Проблеми забруднення навколишнього середовища

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Урок-конференція передбачає обговорення проблем навколишнього середовища шляхом презентації учнями проектів за поданою схемою: проблема, причина виникнення, наслідки, дії з усунення та подолання проблеми. Частина учнів виступають доповідачами з проблемних питань, а інші виконуватимуть роль представників різних екологічних інституцій, які задаватимуть запитання за презентованою темою. Так, застосування автентичних відеоматеріалів має на меті вмотивовувати та залучати учнів до комунікативно-орієнтованої діяльності та вдосконалення навичок мовленнєвої діяльності.
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1.  Урок – конференція за темою: «Проблеми навколишнього середовища». (11 клас)

 

Subject: Environmental Problems

Type of Lesson: knowledge systematization and generalization

Method: project

Equipment: slides, multimedia screen, computer, printed report.

 

The Teaching Aims:

1. Focus on the problems of the planet;

2. Develop listening comprehension skills by gaining for specific and general information;

3. Improve speaking skills in a model of conference using the ideas presented in the listening.

 

The Educational Aims:

1. Provide the system of codes and rules of ecologically competent behavior and activity of the person in natural and social environment;

2. Develop students’ needs to communicate with nature, inspiring the activities in nature protection.

 

The Developing Aims:

1. Develop students’ attention, memory and logical way of thinking;

2. Promote students’ curiosity;

3. Motivate students’ spontaneous speech;

The Upbringing Aims: 

1. Stimulate students’ thinking and discussion;

2. Provide students with the information about the environment;

3. Motivate students to increase their knowledge and awareness about the environment;

Equipment and visual aids:

1. Pictures of ecological disasters;

2. Handout material;

3. Tape – recorder;

4. The map of the World.

 Procedure of the Lesson:

 

I. Preliminaries of the Lesson.

Greeting.  Reporting the subject and objectives of the lesson.

 

T: Students, today we are having unusual lesson – conference lesson, as all of you have been invited to discuss the global issues which our planet are facing to. Some of you will be the representatives of the various spheres of activity:

1. Worldwide Conservation Organization – Mr. Brown and Mrs. Shorter, England

2. Media – Svetlana Novak, Poland

3. Press - Lora Crown, USA

4. Wildlife Conservation Society – Misaki, Japan

5. the group ”Save the Animals” – Alberto, Italy

6. Forest Preservation Society – Camilla, Sweden

But the other part of the group will be reporters who have been researching ecological problems.

 

T: At the lesson we are revealing not only the problems which we are worrying about, but are having a talk about the effects and the ways of solutions. What should be done to solve the global issues? Our guests will be able to ask some questions to our investigators on environmental challenges.

 

II.Warming - up

Brainstorm activity.

Students are watching the environmental pollution slides listening to Michael Jackson’ Earth song. Then they name the global problems which the world faces to and stick them on the map.

Учні слухають пісню Майкла Джексона «Планета-наш рідний дім» і продивляються слайди, які демонструють актуальні проблеми навколишнього середовища. Потім називають та позначають їх на мапі світу.

Why is the Earth crying? The problems our planet faces to:

эко проблемы

Мал.1 Екологічні проблеми навколишнього середовища.

 

http://geology.com/world/world-map.gif

Мал.2 Карта світу.

(Учні позначають стікерами на мапі світу найбільш проблемні країни з підвищеним ризиком  екологічної катастрофи).

The list of problems :

 

Air pollution;   Destruction of the ozone layer.

 

Water contamination;         Acid rain;        Green house effect;

 

Urban sprawl;      Nuclear power stations;

 

Deforestation; Littering; Illegal hunting;

 

 

III. Introduction 

 

T: I propose you to start discussion the principal problems of our conference. Dear students! Today we are having an unusual lesson. I’d like you to become the participants of the debates at the Scientific Conference of the “Students’ Conservation Society”.

