S. Don’t forget to (book /

booking) a seat on the coach if you travel at the weekend!

 a) Role-play the situation in pairs.

Elizabeth and Roger have been together for two years. Everything was going fi ne — they studied together, went to discos together and visited friends together. They were in love. One day, Roger suddenly broke up with her. Elizabeth rarely saw him. A friend of hers told her that he was hanging around with some guys who looked thin, ill and

almost transparent. One day she met him but he didn’t want to listenwant to listen to her when she tried to warn him.

220

His grades were getting worse and worse. He was seen in strange company with some older boys who had a reputation of being heavily into drugs. Roger’s mother was in tears, begging for help. His class teacher was worried. Elizabeth decided to talk to him seriously. What would you suggest Elizabeth to tell him?

b) Perform your dialogue in class. Compare it with the dialogues made by other pairs.

Discuss and vote for the best role-play.



 Choose one of the organisations from the list and give a short presentation of it.

1   The Boys’ Brigade

2   The Boy Scouts

3   The Girl Guides

4   The Teddy Boys

5   The Mods

6   The Rockers

7   The Hippies

8   The Skinheads

9   The Punk Rockers

 Role-play the situation in pairs.

You and your friend feel that you would like to join a youth movement. Discuss which of these organisations you would like to join.






b)  
washing the dishes in cafes and restaurants

c)   house cleaning








Focus on Reading


     Here are some images associated with Ukraine. Look at the table below and brainstorm things, events or people that you associate with other countries. Make a list for each country.

Country

Associations

Ukraine

Andriy Shevchenko, sunfl ower fi elds,

Revolution of Dignity…

Great Britain

 

The United States of America

 

 Read the article and write out suitable phrases to complete your list in task 1.

UKRAINE: FROM PAST TO FUTURE

In 1991 Ukrainians made a conscious choice in favour of an independent Ukraine. Nowadays it is very important to take advantage of an opportunity to build a new country, a democratic and sovereign Ukraine, a Ukraine of the future. We should try to reform our state for the sake of the country of this type.

Ukraine is not a political novice on the international arena. We were one of the co-founders of the UN[26]. We have successfully integrated ourselves into many international structures like the Council of Europe[27][28] the OSCE3 and the WTO[29]. At the same time, we continue to look for a good security model to protect our country and our citizens. Resolving national security issue and fighting against foreign aggression will be some of our key tasks in the future.

Another important factor to our success is related to building a democratic society, in which government and common people are dedicated to some fundamental principles – the rule of law, openness and transparency. We need to have an agreement about the kind of future we want for Ukraine. Young or old, Ukrainian-speaking or Russian-speaking, Hutsuls or Tatars may have very different attitudes. However, we need to come together as a nation to overcome many problems that we faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Modern Ukraine can offer a lot to the world. It has a large territory and one of the largest populations among European countries. There are many examples of success in farming, business and tourism. According to one ranking, our country is 33rd in the world for the IT start-ups at the moment. We have something to be proud of and need to keep moving forward.

What is more, we need to create a society where members not only enjoy their rights, but takes responsibility for their house, their town and their country. We should not expect that somebody will fix our problems, but should focus on what we can do for ourselves and build a Ukraine of the future today.

 Read the article again and complete the sentences.

1     In 1991 the Ukrainians made a choice in favour of…..

2     Our country is one of the co-founders of…

3     We have been integrated into many international organizations, for example…

4     The government and people should be dedicated to the fundamental principles such as…

5     Ukraine has many problems after…

6     There are many examples of success in…

7     Our country is the 33rd in the world for…

8     We should not expect that somebody…

                                                                In   the       text,     fi          nd        the       words                 conscious [9kAn13s]

which mean the following.

       a favour [9feiv3]

1     A person who starts something           nowadays  [9naU3deix] (for example, a new business) an advantage [3d9v4:ntidz] together with someone else         sovereign  [9sAvrin]

2     To change or improve a novice  [9nAvis] something that is wrong or             a co-founder  [0k3U9faUnd3]

                                  corrupt                                           to integrate  [9intigreit]

3     A beginner or a person who is            to resolve  [ri9xAlv]

                                  new to some work                        a security  [si9kjU3r3ti]

4     A rule or a law that people      an issue [9i1u:]

                                  accept                                           dedicated [9dedikeitid]

5     A new business or project       fundamental [fynd39mentl]

6     To join or become a part of a transparency [tr2n9sp2r3nsi] something to overcome [3Uv39kym]

7     Freedom from danger or risk  a collapse [k39l2ps]

8     Being open and easy to see    a ranking [9r2NkiN]

9     A destruction or a breakdown a start-up [9st4:typ]

 Great Britain voted to leave the European Union. Say what you know about Brexit. Choose the best answers to the questions below and then read the text to check them up.

