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Презентація на тему: "Jack London"

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Презентація на урок по темі: "Джек Лондон" до курсу "English Literature" для шкіл з поглибленим вивченням англійської мови, яка складається з 56 слайдів.

Зміст слайдів
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Jack London

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I would rather be ashes than dust! Я бы был пеплом, а не пылью!

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I would rather that my spark should burn out in a brilliant blaze than it should be stifled by dry-rot. Я бы сгорел в ярком пламени, нежели задыхался в сухой гнили.

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I would rather be a superb meteor, every atom of me in magnificent glow, than a sleepy and permanent planet. Я бы желал быть метеоритом, нежели сонной и постоянной планетой.

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The function of man is to live, not to exist. Функция человека – жить, а не существовать.

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I shall not waste my days trying to prolong them. Я не буду впустую  тратить свои дни, пытаясь продлить их.

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I shall use my time. Я буду использовать свое время.

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It was a credo of a great American author

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Early life

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Jack London and his dog Rollo. Nine years old, 1885

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On January 12, 1876, Flora gave birth to a son; however, she was never sure that Chaney was the child's father. She named her son John, and she referred to him as her “badge of shame“.

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She sent him to a wet-nurse, an ex-slave named Virginia Prentiss John was called Jack to distinguish him from his step-father

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Londons moved to Oakland and at age five Jack settled into the hard work of farming He took a few swallows of ale while working, and became dreadfully ill. Two years later he was given wine at an Italian wedding, and he became delirious. His lifelong battle with alcohol had begun.

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At aged fourteen, Jack graduated from grammar school. Because his family could not afford to send him to high school, he went to work at a canning factory Already Jack had developed a love for books, encouraged by a local librarian. These books opened up a world beyond Oakland.

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He met men of the sea and took an opportunity to become an oyster-pirate, where he roamed the San Francisco Bay, stealing oysters from other people's farms. Having enjoyed himself immensely for three months, he returned to the San Francisco area when the job had ended, to work for the local fish patrol chasing poachers. When he got another chance to work on the open sea, London jumped at the opportunity.

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After many experiences as a hobo and a sailor, he returned to Oakland and attended Oakland High School . He contributed a number of articles to the high school's magazine, The Aegis. His first published work was "Typhoon off the Coast of Japan", an account of his sailing experiences.

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London desperately wanted to attend the University of California, Berkeley. In 1896 after a summer of intense cramming to pass certification exams, he was admitted. Financial circumstances forced him to leave in 1897 and he never graduated.

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On July 12, 1897, London (age 21) and his sister's husband Captain Shepard sailed to join the Klondike Gold Rush. This was the setting for some of his first successful stories. London's time in the Klondike, however, was detrimental to his health. Like so many other men who were malnourished in the goldfields, London developed scurvy.

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Miners and prospectors climb the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush.

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The image depicts the artists, poet and writers, George Sterling, Mary Austin, Jack London, and Jimmie Hooper on the beach at Carmel-by-the-Sea, California.

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Jack's private life

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First marriage (1900–1904) Elizabeth "Bessie" Maddern London, first wife of American author Jack London, with children Joan (b. 1901) and Bessie "Becky" (b. 1902) London

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Stasz says, "Both acknowledged publicly that they were not marrying out of love, but from friendship and a belief that they would produce sturdy children. " Kingman says, “They were comfortable together... Jack had made it clear to Bessie that he did not love her, but that he liked her enough to make a successful marriage."

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London's pet name for Bess was "Mother-Girl" and Bess's for London was "Daddy-Boy". Their first child, Joan, was born on January 15, 1901, and their second, Bessie (later called Becky), on October 20, 1902. Both children were born in Piedmont, California.

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On July 24, 1903, London told Bessie he was leaving and moved out. During 1904 London and Bess negotiated the terms of a divorce, and the decree was granted on November 11, 1904

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Second marriage Jack and Charmian London, ca. 1911, possibly at Beauty Ranch

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After divorcing Maddern, London married Charmian Kittredge in 1905. Russ Kingman called Charmian "Jack's soul-mate, always at his side, and a perfect match."

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In broad outline, London was restless in his marriage; sought extramarital sexual affairs; and found, in Charmian Kittredge, not only a sexually active and adventurous partner, but his future life-companion. They attempted to have children. One child died at birth, and another pregnancy ended in a miscarriage.