T: Students, you know that whatever we do, everything is up to us. So, I wonder how environmentally you are, personally.

(The students are given the handouts – questionnaire to add up the score to find out how environmentally aware they are)

(Учні виконують тест, щоб з’ясувати їхнє особисте ставлення до проблем навколишнього середовища у побутовому житті).

 

How environmentally aware are you?

1. What does your family do with empty bottles?

A take them to a recycling bin

В  return them to the supermarket

С throw them in the rubbish bin

2. When you buy one or two items at the supermarket, you

A take a plastic carrier bag.

В reuse an old plastic earner bag.

С  use your own bag.

3. How often do you choose products which contain recycled materials?

A always

В never

С sometimes

4. If you were asked to contribute to a Save the Animals project, you would

A give generously.

В give a small amount.

С refuse to give anything.

 

5. A local beach has been polluted with oil. You

A donate money for the clean-up project.

B do nothing

C volunteer to help with the clean-up project.

6. You eat a chocolate bar in the street. What do you do with the wrapper?

A drop it on the pavement

В put it in a litter bin

С save it for recycling

7. When you buy paper products, you

A buy whatever is cheapest.

В try to purchase recycled paper

С purchase recycled paper as long as it doesn't cost more.

8. When you clean your teeth you

A turn the tap on only when you need water.

В leave the tap running until you have finished.

С only use one glass of water.

 

 

1  A  3     B  2     C  0

2  A  0     B  2     C  3

3  A  3     B  0     C  2

4  A  3     B  2     C  0

5  A  2     B  0     C  3

6  A  0     B  2     C  3

7  A  0     B  3     C  2

8  A  2     B  0     C  3

 

 

18-24 Keep up the good work! You are doing your part to protect the environment.

13-17 There’s some room for improvement. Change your habits and you’ll soon be green.

0-12 You are part of the problem. You should try to become part of the solution

 

Табл. 1 Анкета.

(The students are discussing their answers skimming the questionnaires of each other and giving some advice to change their attitude to some issues, using expressions like: You should/ought to…., you’d better…., the best thing would be..)

(Після анкетування учні обмінюються тестами, щоб поділитися порадами щодо зміни їх відношення до актуальних екологічних проблем сьогодення).

For example:   

P1: It would be better if you change your habits and stop dropping the wrappers on the pavement to prevent littering.

P2 : You ought to try to become part of conservation solution. Why don’t you take up volunteering? There is a number of variety wildlife research projects which could give you a great experience, develop a sense of responsibility and communicating skills as well.

P3: I think you’d better share your environmentally friendly awareness with others and encourage them to take part in non-profit projects.

P4: I am sure, that the best thing for students would be to reduce using paper and paper products to stop deforestation.

T: Great! You have given a lot of useful advice to each other and I am sure you will follow them indeed.

( Така форма роботи має соціокультурну спрямованість, мотивуючи учнів до обговорення власних думок та преференцій щодо певної тематики)

 

IV. The Main Part of the Lesson

 

1. Listening Comprehension Activity

 

a) pre-listening activity:

 students are listening and watching some video media reports about environmental problems, looking at some dramatic pictures of not environmentally friendly events to answer the questions:

-What problems are we going to talk?

-Why is it so important nowadays?

-What causes, effects and actions do ecological issues have?

b) while-listening activity:

students are listening and watching some video media reports connected with environmental problems. They are writing down as much information as it possible which is associated with each of the problem;

c) post-listening activity:

students should think of a headline for each of the video and discuss the points in pre-listening activity.

 

Air Pollution

 

Oliver Milman:     

 

Air pollution is a huge problem—and not just for people living in smog-choked cities: through such things as global warming and damage to the ozone layer, it has the potential to affect us all. So what exactly causes this major environmental issue and what can we do about it? Some pollutants are released into the atmosphere from diffuse sources such as transport and others from location specific sources, such as industrial facilities. Adding to the complexity, is of course that air pollution travels in the atmosphere, so what is emitted in one place can cause harmful impacts a significant distance away. For example, earlier this year London experienced an episode of high particulate matter pollution. But a significant source of this pollution came from agricultural sources away from the city. In a similar context, industry is also one of the main contributors to air pollution in Europe.