1     When was the Brexit referendum?

a) 2016             b) 2017            c) 2018

2     What percentage of UK citizens actually voted?

a) 51.8%          b) 61.8%         c) 71.8%

3     How many British people voted to leave the European Union?

a) 62% b) 52%            c) 72%

BREXIT: FACTS AND NUMBERS

On 23 June 2016 Great Britain voted to leave the European Union – a

partnership that apartnership that alllows people and products to move freely around the EU member statesEU member states. This result was a surprise for people on both sides of the vote. Over 30 the vote. Over 30 million UK citizens took part in this referendum, so the

230230

turnout was pretty high – about 71.8%. A majority of British voters (around

52%) voted to leave the EU. However,

there were differences across the country. For example, try. For example,

Scotland and Northern Ireland wanted to remain in the EU while Wales and England voted to leave it. As a result of the referendum, British Prime Minister David Cameron decided to resign.

For the time being it is diffi cult to say how the Brexit vote will infl uence British politics and economy. British citizens may face some restrictions when living in the EU. EU citizens may need a work permit to work in the UK. The situation will depend on the agreement between the UK and EU. It is possible, for example, that British and EU citizens will be allowed to visit each other for up to 90 days without needing a visa.

It is important to remember that the UK did not formally leave the EU after the Brexit referendum. The country prepares to leave the EU on 29 March 2019. At the moment British politicians are discussing the details of this event with their European counterparts. The situation is changing very quickly, so it is important to check for the latest updates in the news.

 Read the text in task 5 again and say if the sentences below are true or false.

1     The European Union is a partnership that allows people and products to move freely around member states.

2     Prime Minister David Cameron continues to work for the British government.

3     The UK formally left the EU after Brexit.

4     If the United Kingdom formally leaves the EU, British people may need a visa to stay in EU countries for a long period of time.

5     The UK prepares to formally leave the EU in 2019.

 In groups discuss the following questions.

1     What do you think about the results of the Brexit referendum?

2     Do you think the UK will formally leave the EU in 2019?

3     What do you think will happen to British political situation and economy when the UK leaves the EU?


Develop Your Vocabulary

Brexit, n — [9br5ksit] or [9br5gxit] – an abbreviation for “British exit,” refers to the UK’s vote on June 23, 2016 to leave the  European Union:

Theresa May says that formal Brexit discussions will start in spring. referendum, n — [ref39rend3m] – a vote in which all the people in a country are asked to decide about an important question: A referendum was held on the question of whether the UK should remain a member of the EU.

vote, n — [v3Ut] – showing your choice or opinion by writing a mark on an offi cial paper:


She cast her vote against Brexit.

     Read and choose the noun ‘vote’ or ‘referendum’ to complete each sentence. Put the noun in the appropriate form where necessary.

1     His idea was approved, with twenty… in favour, and seven against.

2     They cast their … for the Conservative party.

3     Is it better to hold a … or  let the President alone decide about the future of the country?

4     A manager organized a meeting to take a … on the question.

5     A nationwide…will be held to decide this important issue.

2        Match the synonyms.

3        Match      the       words with     their    defi      nitions.

 

A

1     counterpart

2     turnout

3     to resign

4     restriction

5     work permit

6     visa

7     politician

a a member of a government or party b an offi cial mark, usually made in a passport to enter a country

c     a document that gives permission for a foreigner to work in a country

d     an offi cial limit on something e the number of people who go to vote at an election

f a person that has the same purpose as another one in a different place or organization g to give up a job or position

B

1     member

2     voter

3     to infl uence

4     agreement

5     update

6     to allow

a the most recent information about something b a plan to do something made by two or more people, countries etc.

c a person who votes in an election d to affect someone or something e to make it possible for someone to do something f a person or country that belongs to some organization

 Work in pairs.

a)  Match the verbs on the left to the words on the right to form     word combinations from task 5 on pages 230-231.

1     to leave

2     to discuss

3     to prepare

4     to move

5     to decide

6     to change

a freely b to resign c very quickly d the details e to leave f the European Union

b)  Make up your own sentences with these word combinations.

Build Up Your Grammar

1        Identify    the       appropriate    non-finit         verb    forms.

A  Infinitiv  c 1  The best part of living is loving and giving. B  Gerund c 2  Lose an hour in the morning, and you will C  Participle           spend all day looking for it.

c 3  Lost time is never found again.

c 4  To be or not to be, that is the question.

