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Present Simple (Indefinite)
 

We use the Present Simple for daily routines and activities
The adverbs of frequency: often, usually, sometimes, always, seldom, never, rarely, every day

+ (positive)

Example

                              I, you, we, they

                          take

                                                                         We often take bus to go to school

She, he

take

She sometimes takes part in this concert

  • (negative)

Example

                     I, you, we, they

                         don't (do not)

                                                                         We don't red this book every day

                She, he

                       doesn't (does not)

                                                                        She doesn't read article every week

? (interrogative)

Example

                          Do

                              I, you, we, they

Do you like painting?                              Yes, I do No, I don't

                     Does

                           She, he

Does he like football? Yes, he does No, he doesn't

Verbs ending in –ch, -s, sh, -x, and –o add –es                                                                                                       watch – watches                                                                                                                                                    Verbs ending in –y, remove –y and add –ies                                                                                                           carry - carries

 

 

 

 

 

Past Simple (Indefinite)

We use the Past Simple to talk about actions in the past, the actions and situations are finished
The time expressions: Yesterday, last week, last month, last year, in1998, two years ago Regular verbs in the Past Simple end in -ed and we have to memorize the forms of the irregular verbs.

Regular verbs

Irregular verbs

Example

+

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

worked

+

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

wrote

They worked hard yesterday.
She wrote this letter last week

—–

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

didn’t work

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

didn’t write

He didn’t work in 2008.                                                    We didn’t write that article

?

Did

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

work?

?

Did

I
You
He
She
It
We
They

write?

Did you work last year?
Yes, I did
No, I didn’t

 

To be

Example

            I
            He
            She      was
            It

-
He was at this concert last week.
We were absent yesterday

            We
           You         were
           They

           I
          He wasn’t
          She (was not)
           It

I wasn’t at school last month.
‘We weren’t in Lviv in 2008

           We
           You    weren't
           They   (were not)
 

           
      Was     he, she, it, I
     

Was I happy here?
Yes, I was        No, I wasn’t.
Were they happy here?
Yes, they were    No, I weren’t

        Were    we, you, they

 

Future Simple (Indefinite)

We use the Present Simple to express a single, a permanent or recurrent action in the future (when we decide to do something in the time of speaking)
The time expressions: tomorrow, next week, in two days, one of these days

 

                  Example

    + 

 

I,  we        shall spend

I shall spend my summer holidays in Yalta

You, he                    she, it       will spend                  they      

You will spend your weekend at home

I,  we        shan't spend            (shall not)               

I shall not spend my summer holidays in Yalta

You, he                    she, it        won't spend                   they           (will not)   

You will not spend your weekend at home

?

 

Shall          I, we                                     

Shall we spend our summer here?                                           Yes, we shall                                 No, we shall not

                                      Will            you, he,       she, it, they

Will he read this book?                Yes, he will                            No, he will not

 

Present Continuous
We use the Present Continuous for something that is happening at the time of speaking
The time expressions: now, at that moment

We use the Present Continuous to express fixed plans and arrangements in the future                                                 

Example: We are meeting Sonia at the station at six tomorrow.                                                                                   What are you doing tomorrow morning?

Use be going to  express personal or impersonal intention (a strong wish to do something in the future, when we have already decided to do something)
Example:
They are going to close the factory next year.
I am going to visit Poland next summer.
 

 

 

                                              Example

 

 

+

 

 

                                              I                     am playing

 

I am playing the piano now

He is playing football at the moment

We are playing with our friends now

                                                                        He, she, it       is playing

You                                      we                 are playing                      they   

I                    am not  playing            He, she, it           isn't playing               we, you, they   aren't playing                        

She isn't playing the violin now             

 

?

 

Am       I                  playing?                            Is          he, she, it    playing?               Are       we, they      playing?                           

Is he playing basketball? Yes, he is                     No, he is not               Are they playing this game?                              Yes, they are                            No, they are not

 

Past Continuous

We use the Past Continuous to express an action which was an action which was going on at a definite time in the past. The time expressions: at 5 o’clock yesterday, when he came, from 5 till 6 o’clock yester

 

Example

            I
            He
            She      was writing
            It

 

I was writing when he came. 