 

Air-pollution--The-Houses-001

                 Мал.3 Забруднення атмосферного повітря в Лондоні.

 

Water Contamination

 

Adam Vaughan:

 

Our indispensable water resources have proven themselves to be greatly resilient, but they are increasingly vulnerable and threatened. Our growing population's need for water for food, raw materials and energy is increasingly competing with nature's own demands for water to sustain already imperilled ecosystems and the services on which we depend. Day after day, we pour millions of tons of untreated sewage and industrial and agricultural wastes into the world's water systems. Clean water has become scarce and will become even scarcer with the onset of climate change. And the poor continue to suffer first and most from pollution, water shortages and the lack of adequate sanitation.

загрязн воды

Мал. 4 Основні сфери впливу на забруднення водного середовища.

 

 

Littering

Alasdair Harris:

 

It's not a pretty picture, is it? Australia's beautiful beaches are being marred by more and more rubbish.

It's not only heavily-used beaches which are affected. A 1991 survey of 26 remote Great Barrier Reef islands found 5656 items of rubbish. Among the plastic, glass and metal debris were 725 glass bottles, 1066 plastic fragments, 247 aluminium cans and plastic cups, 919 thongs and one bar fridge.

There is a lot of junk floating around out there! Not only is garbage unsightly in otherwise unspoilt environments and a hazard to ships and to divers, it also poses a real threat to wildlife.

plasticpollu

 

Мал. 5 Рівень та наслідки забруднення сміттям водного середовища Австралії.

Deforestation

 

Mark McAllister

Indonesia has for the first time surpassed Brazil in clearing tropical forests and losses are accelerating despite a 2011 moratorium meant to protect wildlife and combat climate change, scientists said on Sunday.

Indonesia's losses of virgin forests totalled 60,000 sq km - an area almost as big as Ireland - from 2000-2012, partly to make way for palm oil plantations and other farms, a study said. And the pace of losses has increased.

"By 2012, annual primary forest loss in Indonesia was estimated to be higher than in Brazil," where clearance of the Amazon basin has usually accounted for the biggest losses, the scientists wrote in the journal Nature Climate Change.

 

indonesia-deforestation

Мал. 6 Вирубка лісів в Індонезії.

Recycling

 

Nick Robinson

If you've noticed a number of new recycling bins popping up around your community, it's probably due to the increased focus on "going green" across America. The United States recycling statistics have vastly improved each year since the first United States recycling centre opened its doors in 1896. But, the nation still has a long way to go before it hits a perfect recycling stride.

 

Мал.7 Процентне співвідношення матеріалів, які підлягають переробці у Сполучених Штатах Америки.

 

Так, застосування автентичних відеоматеріалів має на меті:

 

  • мотивувати та налаштовувати учнів на виконання завдання, зробивши їх активними учасниками процесу навчання;
  • забезпечити спонукання до мовної та мовленнєвої діяльності при виконанні завдань;
  • використовувати мультимедійні засоби як основу і опору для розвитку продуктивних вмінь як в усному так і в  писемному мовленні.

 

 

2. Language Development

a) Link the following sentences with: as a result, therefore, consequently or as a consequence. (Поєднайте речення, вживаючи зв’язуючи слова)

  1. Trees are being cut down. Many species will become extinct.
  2. People in cities breathe exhaust fumes every day. Many of them develop breathing problems.
  3. Industrial waste is dumped into the sea. Fish die.
  4. People drop litter in the streets. People get diseases.
  5. Most factories do not use filters. The air gets dirty.

b) Read the following sentences. How are the clauses of purpose introduced? (Прочитайте та поясніть творення підрядного речення цілі)

  •   We should stop using cars to reduce air pollution.
  •   We should stop using cars so that we can reduce air pollution.
  •   We should stop using cars so that we won't have polluted cities.

