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Урок «Даніель Дефо. Робінзон Крузо. Проблематика»

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Розробка уроку з предмету Англійська література (варіативна складова) за темою «Даніель Дефо. Робінзон Крузо. Проблематика» містять теоретичний та практичний матеріал необхідний до уроку. У розробці надано повний обсяг матеріалу для читання (включаючи уривок твору), вправи на опрацювання теоретичного матеріалу, а також практичні завдання до автентичного матеріалу (уривок твору). Розробка містить ключі до завдань та коментар для вчителя.

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1

 

The Enlightenment.

The Title of the Lesson: The Enlightenment. Daniel Defoe. “Robinson Crusoe”.

Objectives: to have students get the idea about the English literature of the Enlightenment  period, to introduce them to life and work of Daniel Defoe, to comprehend reading material; to recollect the material of the previous lesson, to work on the vocabulary, to analyze Defoe’s characterization of morality and social values in society of his time, to define and articulate the themes in the novel, to compose an essay expounding upon themes and lessons of the novel in connection with nowadays time.

 Skills: public speaking and verbal communication skills; critical reading and reading for information skills;

The Procedure of the Lesson.

  1. Lead-in.
  1.  Reviewing the material of the previous lesson.

Remember the facts about Shakespeare’s life, times and work. Say:

  1. the year Shakespeare was born;
  2. how many children were born to him;
  3. the name of a famous theatre in London Shakespeare worked in;
  4. the name of his first well-known play;
  5. the number of periods in his literary work;
  6. the period his most brilliant tragedies were written in;

G)  the year or period Romeo and Juliet was written;

H)  the number of sonnets written by Shakespeare;

I)   the heroes of the sonnets;

J)  the year Shakespeare retired and stopped writing;

K)  who collected and published Shakespeare’s plays for the first time;

       2.   Discuss in pairs and say:

What period in English literature follows after Renaissance? What centuries does it cover? What do you remember about it? Have you ever heard about the writers of the period among those listed on the board:

Joseph Addison, Daniel Defoe, Alexander Pope, Samuel Richardson, Jonathan Swift, Henry Fielding, Robert Burns, Richard Sheridan, Oliver Goldsmith.

  1. Instructional Procedures and Activities.
  1. Introducing the vocabulary.

You are going to read some information about the literature during the  Enlightenment period, Daniel Defoe’s life and his novel Robinson Crusoe. Discuss in pairs and find the words in the text that mean:

  1. to get something that you want through your effort, skill or work (line 7);
  2. a belief that some objects or actions are lucky or unlucky, or that they cause events to happen (line 8);
  3. boring or ordinary (line 12);
  4. a short piece of writing expressing someone’s political opinion (line 14);
  5. a piece of writing about a particular subject in a newspaper or a magazine (line 23);
  6. a person who sales tights, socks, stockings (line 29);
  7. to expect that something will happen and be ready for it (line 31);
  8. an occasion when you meet someone, or do something with someone you don’t know (line 39);
  9. angry and deliberately unfriendly towards someone (line 46);
  10. a person unable to move from the place where he is (line 47);
  1. For questions 1-8 choose from the paragraphs A-D. The paragraphs may be chosen more than once.

Which paragraph:

  1. tells about the two groups of writers during the Enlightenment;               _____
  2. states that Defoe wrote novels in the latest period of his life;                   _____
  3. enumerate Defoe’s jobs and occupations during his lifetime;                   _____
  4. states that there appeared a new outlook in society in Europe at the beginning of  the 18th century;                                                                                                _____
  5. tells about the travel novels Defoe wrote;                                                   _____
  6. tells about popular literary genres of that epoch;                                        _____
  7. gives proofs that Defoe was a true enlightener of his time;                        _____
  8. states that enlighteners believed in the power of knowledge and reason;   _____