                                                                     You were writing when he came
 

            We
           You       were writing
           They

           I
          He        wasn’t writing
          She      (was not)
           It

He wasn’t writing at 5 o’clock yesterday
                                                                

We weren't writing at 5 o’clock yesterday

           We
           You    weren't writing
           They   (were not)
 

           
  Was he, she, it, I        writing?
     

Was she writing at that time yesterday?                                               Yes, she was.       No, she wasn’t.                                                                            Were you playing football at 2 o’clock yesterday?
Yes, we were.       No, we weren’t                                      

  Were we, you, they    writing?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Perfect

We use the Present Perfect to express a completed connected with the present (the action has a result now)
The time expressions: already, just, not yet, ever, never.

We form the Present Perfect with has / have + participle (The past participle of most the same as the regular Past Simple there are a lot of irregular past participle, we have to memorize these forms)

 

 

       Regular verb

 

             Irregular verb

 

+

I                                    you         have called                   we                             they                                  

 

+

I                                                                               you              have been                                                                       we                                                             they

He                                       she         has called               it

He                                       she         has been             it

 

I                                    you      haven't called                   we       (have not)                       they                                  

 

I                                                                               you       haven't been                                                                       we        (have not been)                                              they

He                                       she         hasn't called               it            (has not)

He                                       she         hasn't been             it            (has not been)

 

?

I                                                                                                       Have      you     called?                                        we                                          they

 

?

I                              Have we been?                    they

he                                       Has          she   called?           it

he                              Has      she   been?                      it

 

 

Past Perfect
We use the Past Perfect to denote an action completed before a certain moment in the Past
 

The time expressions: by that time, by 5 o’clock, before he came

We form the Past Perfect with had+ the past participle.

 

 

 

Example

 

+

I                                                       you                                        he                                          she                                     it                                   we                                          they

 

cleaned                                (had cleaned)

 

I had cleaned my room before you came

 

I                                         you                                                     he                                      she                                       it                                         we                                    they

 

hadn't cleaned           (had not cleaned)

 

I wasn't hungry, I'd just had lunch

 

?

I                                                                             you                                                                   Had               he         cleaned?                                                              she                                                                          we                                                                    they

Had you cleaned?             Yes, I had                              No, I hadn't

 

Present Perfect Continuous

We use the Present Perfect Continuous for an activity that has recently stopped or just stopped, there is a connection with now.
We form the Present Perfect Continuous with has / have been+ Present Participle
The time expressions: for some time, since a certain moment, since smb did smth

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to ask or to say how long (for an activity that is still happening)
We use for when we say a period of time (two ours, six weeks).
We use since when we say the start of a period (8 o’clock, Monday, 1998).

 

                                      Example

 

+

 I                     you            we         they

                                            have been waiting          ('ve been waiting)

                                                             I have been waiting since2 o'clock.          

He                 she               it

                                                      has been waiting                   ('s  been waiting)

                                                        She has been waiting for two hours.

 

 

 

 

I                     you            we         they

                                                  have not been waiting          (haven't been waiting)

                                                      You haven't been waiting

He                 she               it

                                                      has not been waiting                   (hasn't  been waiting)

                                                       She hasn't  been waiting

 

?

I                                                      Have                 you     been waiting?                            We                                                       they

                                                       How long have you been waiting here?

he                                                                   Has                      she    been waiting?                                  it

                                             Has she been waiting since 3 o'clock?

 

Past Perfect Continuous

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to express an action which began before a definite time in the past, continued up to it and was not going on at that past moment
We form the Past Perfect Continuous with had been +Present Participle
The time expressions: by that time, by five o’clock, when he came, by the time he came.

Example

 

+

I                                                 you                                                   he                                                          she      had been working                                                 it                                                 we                                              they

By the time he came we had been working for two hours.                             

When we came to see Kate she had been ill for three days.

 

_

I                                                 you                                                   he                                                          she      had not been working                                                 it         (hadn't been working)                                        we                                              they

 

?

I                                                                 you                                                she                                                                          Had                  he been working?                                                 it                                                 we                                              they

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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