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50 ФРАЗ, АРТИКЛЬ ЯКИХ ТРЕБА ЗАПАМ'ЯТАТИ

1.         At a glance - з першого погляду

2.         To be at a loss - перебувати в подиві

3.         To have a good time - провести гарно час

4.         To tell a lie - брехати

5.         As a result - в результатів

6.         As a rule - зазвичай, як правило

7.         As a matter of fact - по суті, фактично

8.         At a speed of - зі швидкість

9.         For a while - на час

10.    For a short time - ненадовго

11.    A great deal - безліч

12.    A great many - незліченна кількість

13.    To get in a fury - прогніватися

14.    To have a cold - застудитися

15.    To have a look - подивитися

16.    To have a smoke - покурити

17.    To have a rest - відпочивати

18.    To take a seat - сідати

19.    It is a pleasure - із задоволенням

20.    It is a shame - соромно

21.    In a hurry - похапцем, у поспіху

22.    In a low voice - упівголоса

23.    In a loud voice - гучно

24.    A number of - ряд, багато

25.    To be on the house - безкоштовно

 

26.     To be on the safe side - для безпеки

27.     To speak the truth - по правді кажучи

28.     On the one hand - з однієї сторони

29.     On other day - деякий час тому

30.     On the whole - загалом

31.     Just the same - те ж саме

32.     To keep the house - сидіти вдома

33.     To play the piano - грати на піаніно

34.     By the way - до речі

35.     To the left/right - наліво, направо

36.     On the left/right - ліворуч, праворуч

37.     In the distance - далеко

38.     In the plural - у множині

39.     To ask permission - просити дозволу

40.     To be in bed - хворіти

41.     To be at home - бути вдома

42.     To be at school - перебувати в школі

43.     To be at table - бути за столом

44.     To be in town - перебувати в місті

45.     To be on holiday - бути у відпустці

46.     To go by air - літати літаком

47.     To go home - йти додому

48.     To go bed - йти спати

49.     To go to town - їхати у місто

50.     To keep house - господарювати


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УМОВНІ РЕЧЕННЯ

Zero Conditional (нульовий тип)

image If +  Present Simle

image Наукові факти, закони природи, загальноприйняті твердження.

image If you cut your finger with a knife, it hurts.

First Conditional (перший тип)

image
image If +  Present Simle, Future Simle

image Дія, яка з великою ймовірність станеться, якщо виконати умову, а також якщо ми хочемо попередити або застерегти когось.

image You will find a good job if you study well.

Second Conditional (другий тип)

image If +  Past Simle, + дієслово без to

image Дія, яка з великою ймовірність станеться, якщо виконати умову, а також якщо ми хочемо попередити або застерегти когось.

image You will find a good job if you study well.

image Малоймовірні або вигадані ситуація, яка відноситься до теперішнього або майбутнього часу. Шанс того, що це станеться - маленький, або взагалі нульовий.

image I would never do this if I were you.

УМОВНІ РЕЧЕННЯ

Third Conditional (третій тип)

image If + Past Perfect, would + Present Perfect

image Критика якоїсь дії, яка виникла у минулому і вже не можна змінити.

image If you had listened carefully, you wouldn’t have made so many mistakes

image Коли хочемо повідомити про хорошу подію, яка відбулася і минулому і позитивно вплинула на наше теперішнє.

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image If I hadn’t taken the wrong way, I wouldn’t have met you

Mixed Conditional (змішанній тип)

image Поєднує другий і третій типи

image If + Second Conditional, Third Conditional

(If + Past Simple, would + Present Perfect)

image Нереальна ситуація в минулому з умовою, дійсною для теперішнього

image If I were clever enough, I wouldn’t have done this

image If + Third Conditional, Second Conditional

(If + Past Perfect, would + дієслово без to)

image Нереальна ситуація в теперішньому і майбутньому з умовою в минулому image If I had won that lottery, I would now live in France


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                  Прикметники із закінченням ed/ing                                  image

Прикметник з обома закінченнями зазвичай утворюються від дієслова, і хоча мають різний переклад, їх легко сплутати.

imageЗапамʼятай, що ING вказує на оцінку предмета,  а ED – на внутрішній стан людини.