2        Group up the sentences (1-8) according to the columns.

A  Participle

B  Gerund

C  Noun

 

 

 

1     We go to the play for the acting.

2     Every theatrical production consists of a number of players acting imaginary characters.

3     His acting of the part of Hamlet was most convincing.

4     The extension of education partly depends on the training of teachers.

5     Various germs of poison would be killed by the boiling.

6     Mr Teen spoke to us in a threatening and loud tone.

7     When tired of working, he only leaned back in his chair and sat immobile for a while.

8     I don’t like your boasting.

   Open       the       brackets         and      use      the       Gerund           or        the       Infinitiv           with     or        without particle ‘to’.

1     Stop ... (make) that dreadful noise.

2     I like ... (bathe) in the sea.

3     Yesterday I started ... (make) a new bookcase.

4     I would like ... (see) him tomorrow. 

5     Would you mind ... (open) the door for me?

6     He was made .. (do) his work again.


3

4  Listen to the song and say what its main idea is.

What do you know about the author of the song?? IMAGINE

Imagine there’s no heaven, It’s easy if you try.

No hell below us,

Above us only sky, Imagine

       all the people, Living for today, A-ha.

Imagine there’s

           no countries,

It isn’t hard to do,

Nothing to kill or die for,

And no religion too,

Imagine all the people

Living life in peace, yu-huh.          You may say I’m a dreamer, But I’m not the only one. I hope some day you’ll join us, And the world will be one.

Focus on Speaking

     In pairs, speak on the following questions.

1     Do you think young people can

help to solve the problems that                          voluntary [9vAl3nt3rI] our country faces? If yes, in        a member [9memb3] what way?  If no, why not?       youth-led [9ju:8led]

2     Is it a good or a bad idea to be         a suggestion [s39dzest13n] socially and politically active?            an activist [92ktivist]

                 Explain your opinion.                      to donate [d3U9neit]

3     Have you ever done a voluntary       a charity [9t12r3ti] work? If yes, what did you do?      a petition [p39ti13n]

4     Do you know anyone who is             to raise [reix] a member of the youth-led        to volunteer [0vAl3n9ti3] organization? Which one?        to register [9redzist3]

5     What suggestions do you have         to encourage [in9kyr9dz] for the student activists in    to approve [39pru:v]

                  Ukraine?                                          to disapprove

6     Have you ever donated to     [0dis39pru:v] charity? To which one?

 a) Read the following examples of activities that young people may do to help solve problems in their country. Then answer the following questions in groups.

1     Do you approve or disapprove of these activities?

2     Which ones are the most effective in our country? Why?

lUse social media to discuss social or political problems

lCreate an online petition

lRaise money

lVolunteer

lWrite an article about the problem

lEducate other people

lRegister to vote in the next election

lEncourage others to vote

b) Think about some other ideas for activities that young people may do. Share your opinions in pairs.

 Read the information and role-play the interview.

lIn June 1993, the Copenhagen European Council laid down the criteria for accession:

1     an applicant country must have achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and respect for and protection of minorities;

2     it must have a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with the competitive pressure and market forces within the EU;

3     it must have the ability to take on the obligations of membership, including adherence to the objectives of political, economic and monetary union.

lEnlargement is a crucial step in the shaping of a reconciled[30], peaceful and democratic Europe. The possibility of achieving this historic objective became a real prospect in November 1989 with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the break-up of the Soviet empire. This opened the way to German integration and free, democratic elections in all the central and eastern European countries.

lIn order to help the candidate countries prepare for EU membership, the EU designed special programmes to provide assistance and promote investment. These programmes include: Phare (institution building, economic and social cohesion, industrial restructuring), ISPA (environment and transport investment support) and Sapard (modernisation of agriculture and rural development).

StudStudent A, you’re a        Student B, you’re a journalist UkUkrainian journalist who    of a country that is a is is going to interview      member of the European ean yoyour colleague from a           Union. You’re going to cocountry that is        be interviewed by your ur          a member of the          Ukrainian colleague. EuEuropean Union. Use          Use the short passages ges thethe short passages          above to answer his/her her ababove to ask questions.     questions.

 Change the following sentences into attractive headlines applying the guidelines mentioned in task 1.

1     Last night the President returned from his one-week holidays which he spent on safari in Kenya.

2     The Prime Minister announced that the following elections would take place in December.

3     Two people were killed and three injured when a car crashed into a tanker parked by the road.

4     Ms Alicia Bedford, a three-time Academy Award Winner, was found dead in her house in Malibu yesterday.

5     Special Task Police Forces surrounded a family house in the quiet suburb of Chester and apprehended1 two men and a woman.