Now join the sentences using to or so that (Поєднайте речення)

  1. We should stop cutting down trees. Animals won't lose their natural habitats.
  2. We should build wildlife parks. We can protect animals from extinction.
  3. We should plant more trees. We will have more oxygen.
  4. We should clean up the litter in cities. We won't catch diseases from it.
  5. We should find clean forms of energy. We can save the planet.

c) Look at the boxes and match the suggestions with their results. Then, link the sentences with so that or to and talk about how we can improve the living conditions in our cities. (Поєднайте речення – пропозиції та результату)

 

SUGGESTIONS

  1. Governments should improve public transport.
  2. People should get involved in recycling schemes.
  3. We should ban cars from city centers.
  4. Governments should force factories to put filters on chimneys.
  5. We should stop using the products of companies whose factories cause pollution.

RESULTS

a There will be less rubbish to pollute the environment.

b We will force them to use environmentally friendly production

methods.

с We can make the streets cleaner, safer and quieter.

d People won't have to use cars to get around.

e The harmful gases won't be able to pollute the atmosphere.

(такий вид роботи сприяє розвиткові навичок усного мовлення з опорою на лексико-граматичний   мовленнєвий ланцюг висловлювання)

 

V. Speaking Skills’ Improvement

 

Projects’  Presentation.

 

T: So, students, it’s time to start our conference to talk about the environmental problems all over the world due to the following headings:

 

PROBLEM    CAUSES      EFFECTS     MEASURES

 (The students are expressing their points of view on the above-mentioned problems, demonstrating the videos, slides, photos and pictures on each of the problem. Some students will be speakers to present their projects, but the rest – will be the representatives of different environmental institutions who will be the active participants of the discussion of the issues. Use the linking words, such as: as a result, consequently, therefore, as a consequence, yet, moreover, fortunately, unfortunately, furthermore, however, luckily, on the other hand, on the positive side, in conclusion, what is more, in addition, so that, because of, first of all, to sum up etc.)

(Урок-конференція передбачає обговорення проблем навколишнього середовища шляхом презентації учнями проектів за поданою схемою: проблема, причина виникнення, наслідки, дії з усунення та подолання проблеми. Частина учнів виступають доповідачами з проблемних питань, а інші виконуватимуть роль  представників різних екологічних інституцій, які задаватимуть запитання за презентованою темою. Вживання вводних та з’єднувальних слів є доцільним елементом  у мовленнєвому аспекті  для висловлення особистої точки зору).

 

Water Contamination

 

S1:   One of the major problems nowadays is water contamination. Water covers about 70% of the surface of the Earth. Water is an important resource for the people and the environment. Water is the basis of life, it makes up to 60-95 % of the total weight of any functioning living cell.

Factories are polluting rivers and lakes with dangerous chemicals. Also oil tankers are releasing thick, black oil into our oceans. Tons and tons of industrial and domestic waste are poured into our seas. As a result, sea life is threatened with extinction.

Pollution of water affects drinking water, lakes, river and oceans all over the world. In most of the developing countries the major cause of death is consumption of polluted water.

We have now realized the importance of clean water as the basis of life. In the recent time, more work is being put to educate, restore, protect waterways and encourage practices that help to avoid more water contamination and to preserve water systems from destruction. 

 

pollution-in-china-graphs-791

Мал.8 Процентне співвідношення джерел забруднення водних ресурсів.

Worldwide Conservation Organization – Mr. Brown and Mrs. Shorter: What are the ways of solving this issue?

S1: So, there are some practical ways we can take as individuals to limit the pollution in our neighbourhoods and cities.

- make people aware of the problem is the first step to solving it.