Наприклад: it’s boring film – це НУДНИЙ фільм, «нудний» – ти оцінюєш цим словом когось або щось.

I am bored – мені НУДНО, в українській мові цей прикметник стає прислівником, але суть та сама – це опис внутрішнього стану людини.

Щоб не плутати, краще вивчи цей список:

amazing – image 

amazed – image 

amusing – image

 

amused – image 

image,

 

imagennoyed – image 

image,

 

image,

boring – image 

 

bored – image 

charming – image 

 

charmed – image 

image

image,

image,

image 

 

image,

image

 

disappointing – image

image 

disappointed – image 

disgusting – image

 

disgusted – image 

disturbing – image 

 

disturbed – image 

embarrassing – image

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embarrassed – image 

encouraging – image

image 

encouraged – image 

entertaining – image

image 

entertained – image 

exciting – image

 

excited – image 

exhausting – image

image 

exhausted – image 

fascinating – image

image 

image,

fascinated – image 

frightening – image

image 

frightened – image 

frustrating – image

image 

frustrated – image 

fulfilling – image

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fulfilled – image 

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,

horrified – image 

inspiring – image

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inspired – image 

insulting – image 

insulted – image 

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interesting – image 

interested – image

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irritating – image 

image

image

image,

puzzling – image 

puzzled – image

image

image 

relaxing – image

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relaxed – image

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shocking – image 

 

shocked – image

image

image 

surprising – image

 

surprised – image

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tempting – image

 

tempted – image

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image

,

terrified – image 

, image

image 

threatening – image

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imagethreatened –

 

image

image 

thrilling – image

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thrilled – image

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, image 

tiring – image 

 

tired – image

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troubling – image 

troubled – image 

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ІДІОМИ

їжа                                       тварини                      час


egghead – розумник; big cheese – впливова людина; couch potato – нероба; tough cookie – хуліган; top banana – лідер; bad apple – негідник; eat one's words – брати назад свої слова; the apple of one's eye– зіниця ока; hard nut to crack – тяжка задача, міцний горішок; in a nutshell – коротко; have egg on one's face – виглядати нерозумно; as cool as a cucumber – холоднокровний; be full of beans – бути енергійним; as slow as molasses – дуже повільний; chew the fat – ляси точити;

sell like hot cakes– користуватися попитом; take something with a pinch of salt не довіряти; bite off more than one can chew переоцінити свої можливості; cry over spilt milk– сумувати по не виправному; hot potato – актуальна тема.

monkey business – безглузда робота; smell a rat – відчувати недобре; top dog – переможець; cash cow – джерело грошових коштів, дійная корова;

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eager beaver– роботяга, ділова ковбаса; black sheep – біла ворона; elephant in the room – слона то я й не помітив, це очевидно; when pigs fly – щось у лісі здохне; like a cat on a hot tin roof – як муха в окропі; in the doghouse – в немилості; be as busy as a bee – працювати, як бджола; робити як віл;

let a cat out of the bag – випустити кота з мішка; horse around – клеяти дурня; as poor as a church mouse – бідний, як церковна миша; без копійки за душею; lion's share of something – левова частка; eat like a horse – бути голодним як вовк; have a tiger by the tail – кидати виклик долі;

hear it straight from the horse's mouth – з першоджерела;

butterflies in the stomach – ні живий, ні мертвий; like water off a duck's back – як з гусака вода. once in a blue moon – дуже рідко; behind the times – застарілий; time flies – час летить; the big time – великий успіх; around the clock – круглодобово; dwell on the past – жити минулим; have the time of one's life – відмінно провести час; crack of dawn – зі сходом сонця; run out of time – вичерпуватись; in the blink of an eye– в одну мить; like clockwork – без перебою; for donkey's years – с незапам’ятних часів; pressed for time – дуже поспішати; give someone a hard time – відчитувати; be ahead of time – випереджати; to have a whale of a time – чудово провести час; go with the times – йти в ногу з часом; on the spur of the moment – с наскоку; in broad daylight – серед білого дня; catch unawares – настигнуть зненацька.


