Against the backdrop of the Cold War conflict, a new kind of rivalry took shape in the early 1960s between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Russians appeared to be ahead in the so-called "race for space" as they followed their launching of the first satellite, Sputnik, in 1957 with the history-making flight of cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin in April 1961
Against the backdrop of the Cold War conflict, a new kind of rivalry took shape in the early 1960s between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Russians appeared to be ahead in the so-called "race for space" as they followed their launching of the first satellite, Sputnik, in 1957 with the history-making flight of cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin in April 1961.
4 Oct., 1957 launched the first satellite Sputnik-1. After a month in space was launched Sputnik-2 a"dog" Laika on board. " 12 Apr., 1961 in the space left for people. In 1969, the Americans flew to the moon. These achievements have meaning for humanity. Thanks to the work of thousands of scientists and astronauts fly in space no longer seem to be fiction
The following month, Alan Shepard became the first U.S. astronaut in space in a fifteen-minute sub-orbital flight. Three weeks later, President Kennedy called for the landing of an American on the moon by the end of the decade as he sought a major mobilization of the nation's resources to catch up with and surpass the U.S.S.R. in the space race. By February 20, 1962, when John Glenn returned safely after orbiting the earth three times aboard Friendship 7, the U.S. space program clearly had moved into high gear.
John H. Glenn, Jr., was born in Cambridge, Ohio, on July 18, 1921, the son of John Herschel and Clara Sproat Glenn. At age two, young John moved with his parents to New Concord, where his father opened a plumbing business. After relocating to New Concord, the Glenns built a home that doubled as a rooming house for students from nearby Muskingum College.
Glenn announced on February 20, 1997 that he would retire from the senate. A year later, NASA invited him to rejoin the space program he had helped to create as a member of the Space Shuttle Discovery Crew. Glenn accepted the invitation and on October 29, 1998, became the oldest human ever to venture into space.
Three US astronauts have returned safely to Earth after a record-breaking stay in space. The men - Dr Edward Gibson, Lieutenant Colonel Gerald Carr and Lieutenant Colonel William Pogue - proved mankind can live in space for prolonged periods. They spent 85 days in the American space station, Skylab, which orbits the Earth at a height of 270 miles. It was Nasa's last manned space flight for this decade and the third and final mission to Skylab. Skylab will now be abandoned as space junk and is expected to break up in the atmosphere in about 11 years. After a five hour journey through space the astronauts splashed down, as planned, in the Pacific Ocean in spite of a leak in one of the two jets on their landing craft. Dr Gibson emerged from the scorched Apollo capsule saying "I feel great". 1974: Americans end outer space marathon
Opening of the American scientists Albert Claude was born in Belgium in 1898. A cell biochemist he emigrated to the United States where he worked for the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1929-49). In 1974 Claude won the Nobel Prize for his research on cell structure and function. Claude was the first to isolate a cancer virus by biochemical technique, and he discovered that RNA, a nucleic acid, was the major component. Albert Claude died in 1983.
Renato Dulbecco He was born in Catanzaro, Italy, in 1914. He studied medicine in Turin before joining the Italian Resistance movement against Benito Mussolini during the Second World War. After the war Dulbecco emigrated to the United States and worked with Salvador Luria at the University of Indiana before moving on to the University of California. Dulbecco discovered the molecular basis of the cancer-causing properties of a group of viruses. In 1975 he won the Nobel Prize for Medicine with David Baltimore and Howard Temin for their work on the cancer-causing properties of the genes of papovaviruses.
Ivar Giaever Ivar Giaever was born in Bergen, Norway, on 5th April, 1929. He studied electrical engineering at the Norwegian Institute of Technology before moving to Canada where he worked as a mechanical engineer with the General Electric Company.Giaever emigrated to the United States in 1956 where he did graduate work at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1964. Giaever's work on tunnelling and superconductivity won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973.
When the German Army invaded France in 1940 Luria emigrated to the United States. He worked as a research assistant in Surgical Bacteriology at Columbia University before becoming assistant professor of microbiology at Indiana University In 1959 he became a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and in 1969 won the Nobel Prize for Medicine. In 1972 he founded the MIT Center for Cancer Research and was its director for the next thirteen years. Salvador Luria died in Lexington, Massachusetts, on 6th February, 1991. Salvador Luria Salvador Luria was born in Torino, Italy, on 13th August, 1912. He studied medicine at the University of Torino where he became a specialist in radiology.
Lars Onsager Lars Onsager, the son of a barrister, was born in Oslo, Norway, on 27th November, 1903. He graduated from Norwegian Institute of Technology (1926-28) before studying with Peter Debye at Zurich University. Over the next few years Onsager developed his theory of electrolytes. In 1928 Onsager moved to the United States where he studied at John Hopkins University and Brown University. His thesis on reversible processes was considered incomprehensible by the chemistry, physics and mathematics departments at Brown University before Onsager finally got his PhD. In 1933 Onsager moved to Harvard University but his lectures were unpopular with students who named his courses as "Stadistical Mechanics" and "Advanced Norwegian". His research was much more successful and he eventually found a firm statistical basis for the theory of liquid crystals. Onsager, who became a naturalized American citizen in 1945, won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1968. Lars Onsager died in 1976.
Igo Ivan Sikorsky Igo Ivan Sikorsky was born in Kiev, in 1889. He began experimenting with building helicopters in 1909, but turned to fixed-wing aeroplanes. In 1911 he flew his S-5 aeroplane for more than an hour and achieved altitudes of 450 m/1,480 ft. He followed this by building the four-engined Le Grand and Ilia Mourometz. These were used as bombers by the Russian Army Air Service during the First World War.After the Russian Revolution he emigrated to the United States. Sikorsky founded the Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation in 1923 (later merged to form the United Aircraft Corporation). He built several flying boats, including the S-40 American Clipper. In 1939 he built the successful helicopter, the VS-300. Igo Ivan Sikorsky died in 1972.
In 1953 Teller was appointed as professor at the University of California. The following year Teller was a key witness against his colleague, Robert Oppenheimer, who was considered a security risk because he objected to the development of the hydrogen bomb. Unlike Oppenheimer, Teller disagreed with the idea that a scientist should consider the moral implications of research. The author of Our Nuclear Future (1958), Teller opposed the 1963 test-ban treaty. It was Teller who convinced President Ronald Reagan of the feasibility of the Star Wars Project for militarizing space with fission-bomb-powered X-ray lasers. Edward Teller Edward Teller was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary, in 1908. He graduated in chemical engineering at Karlsruhe, before studying theoretical physics at Munich and Copenhagen under Nils Bohr. Teller continued his research in Germany but when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 he decided to move to England. Two years later he emigrated to America and taught at George Washington University before moving to the University of Chicago.