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Political views Jack London bust at Centenary College of Louisiana in Shreveport

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London joined the Socialist Labor Party in April 1896. In the same year, the San Francisco Chronicle published a story about the twenty-year-old London giving nightly speeches in Oakland's City Hall Park, an activity he was arrested for a year later. In 1901, he left the Socialist Labor Party and joined the new Socialist Party of America.

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Death Grave of Jack and Charmian London

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Many older sources describe London's death as a suicide, and some still do. This conjecture appears to be a rumor, or speculation based on incidents in his fiction writings. His death certificate gives the cause as uremia, following acute renal colic, a type of pain often described as "the worst pain ever experienced", commonly caused by kidney stones. Uremia is also known as uremic poisoning.

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London died November 22, 1916, in a sleeping porch in a cottage on his ranch. He was in extreme pain and taking morphine, and it is possible that a morphine overdose, accidental or deliberate, may have contributed to his death.

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London's ashes were buried, together with those of his second wife Charmian (who died in 1955), in Jack London State Historic Park, in Glen Ellen, California. The simple grave is marked only by a mossy boulder.

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Works

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Tales of the North Stories about Gold rush, beauty and harmony of nature, people life dramas etc. The heros are gold diggers, hunters, adventurers, native Indians and eskimos from Alyaska.

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White Fang (First edition cover) (Modern edition cover)

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An adventure novel. First serialized in Outing magazine, it was published in May, 1906, by the Macmillan Company. The story takes place in Yukon Territory, Canada, during the Klondike Gold Rush at the end of the 19th-century, and details of a wild wolfdog's journey to domestication.

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White Fang is a companion novel (and a thematic mirror) to London's best-known work, The Call of the Wild, which concerns a kidnapped, domesticated dog turning into a wild animal. Much of the novel is written from the view-point of his canine character, enabling London to explore how animals view their world and how they view humans. White Fang examines the violent world of wild animals and the equally violent world of humans. The book also explores complex themes including morality and redemption.

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Martin Eden (First edition cover) (Modern edition cover)

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Other works of Jack London

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NOVELS

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The Abysmal Brute (1911) A prize fighter faces the corruption of civilization and finds redemption in the wilds of California. Adventure (1911) Located in the Solomon Islands, this devastating portrayal of copra plantation slavery has scholars arguing whether London was criticizing the racism of the colonialists or approving of it. Before Adam (1907) The modern narrator's dreams transport him to a prehistoric community. Burning Daylight (1910) A tale of the Klondike Goldrush and the corrupting influence of high stakes capitalism. One of the "Sonoma County novels." The Call of the Wild (1903) The mythopoetic story of Buck, a sledge dog in the Klondike, and his journey of transformation. The Cruise of the Dazzler (1902) Escapades of the "Frisco Kid," a gritty and mischievous youth whose quick wit and courage see him through challenge and adventure. A Daughter of the Snows (1902) London's first novel introduces the typical strong, independent, well-educated heroine that would run through much of his fiction. The Game (1905) This prizefight story is alleged to have prompted heavyweight champion Gene Tunney to retire from boxing after reading it in the late 1920s. Hearts of Three (1918) Originally intended as a film scenario, this plot is an improbably adventure story that can't help but bring to mind the "Lost Ark" films of decades later!

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The Iron Heel (1908) A futuristic tale of facist tyranny and socialist revolution considered a classic work of American radical literature. Much admired by Eugene Debs, Leon Trotsky, and George Orwell. Jerry of the Islands (1917) Jerry is a dog whose experiences reflect the cruelty and racism of colonial Melanesia. The Kempton-Wace Letters (1903) A epistolary novel, the only one London wrote with another. Strunsky wrote the letters of Dane Kempton, who presents a romantic view of love, disputed by London in the form of Herbert Wace. The Little Lady of the Big House (1916) A triangle romance provides the basis for a questioning of the meaning of masculinity, as well as an examination of agribusiness in California.. Martin Eden (1913) Set in San Francisco, this is the story of Martin Eden, a seaman who pursues his dreams of education and literary fame. Michael, Brother of Jerry (1917) This story of brutality toward animals inspired a movement known as the Jack London Clubs, which were devoted to the cause of animal welfare and humane treatment. The Mutiny of the Elsinore (1914) Written during a time of tragedy, this novel of sea life fails in either its story or doctrinaire intentions.