- use a water filter system;

- use greenhouse and personal care products;

-  stop growing impact of plastic pollution on our oceans;

-  encourage politicians to enforce existing laws such as the Clean Water Act;

-  stop pollution discharged by factories;

-  using polluter pays principle;

- encourage industries to use cleaner methods of production;

- to stop wasting and polluting water.

 

Air Pollution

S2: Air pollution is another important issue. One of the main sources of this type of pollution is industry. Numerous factories and plants release into the atmosphere a lot of waste such as poisonous chemicals and, what is a worse, particle of heavy metals. What is more, cars are giving off dangerous fumes.  The effects of air pollution are alarming. They are known to create several respiratory and heart conditions along with Cancer, among other threats to the body. This process not only produces harmful effects on the atmosphere, but influences man’s health as well. People suffer from lung diseases more and more often or have headaches, breathing such polluted air. Another direct effect is the immediate alterations that the world is witnessing due to Global warming. With increased temperatures world wide, increase in sea levels and melting of ice from colder regions.

Just like humans, animals also face to some devastating affects of air pollution.

загрязн возд

Мал. 9  Види та джерела забруднення атмосферного повітря.

 

World Conservation Society: What measures should be taken to stop air pollution?

S2: Well, this problem has been solving for many years and demands the adoption of laws based on administrative penalties. Moreover, there is a range of accompanying measures, such as:

- set up purifying systems for cleaning and trapping harmful substances must be widely used;

- pollution control systems must be introduced;

- enterprises must be removed from cities;

- ban cars from the city centre;

- force factories to put filters on chimneys;

- improve public transport;

- use bikes instead of cars;

- encourage industries to use cleaner methods of production;

- use unleaded petrol for cars;

- force power stations to release of poisonous fumes;

- encourage authorities to establish more protected national parks;

-  “Green zones” must be created;

- invest money in creating electric cars;

- raise public awareness about environment protection;

- set up an international space laboratory to monitor the state of environment;

- set up an international center for emergency environmental assistance;

-raise safety standards at all industrial facilities to adequately process by-products of industry.

 

Endangered Species

 

S3: The number of animals at risk of becoming endangered or becoming extinct is rapidly rising across the planet. This is due to such things as loss of habitat when human settlements and agriculture encroach on the land animals need, use of wild animals for medicines, food (such as bush meat) and other products, reduced sources of food for animals, hunting and pollution. The extinction of at least 500 species of animals has been caused by man. Today there are about 5,000 endangered animals and at least one species dies out every year.

Animal rights groups estimate that poachers in Africa kill between 25,000 and 35,000 elephants annually – meaning about 104 die a day.  

The problem of endangered species is also caused by growing cities and countryside disappearing. The WWF should stop illegal hunting as well.

вымирающ

Мал. 10 Процентне співвідношення тварин(рослин)в світі,  які знаходяться під загрозою зникнення через забруднення навколишнього середовища.

The group “Save the animals”:  We know that you have been working on: “Save Our Souls – SOS” current project for many years. What steps have been done to save animals from extinction?

S3: We have a specific area of interest.  We have been cooperating with Wildlife Conservation Society for ten years to protect the species or habitats.

By joining in, you can support well-organized, ongoing efforts to protect species and habitats. And if you want to participate in conservation field work, you can often get involved in specific programs within many conservation organizations that rely to a great extent on help from volunteers. If you want to play a role in helping to stop animals from this fate, there are some great things that you can do to help out. So, there are some measures to save endangered animals and prevent them from extinction:

- raise money to save animals from extinction;

- introduce harsher punishments for illegal hunters and poachers;

- raise public awareness about endangered species;

- set up an international space laboratory to monitor the state of environment;

- lessen the demand for animals’ fur, skin, horns and tusks;

- create more protected national parks;

- encourage people to stop buying products which are made from these animals;

- stop using pesticides;

- protect areas of natural habitat.