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                    Топ-факти про числівник в англійській                           image

1. В англійській мові ми НЕ ВІДМІНЮЄМО числівник

2. Числівник не залежить від роду іменника

imageimage 87 – це завжди eighty seven, без цих ваших «вісімдесятьма сьома» чи «вісімдесяти семи»

image this girl is the one person who gets me – ця дівчина – ЄДИНА людина, яка мене розуміє

image this forest is the only one place for realx – цей ліс – ЄДИНЕ місце для відпочинку

3. Щоб не плутати 18 з 80, запам’ятай слово teen

(від teenager) – підліток, а всім підліткам ну плюс-мінус

11–19 років, а отже fourTEEN – це точно 14, а не 40

4. Якщо кількісний числівник складається з десятків і одиниць, то слова слід розділяти дефісом :

 

image 23 – twenty–three

image 35 – thirty–five

image 76 – seventy–six

5. Якщо числівник складається з сотень і тисяч, то при додаванні слів, які позначають десятки і одиниці, потрібно використовувати and

image 102 – one hundred and two

image 467 – four hundred and sixty-seven

6. Якщо мова йде про телефонні номери, номери кредитних і банківських карт, то все число потрібно читати по окремим цифрам:

image 978-345-538-978 – Nine seven eight, three four five, five three eight, nine seven eight

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7. Подвійні і потрійні цифри позначають як double and triple

image 777-567-43-11 – triple seven, five, six, seven, four, three, double one.

8. Порядкові числівники вживаємо з артиклем the

image                on the second store, the first student, the third child

9. Щоб утворити порядковий числівник, потрібно взяти за основу кількісний числівник і додати суфікс -th

image    – Seven – seventh, twenty-six – twenty sixth АЛЕ: first, second, third!

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Simple Present

Present Progressive

Simple Past

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every day sometimes always often usually seldom never

first ... then

now

at the moment Look!

Listen!

last ... ... ago in

1990 yesterday

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Something that happens repeatedly how often something happens one action follows another things in general with the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.)

something is happening at the same time of speaking or around it future meaning: when you have already decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan, date)

action took place in the past, mostly connected with an expression of time (no connection to the present)

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Infinitive he/she/it + -s

to be (am/are/is) + Infinitive + ing

regular: Infinitive + -ed irregular: 2. Spalte

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I work.

He works.

I go.

He goes.

I'm working.

He's working.

I'm going.

He's going.

I worked.

He worked.

I went.

He went.

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I don't work.

He doesn't work.

I don't go.

He doesn't go.

I'm not working.

He isn't working.

I'm not going. He isn't going.

I didn't work.

He didn't work.

I didn't go.

He didn't go.

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Do I work?

Does he work?

Do I go?

Does he go?

Am I working? Is he working?

Am I going? Is he going?

Did I work?

Did he work?

Did I go?

Did he go?

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Past Progressive

Simple Present Perfect

Present Perfect Progressive

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while

just yet never ever already so far up to now, since, for recently

all day the whole day how long since for

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an action happened in the middle of another action. Someone was doing something

at a certain time (in the past) - you don't know whether it was finished or not

you say that sth. has happened or is finished in the past and it has a connection to the present action started in the past and continues up to the present

action began in the past and has just stopped how long the action has been happening

emphasis: length of time of an action

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was/were

+Infinitive + -ing

have/has + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or

(3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

have/has + been

+ Infinitive + -ing

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I was working.

He was working.

I was going.

He was going.

I have worked.

He has worked.

I have gone.

He has gone.

I have been working.

He has been working.

I have been going.

He has been going.

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I wasn't working.

He wasn't working.

I wasn't going.

He wasn't going.

I haven't worked.

He hasn’t worked.

I haven't gone.

He hasn’t gone.

I haven't been working.

He hasn't been working.

I haven't been going.

He hasn't been going.

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Was I working?

Was he working?

Was I going?

Was he going?

Have I worked?

Has he worked?

Have I gone?

Has he gone?

Have I been working?

Has he been working?

Have I been going?

Has he been going?