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The Scarlet Plague (1912. This novella explores life following a devastating plague that wipes out most of humanity. The Sea-Wolf (1904) Chronicles the voyages of a ship run by the ruthless Wolf Larsen, among the greatest of London's characters, and spokesman for an extreme individualism London intended to critique. The Star Rover (1915) The great transmigration novel inspired by the experiences of an ex-prisoner's acount of coping with "the Jacket," a form of torture at San Quentin. London was a lifelong supporter of humane prison practices. The Valley of the Moon (1913) Serialized in Cosmopolitan, April-December, 1913 The first part of this novel exposes the struggles of the working-class of London's day, while the latter part is an exploration of the California landscape, with Sonoma Valley providing the "perfect spot" for the wandering lovers. White Fang (1906) An initiation story concerning the taming of a wild dog in the Klondike.

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SHORT STORY COLLECTIONS

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Children of the Frost (1902) Tales from the Klondike, including "The Law of Life" and "Nam-Bok, the Liar." Dutch Courage and Other Stories (1922) A collection of very early stories published posthumously, with a preface by his wife Charmian. The Faith of Men & Other Stories (1904) More stories from the north, including "The story of Jees Uck" and "The One Thousand Dozen." The God of His Fathers & Other Stories (1901) Northland tales, including "The Scorn of Women" and "A Daughter of the Aurora." The House of Pride & Other Tales of Hawaii (1912) South Sea tales including "Koloau the Leper" and "The Sheriff of Kona." Lost Face (1910) Includes "To Build a Fire." Love of Life & Other Stories (1907) Includes "Brown Wolf" and "The Story of Keesh." Moon-Face & Other Stories (1906) Includes "All Gold Canyon" and "Planchette." The Night Born (1913) A varied collection including "War," "The Mexican," and "To Kill a Man." On the Makaloa Mat (1919) The best Hawaii stories, and among London's best stories overall, including "Shin Bones" and "The Water Baby." The Red One (1918) Features the haunting title novella, well worth comparing to Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness."

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A Son of the Sun (1912) A number of lesser-known South Pacific tales. The Son of the Wolf (1900) The first Klondike tales, including "The White Silence." South Sea Tales (1911) Darker Pacific tales, including "Mauki" and "The Terrible Solomans." The Strength of the Strong (1914) Includes "The Dream of Debs," "South of the Slot," and "The Unparalleled Invasion." Tales of the Fish Patrol (1905) Stories set on the San Francisco Bay of London's youth, including "A Raid on the Oyster Pirates." The Turtles of Tasman (1916) A minor collection that includes the amazing "Told in the Drooling Ward." When God Laughs & Other Stories (1911) This outstanding collection includes "The Apostate," "Just Meat," "A Piece of Steak," and "Chinago." Uncollected Stories Stories never anthologized by London, including "A Thousand Deaths."

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STORIES & ESSAYS

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The Human Drift (1917) An eclectic mix of short stories like "Small-Boat Sailing" essays such as "The Human Drift", an introduction to Two Years Before the Mast, and a couple of dramatic sketches. One of London's most delightful humor pieces, "Navigating Four Horses Through the North Bay" is also included here. Revolution and Other Essays (1909) Stories and essays that highlight London's Socialist thought.

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PLAYS

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The Acorn-Planter: A California Forest Play (1916) Daughters of the Rich: A One-Act Play (1915) Gold (1972) Scorn of Women (1906)

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NONFICTION WORKS

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The Cruise of the Snark (1913) An autobiographical memoir of the 1907-09 voyage across the Pacific, with most emphasis upon Hawaii. John Barleycorn (1913) An autobiographical memoir that deals with the debilitating effects of alcohol. Though some scholars have viewed this book to be fiction, London himself claimed it was truthful. The People of the Abyss (1903) Based on London's observations of the slums of London and illustrated with photographs taken by himself and others. The Road (1907) Tales of London's days as a hobo. War of the Classes (1905) Mainly consisting of the texts of speeches London presented on behalf of socialism. Jack London's Journalism Non-fiction newspaper and magazine pieces.

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Man always gets less than he demands from life. Человек всегда получает меньше, чем он требует от жизни. Jack London

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