ЗАНЯТТЯ № 16
Електроенергетика, електротехніка та електромеханіка.
to describe, to be familiar, to continue, to produce, to insert, to indicate, to carry, to loosen, to arrange, to rotate, to turn, to handle, to compute, to filter out, to rate, to reduce, to break (the circuit), to permit, to flow, to store, to manufacture, to weigh, to mark, to tune, to block, to filter, to attenuate, to give off, to follow through, to retain, to seal, to emit, to utilize, to cool, to repel, to attract, to surround, to overload, to bias, to make certain
basic principles, circuit elements, high current, dissipate power, wire-wound type, variable resistor, fixed resistor, handle the current, turns of wire, filter circuit, tuned circuits, rate in henrys, conductor plates, transient voltages, dry capacitor, resonant tank circuit, resonant circuit, low-pass filter, band-pass filter, movable core, high selectivity, reject frequencies, incandescent lamp, vacuum valve, metal enclosure, directly heated, indirectly heated, electron-emitting material, radio receiving circuit, carrier wave, triode tube, like charges, unlike charges, fine wire, n-type germanium, hole current, valence electrons, point-contact transistor, junction transistor, biased positive, rugged construction
1. What is the difference between a diode and a triode? 2. What are the elements of the electronic circuit, and what are their functions? 3. What do we mean by tuning an electronic circuit? 4. What is a hole current? 5. Define all types of transistors.
4. Перекладіть англійською наступні скорочення: г. f., a. f., emf, а. с., d. с.
5. Перекладіть текст користуючись словником
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONICS
It should be quite obvious to the student that the vast subject of electronics cannot be covered in one chapter or even in one textbook. However, this chapter will describe the basic principles of electronics and acquaint the student with the operation of simple electronic circuits. The information gained from this chapter will also enable him to continue on to more advanced studies.1 Further we shall discuss such circuit elements as inductors, capacitors, resistors, electron tubes, transistors, and other items used in the construction of electronic circuits. We shall describe the functions of these units and also the methods by which they are connected together to produce certain effects. We shall also show how the principles discussed in this chapter are used in radio receivers, radio transmitters, electronic control systems, radar and other electronic devices.
1 will also enable him to continue on to more advanced studies — позволит ему перейти к изучению более сложных вопросов
ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Resistors. A resistor is a circuit element designed to insert resistance in the circuit. A resistor may be of low value or of high value. Resistors in electronic circuits are made in a variety of sizes and shapes.1 They are generally classed as2 fixed, adjustable or variable, depending upon their construction and use. The resistance value of small fixed resistors is sometimes indicated by a code colour. Resistors required to carry a comparatively high current3 and dissipate high power4 are usually of the wire-wound ceramic type.
Adjustable and variable resistors. An adjustable resistor is usually of the wire-wound type with a metal collar which may be moved along the resistance wire to vary the value of the resistance placed in the circuit. In order to change the resistance, the contact band must be loosened and moved to the desired position and then tightened so that it will not slip. In this way the resistor becomes, for all practical purposes, a fixed resistor during operation.
A variable resistor is arranged so that it may be changed in value at any time by the operator of the electronic circuit. This change is usually accompanied by rotating a small adjustment knob or by turning a screw adjustment. Variable resistors are commonly known as rheostats or potentiometers. It must be pointed out that the use of a resistor of any type must be very carefully considered. The capacity of a fixed resistor, rheostat or potentiometer must be such that it can handle the current through the circuit without damage computing the current by means of Ohm's law.
Inductors. The purpose of an inductor, or inductance coil, is to insert inductance into a circuit. The effect of an inductance is to oppose any change6 in the existing current flow in a circuit. The opposition to current flow in an a. c. circuit by an inductor is called inductive reactance and is measured in ohms. Inductors are made in many shapes and designs. An inductor used in extremely high-frequency circuits may consist of only one turn or even less than one turn of wire. On the other hand, an inductor used as a choke coil in a low-frequency circuit or in a filter circuit may contain many turns of wire and also be wound on an iron core to increase the inductance. Inductors are often used in radio in connection with capacitors to provide tuned circuits. These tuned circuits are most valuable in radio and television for filtering out unwanted frequencies7 and passing the desired frequencies. Inductance coils are rated as to value in henrys. One henry is a comparatively large inductance. Therefore, many of the inductors used in electronic circuits are rated in millihenrys. One millihenry (mh) is one thousandth of a henry. One henry is the inductance of a coil which will produce a back voltage of 1 volt when the current change is at the rate of 1 amp per second.
Capacitors. A capacitor may be defined as a device consisting of two or more conductor plates separated from one another by a dielectric and used for receiving and storing an electric charge. The effect of a capacitor in an electric circuit is to oppose any change in the existing voltage.
Capacitors are commonly used in d. с. circuits to reduce the effects of transient voltages and currents. Electrical transients are high voltages developed from time to time when the circuit is broken or reconnected, as when a switch is turned on or off. These transient voltages are usually caused by the inductance of a circuit. In an a. c. circuit the capacitor is often used to block the direct current but permit the flow of the alternating current. In effect, the alternating current appears to flow through the capacitor but is actually being stored first on one plate of the capacitor and then on the other.
Like many other electronic units, capacitors are manufactured in a wide variety of sizes and styles. Some very low-capacity capacitors are merely tiny wafers of metal separated by an insulator; large capacitors may weigh several pounds. Fixed capacitors are of two general types. One is the dry capacitor which consists of metal plates separated by a dry dielectric such as mica or waxed paper, and the other is the electrolytic capacitor, whose dielectric is a chemical paste or one electrolyte. The electrolytic capacitor is effective in only one direction. This means that it must be connected in such a manner that the positive and negative polarities are correct. If it is connected in reverse, the current will flow through the capacitor and destroy it. Fixed capacitors of both the dry and electrolytic type are manufactured in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The electrolytic capacitors are marked to indicate the correct method of connection into a circuit.
The unit of capacitance is a farad. A capacitor which will store 1 coulomb of electricity under an e. m. f. of 1 volt has a capacitance of 1 farad. The farad is an extremely high value of capacitance; therefore capacitors used in standard electronic circuits are rated in microfarads (1 mf = one millionth of a farad) or micro microfarads (1 mf = one millionth of a microfarad).
1 in a variety of sizes and shapes —різноманітність розмерів й форм
2 are generally classed as —зазвичай поділяються на
3 to carry a comparatively high current — пропускають порівнянно великий струм
4 to dissipate high power — розсіювати велику потужність
5 to handle the current — пропускати струм
6 to oppose any change — протидіяти будь-яким змінам
7 to filter out unwanted frequencies —позбавлятися від небажаних частот
8 at the rate of — зі швидкістю
9 are rated in — нараховуються