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Simple Past Perfect

Past Perfect Progressive

will

future

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already just never

how long since for

 

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mostly when two actions in a story are related to each other: the action which had already happened is put into past perfect, the other action into simple past the past of the Present Perfect

how long something had been happening

before something else happened

predictions about the future (you think that sth will happen) you decide to do sth. spontaneously at the time of speaking, you haven't made a main clause in type

I of the if clauses

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had + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or

(3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

had + been +

Infinitive + ing

will + Infinitive

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I had worked.

He had worked.

I had gone.

He had gone.

I had been working.

He had been working.

I had been going.

He had been going.

I'll work.

He'll work.

I'll go.

He'll go.

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I hadn't worked.

He hadn't worked.

I hadn't gone.

He hadn't gone.

I hadn't been working.

He hadn't been working.

I hadn't been going.

He hadn't been going.

I won't work.

He won't work.

I won't go.

He won't go.

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Had I worked?

Had he worked?

Had I gone?

Had he gone?

Had I been working?

Had he been working?

Had I been going?

Had he been going?

Will I work?

Will he work?

Will I go?

Will he go?

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going to

future

Future Progressive

Future Perfect Simple

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when you have already decided to do sth.

in the future what you think what will happen

An action will be in progress at a certain time in the future. This action has begun before the certain time.

Something happens because it normally happens.

sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the future

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be (am/are/is)

+ going to + Infinitive

will + be

+ Infinitive + ing

will + have + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

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I'm going to work.

He's going to work.

I'm going to go.

He's going to go.

I'll be working.

He'll be working.

I'll be going.

He'll be going.

I'll have worked.

He'll have worked.

I'll have gone.

He'll have gone.

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I'm not going to work.

He's not going to work.

I'm not going to go.

He's not going to go.

I won't be working.

He won't be working.

I won't be going.

He won't be going.

I won't have worked.

He won't have worked.

I won't have gone.

He won't have gone.

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Am I going to work?

Is he going to work?

Am I going to go? Is he going to go?

Will I be working?

Will he be working?

Will I be going?

Will he be going?

Will I have worked?

Will he have worked?

Will I have gone?

Will he have gone?

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Future Perfect Progressive

Conditional Simple

Conditional Progressive

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sth. will already

have happened

before a certain time in the future

emphasis: length of time of anaction

sth. that might happen main clause in type II of the if clauses

sth. that might happen

emphasis: length of time of anaction

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will + have + been + Infinitive + ing

would + Infinitive

would + be

+ Infinitive + ing

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I'll have been working.

He'll have been working.

I'll have been going.

He'll have been going.

I would work.

He would work.

I would go.

He would go.

I would be working.

He would be working.

I would be going.

He would be going.

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I won't have been working.

He won't have been working.

I won't have been going.

He won't have been going.

I wouldn't work.

He wouldn't work.

I wouldn't go.

He wouldn't go.

I wouldn't be working.

He wouldn't be working.

I wouldn't be going.

He wouldn't be going.

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Will I have been working?

Will he have been working?

Will I have been working?

Will he have been working?

Would I work?

Would he work? Would I work?

Would he work?

Would I be working?

Would he be working?

Would I be going?

Would he be going?

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УСІ ЧАСИ В АНГЛІЙСЬКІЙ МОВІ

Conditional Perfect

Conditional Perfect Progressive

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sth. that might have happened in the past (It's too late now.) main clause in type III of the if clauses

sth. that might have happened in the past

(It's too late now.)

emphasis: length of time of an action

would + have + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or

(3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

would + have + been + Infinitive + ing

I would have worked.

He would have worked.

I would have gone.

He would have gone.

I would have been working.

He would have been going. I would have been going.

He would have been going.

I wouldn't have worked.

He wouldn't have worked.

I wouldn't have gone.

He wouldn't have gone.

I wouldn't have been working.

He wouldn't have been going. I wouldn't have been going.

He wouldn't have been going.

Would I have worked?

Would he have worked?

Would I have gone?

Would he have gone?

Would I have been working?

Would he have been working?

Would I have been going?

Would he have been going?

We sometimes use Continuous instead of Progressive. Some signal words can be found in more tenses. We did not list signal words in the future.

Always remember what action is described.


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До підручника
Англійська мова (10-й рік навчання, рівень стандарту) 11 клас (Карпюк О.Д.)
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11 лютого 2021
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