For the USA the Second World War began I 1941, after the Japanese had attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbour. More than 300.000 Americans were killed. Americans escaped physical devastation, the war lifted the country from depression. New opportunities were given to women and ethnic minorities, the power of the government was made stronger. The war improved international affairs of the USA.
THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria, a part of China;1935 – Italy attacked Ethiopia;1938 – Germany seized Austria and part of Czechoslovakia;September 1, 1939 – German army crossed the Polish border;September 3, 1939 – Great Britain and France declared war on Germany;1940 – Germany invaded Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg;1940 – Germany started bombing British cities, railways and factories.
Entering the War President Roosevelt tried to prevent the involvement of the USA in a non-American war. Although Neutrality acts, signed in 1935, prohibited trade with any of the warring nations, in 1937 Congress approved cash-and-carry exports (the warring nations had to pay cash for their purchases and carry the goods away on their own ships). In 1940 Roosevelt started to aid the Allies. He also signed the Selective Training and Service Act that called for the registration of all men between 18 and 35. In March 1941, the USA instituted Lend-Lease allowing Britain almost unlimited access to American war materials.
THE USA IN WARLD WAR IIThe Second World War came to the USA via Asia. After Japanese troops had occupied French Indochina, Washington ended trade with Japan. Japan, in its turn, demanded to stop US naval expansion in the Pacific. September 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour in Hawaii. December 8, 1941, Congress voted for the declaration of war against Japan, three days later Germany and Italy declared war against the United states
THE ATLANTIC CHARTER In August 1941, the leaders of the USA and Great Britain, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met to state their common aims for future world peace. They created the Atlantic Charter, which set war aims: collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation and freedom for the seas. The Atlantic Charter made the basis for the declaration of the United Nations signed by 26 other nations on January 1, 1942.
THE END OF THE WAR1943 – the Allies invaded Italy, making it surrender in two month;1944 – the Second Front was opened in Normandy, from where the liberation of France started;June 6, 1944 – D-Day (The Allied planes bombed the German positions in France);May, 1945 – Germany surrendered.