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       THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

 

  Climate

 

          The  United  States of America is the fourth largest country in the world  (after Russia,

     Canada and China).  The total area of the country is about  nine and a half  million square

kilometers. The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia. If we look at the map  of the  USA  we can see  lowlands and mountains.  The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. America’s largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri and the Rio Grande. The climate of the country is different in different parts of the USA. Most of the country has a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The south has subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons.  The climate along  the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.

 

Sightseeing

 

     There are many places of interest in the USA, among them: the Grand Canyon, which belongs to seven Nature’s greatest wonders; the Great Lakes on the border with Canada, which are the largest and deepest in the USA; Yellowstone National Park – the largest and the most famous park in the USA; but the most beautiful place is the Niagara Falls, which attracts people from all over the world. 

     There are many large and beautiful cities in the USA, among them Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston, San Francisco, Dallas, Detroit, Philadelphia and others. The country’s most important city and its capital is Washington, but the biggest city is New York.

 

Entertainment

 

     The United States is an international centre of culture. Some of the world’s greatest museums, orchestras, theatres and concert halls are located in the United States. Performances and exhibitions are usually very well attended. Tickets can be hard to get, despite their high prices! The modern American theatre has perfected an unusual art form: the musical play, which combines songs and dances in both traditional and modern styles. America is a country of wide musical taste. In any large city you may find performances of jazz, pop and rock bands, symphony orchestras, opera, country and western   music.   The  centre  of  the   movie   industry   is  Los  Angeles.   Not  far  from

Los Angeles  is  Hollywood,  the centre  of the  US  film business.  Most visitors also come to see Beverly Hills, where the homes of the movie stars are located.

 

Food and drink

 

     Americans eat a lot and they love fast food. Their diet is not healthy; they fry a lot and eat fat, sweet food. They don’t like to eat at home and very often go to restaurants. They can choose from many kind of restaurants – from fancy and expensive to very cheap ones. There is a great number of ethnic restaurants – Italian food, Mexican food and Chinese food are as popular as the traditional American burger. Americans like to eat “Hamburgers”,  “Hot Dogs”,  Potato Chips.  America’s  best  known  soft  drink  is  “Coca Cola”.

 

    THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA

 

     Do   you    know   that    the   USA   is   the   fourth   largest   country   in   the   world, 

with a population of over 250 million people and covering nine million square kilometers?  The  United  States  of  America  is  made  up  of  50  states and  six regions.

The country’s division into regions depends on the geography, climate, economy, history and tradition of the various states. Of all the states the two that stand alone geographically are Alaska and Hawaii. They are the newest states, having both joined the US in 1959.

     The original inhabitants of the USA are the American Indians, the Alaskan Aleuts and the native Hawaiians. The population of  these groups  is  small  compared to that of the other US citizens who are immigrants from all over the world and include English, Irish, Polish, Asian and Mexican descendants to name a few. Furthermore, America has a large population of African Americans, as well as Hispanic Americans who are originally from Latin America. This is why the USA has been called a melting pot of cultures.  The  official  language  is  English and  is  referred  to as “American English”.

The second most widely spoken language in the country is Spanish.

     The  East  Coast   States,   New  York   being   the   most   populated  city, are  marked  for   their  forests,  mountains,  beaches  and  picturesque  lakes. The Midwestern States are referred to as the “heartland” of the nation because they lie in the middle of the country. The Midwest has vast areas of flat and fertile land. Chicago, one of the world’s busiest cities, is located there. The Southern States, such as Tennessee and Florida are also fertile and have a moist, sub-tropical climate. Next are the Western Interior States, which include amazing natural scenery such as the Rocky Mountains, the Grand Canyon and the Arizona Desert. The Pacific Coast States like California and Hawaii have a mild climate and fertile valleys. Last but not least is Alaska, the largest state in the US but also the least populated.

 

 

T A S K

 

 I. Use a dictionary to look up the underlined words and write down their translation.

 

II. Answer the questions:

 

    1. What is the population of the USA?

    2. How many regions is the United States divided into?

    3. Who were the original inhabitants of the USA?

    4. Why has the USA been called a melting pot?

    5. Why the Midwestern States are called the “heartland” of the country?
    6. Which is the most populated city in the USA?

    7. Which is the largest state in the USA?

 

III. Match the words to their synonyms:

 

    1) huge                                                        a) inhabitants

    2) landscape                                                b) immigrants

    3) consists of                                               c) vast

    4) natives, locals                                         d) scenery

    5) incomers                                                 e) made up

    6) entered                                                    f) joined

Political  Structure  of  the  USA

 

     The United States has a federal system of government. The foundation of the government  of  the  USA  is  the  Constitution,  written  almost  two  hundred  years  ago.

The  head  of  the  executive  power  is  President.  The  head  of  the  legislative  power is

the Congress. The president is elected for a four-year period. He may be re-elected and serve eight years, but not longer. His powers are considerable: he appoints the cabinet, signs treaties with other governments and can suggest laws to the government.

     Congress,   the   parliament   of   the  United   States,   is   divided   into   two   houses:

the Senate, or upper house and House of Representatives or lower house. Each state sends two senators to Congress. According to the Constitution of the United States, a senator must be at least thirty years old and must be a citizen of the United States for nine years at the time of election. The House of Representatives has 435 members (congressmen), elected for 2 years. Both Houses can introduce new laws, and the Senate must also approve or reject all appointments or treaties suggested by the president.

     Each of the 50 states has its own government headed by a governor, whose position is similar to that of the president in the Federal Government.

 

Vocabulary  notes:

 

      the executive power  [ ig  zekjutiv    pauo ] – виконавча влада

      the legislative power [  legid  islotiv   pauo] – законодавча влада

      at least                        [ li:st ]                         принаймні, щонайменше

      treaty                          [ tri:ti ]                        договір, угода

      approve                      [ o pruv ]                       схвалювати

      reject                          [  ri:d  ekt ]                  відхиляти, не приймати

      appointment              [ o pointmont ]            призначення

      suggest                       [ so d  est ]                   пропонувати

 

 

LEXICAL  EXERCISES:

 

 

I. Give extended (розширені) answers to the questions:

 

     1. What will you say if you were asked about the geographical position of the USA?

2. Will you say what oceans the USA is washed by?

3. Suppose you are asked about the areas the USA is divided into. What characteristics

    can you give to each of them?

4. What can you say about the five Great Lakes of the USA?

5. Suppose you are asked about the climate of the USA, what would you say?

6. What would you say if you were asked about Niagara Falls – the natural wonder

    of America?

 

 

     II. Ask your friend the questions, using the following word-combinations, and let him 

     answer them:

 

    a) the population of New York;  b) the capital of the USA;  c) the countries on which

    the USA borders;  d) the length of the Mississippi;  e) the number of states in the USA;

    f) the climate of the USA;  g) President of the USA.

 

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