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Виступ учня на засіданні шкільного наукового товариства "Form of Address"

Про матеріал

The subject of this research is “Form of Address”.

The main aim of this research is to investigate the use if the form of address in modern English.

The importance of this subject is connected with the reason of the use of different forms of address in everyday life communicative situations.

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Dear teachers and students!

The subject of this research is “Form of Address”.

The main aim of this research is to investigate the use if the form of address in modern English.

The importance of this subject is connected with the reason of the use of different forms of address in everydaylife communicative situations. The research was done on the basis of different authentic texts and tasks which were used at our English lessons and during preparation for afterclass activities, Olympiads and while doing hometasks.

How to address people correctly is something which is culturally determined. What is considered polite in one culture may be perceived as impolite in another. Therefore communicating effectively in an intercultural domain can sometimes prove difficult. How can you then insure that people are not offended by the way in which you address them in English? If you listen to my work attentively, you won’t have to worry about appearing impolite the next time you visit an English speaking country.

Many people feel uncomfortable asking someone “what should I call you”, because in doing so you are asking the person to provide their status in the world in relation to yours. This can cause some discomfort. There are some professions and people who require more formality than others. Addressing people in writing has different rules than speaking.

Any WORD, such as a NAME, title, or PRONOUN, that designates someone who is being addressed in speech or writing. Such forms of address may be built into the grammar of a language or may evolve as a range of titles, names, kinship terms, terms of endearment, and nicknames, all usually with an initial capital in English.

Different forms of address are used in English. The main of them are

  • Pronouns
  • Names and titles
  • Kinship usage
  • Titles with last names
  • Nicknames
  • Professional titles
  • Royalty and nobility

As to Pronouns, we can find examplesin Shakespeare works. In his “Tempest, Prospero addresses his daughter Miranda with the intimate th-forms (thou, thee, thy, thine) and she addresses him with the respectful y-forms (ye, you, your, yours).

Names and titles

With the loss of its th-forms as living pronouns (except in North of England and Northern Isles dialect) and the extension of the y-forms to all uses, English has come to rely primarily on forms of address to convey nuances of relationship. The broad rule for forms of address is that those who are intimates address each other with given names such as George and Sue (and are ‘on first-name terms’), whereas those who are acquaintances use a title and family name such as Mr Jones, Mrs/Ms/Miss Smith (and are ‘on last-name terms’). Strangers in more or less formal situations use titles only (Sir, Madam). This rule has, however, many refinements and exceptions. In Britain, in the public (that is, private) schools, socially prestigious clubs, the armed services, and other groups, it has been common for males to address each other by surname alone (Good to see you, Brown!, or, affectionately, Brown, my dear chap, it's good to see you!), but this practice appears to be on the wane. Use of someone's given name (such as Elizabeth) when the person is commonly addressed by a diminutive (Bess) often signals formality, and, especially with a child, the possibility of a scolding. In the American South, the title Miz is spoken with a woman's first name as a respectful, but semi-familiar, form of address. The mother of US President Jimmy Carter, a Georgian, was affectionately called Miz Lilian by many journalists.

Kinship usage

Within families, kinship terms are often used:

  • Formally: Father, Grandfather, Grandmother, Mother.
  • Very formally, especially in the British upper classes, especially in the XIX century, Mama, Papa (stress on second syllable).
  • Informally, with variations according to region and class, Da/Dad/Daddy, Ma/Mam/Mom/Momma/Mum/Mammy/Mommy/Mummy, Pa/Pop/Poppa. Father, mother, brother, sister have been extended beyond the family for religious purposes and to express fellowship. Within the family, especially in AmE, Sister has the short form Sis, Brother the occasional Bro.

People in English-speaking countries often use nicknames on an often close informal level. They may be neutral (Bill, Joanie), admiring (Refrigerator, for a heavily built American football player), or stigmatizing (Stinky), and show a more intimate or immediate and often emotive relationship between addresser and addressee than if the bearer's ordinary name is used.

Titles with last names

The traditional set of such titles includes Mr/Mr. for men, Mrs/Mrs. for married women, Miss for girls and unmarried women, and Master for boys. As an alternative, the form Ms has been adopted in recent years, first in the US, then elsewhere.

Professional titles

In Britain, the academic title Professor (abbreviation Prof.) is restricted to holders of a professorial chair, while in North America generally any holder of a professorial rank (assistant, associate, or full professor) can use it. In the military, titles for ranks are regularly used as forms of address: Captain Bligh, some of the men would like to see you. Similarly, titles for the clergy may be used in addressing them: Father Brown, here is a mystery for you; Sister Bernadette, have you seen anything interesting lately? In American law, judges are addressed as Judge Bean and lawyers as Counsellor, without surname (Excuse me, Counsellor, but …).

Royalty and nobility

In Britain, royal and noble titles have been in use since the Middle Ages. A monarch is referred to as, for example, King Edward or Queen Mary, but is directly, formally, and traditionally addressed as Your Majesty (formerly also Your Grace); other royals are traditionally addressed as Your Royal Highness. At the present time, Queen Elizabeth and other royal ladies are addressed as Ma'am, male members of the royal household as Sir, without name. Members of the royal family are referred to as His/Her Royal Highness.

Informally, especially among working-class (BrE), blue-collar (AmE) groups, casual forms of address are common: male, mate, pal,  female, hen,  honey.

Between strangers who are social equals, there are no polite forms of address in general use. Certain forms are used in limited circumstances, such as Ladies and gentlemen, the traditional opening of a formal speech, with less formal variants such as Dearly beloved (by clergymen), Friends, or such a formula as My fellow citizens. Sir and Madam (especially BrE) and Ma'am (especially AmE) are widely used as titles of respect.




3 березня 2018
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