 

Deforestation

 

S4: Deforestation is a major global problem with serious consequences to the planet. Forests are cut down for many reasons, but most of them are related to money or to people’s need to provide for their families. The consequences of deforestation have negative effects on the climate, biodiversity, and the atmosphere, along with threatening the cultural and physical survival of indigenous peoples. The effects are too great to continue destroying the forests. These implications as a result have encouraged public outcry. Concerns have since grown to include other forest types as well. There are some reasons of clearance:

 

- agricultural activities;

  • logging;
  • urbanization;
  • mining;
  • fires;
  • desertification on land.

 

What are the major consequences of Deforestation?

 

 

Deforestation, Climate Change, and Food Insecurity(New)

 

Мал. 11 Наслідки вирубки лісів.

Forest Preservation Society: So, what are the ways to reduce deforestation and repair the damage?

 

S4: Deforestation has caused a lot of harm to the mankind. There are a number of actions that can be taken to reduce deforestation.
I strongly believe that government should control this issue by taking urgent solutions. Here are some possible solutions for Deforestation:

- raise public awareness about environment protection;

- limit deforestation;

- support “Green Volunteer” program;

- “Green zones” must be created;

- set up an international space laboratory to monitor the state of environment;

- stop cutting down trees;

- create more national parks with more ark rangers to protect animals inside;

- plant more trees to replace those which have been lost;

- raise public awareness about forest fires;

- use recycled items

 

Littering

 

S5: The problem of litter can cause a lot of problems for the community. If a whole community were covered with litter, people would think differently of the community, because it would look like a huge dump. When the wind blows, a lot of the litter can travel to other places like the beach. That can be very dangerous for a lot of the animals in the water, because they could think it would be food. They could choke on it, or even die. A lot of sea animals, assume shiny items would be food. Did you also know that uncollected litter helps attract more. Animals sometimes get trapped and poisoned because of garbage in their habitats. They also end up in rivers and canals, polluting water supply. Vermin’s and diseases are attracted to dirty places. Some places are breeding places for mosquitoes. Cigarette butts are also a huge threat to the environment. If you have any respect for the environment, you know not to litter. Few people understand the far-reaching consequences that littering has on the environment. Learn each of the effects of littering to put yourself in a position to educate anyone who does not respect the environment as much as you. Understanding the effects of environmental issues is a major part of going green.

Top Ten Litter Causes

Who Does It

What It Affects

Pedestrians

Deliberately dropping garbage in the streets and gutters

Motorists

Throwing garbage out of moving vehicles

Truck Haulers

Refuse that litters public streets by unsecured loads

Households

Non-secure trashcans invaded by scavengers or wind

Commerical

Non-maintained dumpsters

Human Element

Littering at parks

Entertainment Events

Large amounts of waste, hard to control or collect

Illegal

Litter that is illegal whether by the public or the commercial community

Intentional

Habitual or intentional littering

Construction Sites

Large refuse amounts of ignored litter

Табл.2 Основні причини забруднення навколишнього середовища сміттям.

 

Media: There are several actions on littering problem solutions. What possible ones are in your opinion?

S5: To my mind the problem of litter is caused by overpopulation. It is leading to producing of too much packaging and food waste. Also, people should be aware of it to avoid horrible consequences. Among others actions the following are:

 

- people should get involved in recycling schemes, so there will be less rubbish to pollute the environment;

- make sure you waste goes in a garbage bin – beside it is not enough;

- take your garbage home with you when visiting a local park or beach;

- pack a litter less lunch by using reusable containers;

- use reusable bags, instead of plastic bags, when shopping;

- always pick up after your dog;

- recycling bins must be provided;

- recycling is the best way to reduce waste;

- state birth control;

- prevent littering and rubbish tips.

 

Homework.

Using the Internet resources find the information about the topical issues in the area you live and come up with the ways of solution.

Conclusion.

T: Evaluate students’ activity at the lesson, pointing out the mistakes they made.

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