 Choose one of the following writing tasks. Write notes and suggest the appropriate headline. Outline the plan for your article. Finally, write the article in 250-300 words.

                    Writing an Article

1    
Before you start writing your article decide who the readers are and what its purpose is.

2     Think of a short, intriguing headline / title.

3     Use either a formal or informal style depending on your readers and your topic.

4     Organise your ideas and information into well-planned paragraphs using appropriate transitional words / phrases.

5     In longer articles each paragraph can be preceded by a subheading.

1 The newspaper you are working for has asked you to write an article about young people and their attitudes to politics.


MODERN UKRAINE: PEOPLE AND LIFESTYLES


As a crossroads1 between Europe and Asia, Ukraine (1)… one of the most diverse2 countries of the Eastern Europe. Over 70 percent of its population are ethnical Ukrainians.

Moldovans, Romanians etc. A (2)… of the

3     I stopped for a moment to ... (speak) to him.

4     He is not yet used to ... (operate) this machine.

5     I need ... (see) Dr Smith at once.

6     This machine needs ... (attend) to.

 a) In pairs, discuss the following questions.

1     How different are Ukrainians from the people in the rest of the world?

2     What do you know about our diaspora in other countries?

3     Comment on the relationship of Ukraine with the EU member states.

4     What do you think Ukraine will be like twenty years from now?


b) Share your viewpoints with other pairs.

 Expand on the following.

1     The end of the cold war opened new prospects for peace and cooperation.

2     The era of globalisation is transforming the world bringing knowledge, information and economic opportunity into all corners of the world.

3     Today the international community faces a large number of dramatic and profound changes that bring threats to social unity, cultural diversity and the environment.

4     People of the world can resist such long-standing problems as drug traffi cking, organised crime, nationalism and ethnic tensions only through international cooperation.

c Mr N.:…

Interviewer: Our country is facing many problems right now. What are some of the main issues, in your opinion, that must be resolved?

c  Mr.N.:

A   
We really need to reform our schools, our hospitals and our police. We must also focus on what people can do for themselves in their own families and communities. In the end, people want to live in a democratic society where they can make their own decisions about their future lives. We need to trust our citizens to make the right choices. We believe we can transform our country after the election and people will start to believe in their government and above all, in themselves.

B    It is a great honour that so many party members asked me to lead our party to victory at the next election. I do not think that our return to power after ten years in opposition2 will be easy.

However, I am thankful for this opportunity and I am also very optimistic about our chances of winning.

C    I think that our country has had enough of the dishonest and corrupt politicians. I would like to create a different kind of party. I want to lead a political group that is trusted by our citizens. We say what we mean and mean what we say at all times.

1     What are Mr. N.’s thoughts in connection with his election as a leader of the Independent Party?

2     In what way is his party unique?

3    
What social or political problems does this country face at the moment?

4     What solutions to these problems does Mr. N. suggest?

5     Which institutions need to be reformed according to Mr. N.?

b) Pretend you are a journalist. Write down the questions you could ask Mr. N. Role-play your interview.

 Do a group project ‘At the Seminar’. Follow the instructions below.

1 Each group chooses one of the topics below and prepares a talk. You can fi nd some materials in the Internet or other sources. Use the phrases from the box and ‘Useful Tips’ on page 248.









reached. First and foremost Ukraine gives priority to developing its relations with neighbouring states.

B    On an ever growing scale the Ministry of Foreign Affairs assists the Ukrainian business in entering the foreign market, provides them with diplomatic and political support and helps in searching for business partners abroad.

Recently a great number of various joint ventures and economic, cultural and political projects have appeared in Ukraine. Our specialists in different fi elds improve their qualifi cation abroad.

C    We also have programmes of students’ and schoolchildren’s exchange.

English, Canadian and American children visit Ukrainian families, go to Ukrainian schools, while Ukrainian children stay at their host families abroad.

These exchange programmes help us to understand each other better, to study culture and traditions of other countries.

D    A lot of Ukrainians have immigrated to Great Britain.

That’s why in 1947 the Association of Ukrainians in Great Britain



be obliged (to) бути зобов'язаним

(змушеним) be satisfi ed with бути задоволеним


прогрес

affect [39fekt] впливати; хвилювати, зворушувати

affectionate [39fekS3nit] люблячий, ніжний; пристрасний

ambitious [2m9biS3s] честолюбний; що

прагне (чогось, до чогось)

appealing [39pI:liN] благальний;

зворушливий; привабливий