  1. The Age of Enlightenment, sometimes called the Age of Reason, refers to the time of the guiding intellectual movement, called The Enlightenment. It covers about a century and a half in Europe.  From the perspective of socio-political phenomena, the period is considered to have begun with the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648) and ended with the French Revolution (1789). The Enlightenment advocated reason as a means to establishing an authoritative system of aesthetics, ethics, government, and even religion, which would allow human beings to obtain objective truth about the whole of reality. Enlightenment thinkers argued that reason could free humankind from superstition and religious authoritarianism that had brought suffering and death to millions in religious wars. Also, the wide availability of knowledge was made possible through the production of encyclopedias, serving the Enlightenment cause of educating the human race.
  2. The period saw the transition from poetry and the heroic age of Shakespeare to the prosaic age of the essayists. The style of prose became clear, graceful and polished. Satire became popular. There was the rise of the pamphlet, which flourished in newspapers. Much of the drama was now written in prose and the leading form of literature became the novel. The hero of the novel was no longer a prince but a representative of the middle class. The English writers of the time formed two groups. Those who hoped to better the world simply by teaching belonged to the one group, though their works differed greatly. These were: Joseph Addison, Daniel Defoe, Alexander Pope, Samuel Richardson. The other group included the writers who openly protested against the vicious social order. They were: Jonathan Swift, Henry Fielding, Robert Burns, Richard Sheridan, Oliver Goldsmith.
  3. The English novelist, journalist, poet, and government agent Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) wrote more than 500 books, pamphlets, articles, and poems. Among the most productive authors of the Augustan Age, he was the first of the great 18th-century English novelists. Daniel Defoe was the son of a dissenting London tallow chandler or butcher. He early thought of becoming a Presbyterian minister, and in the 1670s he attended the Reverend Charles Morton's famous academy near London. In 1684 he married Mary Tuffley. They had seven children. From 1685 through 1692 he engaged in trade in London as a wholesale hosier, importer of wine and tobacco, and part owner and insurer of ships. In later life he also dealt in real estate and manufactured bricks. Defoe published hundreds of political and social tracts between 1704 and 1719. In his Essay on Projects Defoe anticipated the greatest public improvements of modern times: higher education for women, the protection of seamen, the construction of highways and the opening of savings banks. He urged the establishment of a special academy to study literature and arts. During the 1720s he contributed to such weekly journals as Mist's and Applebee's, wrote criminal biographies, and studied economics and geography as well as producing his major works of fiction such as Robinson Crusoe.
  4. In April 1719 Defoe published his most enduring work, The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. The immediate success of the story of the shipwrecked Crusoe's solitary existence on a desert island for more than 20 years, of his encounter with the native Friday, and of his eventual rescue inspired Defoe to write The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe later in 1719 and Serious Reflections during the Life and Surprizing Adventures in 1720. That year he published another travel novel, The Life, Adventures, and Pyracies of the Famous Captain Singleton. The greatness of Robinson Crusoe lies not only in Defoe's marvelously realistic descriptive passages but in the fact that the novel recounts one of the great myths of Western civilization--man's ability to endure, survive, and conquer a hostile environment. As a fictional adaptation of the story of Alexander Selkirk, who had been stranded on an island near Chile early in the century, the novel shows Augustan England's interest in travel literature, religious allegory, and mercantilist economics.
  1. Group Work. Interactive Assignment.

Divide into 4 groups according to the paragraphs in the text. Each group is to work out at least 3 special questions to the contents of their part and ask the class to answer them. The pupils exchange the questions to reproduce as much as they can from the lecture. The teacher may put it as the score game – the groups get a score for each correct answer. The pupils put down all the questions they ask each other into their notebooks.

4.  Introducing the pupils to the novel Robinson Crusoe.

Listen to the background information about the origin and the story line of the novel and answer the questions then:

  1. What inspired Daniel Defoe to create Robinson Crusoe?
  2. What do you think is the genre of the novel?

Background Information for Teachers:

Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe was inspired by the story of Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish sailor who went to sea in 1704.

Selkirk requested that his shipmates put him ashore on Juan Fernandez, where he remained until he was rescued by Woodes Rogers in 1709. Defoe may have interviewed Selkirk. Also, several version of Selkirk's tale were available to him. He then built on the story, adding his imagination, his experiences, and a whole history of other stories to create the novel for which he has become so well-known.
It's no wonder the story was such a success... The story is about a man who is stranded on a desert island for 28 years. With the supplies he's able to salvage from the wrecked ship, Robinson Crusoe eventually builds a fort and then creates for himself a kingdom by taming animals, gathering fruit, growing crops, and hunting.
The book contains adventure of all sorts: pirates, shipwrecks, cannibals, mutiny, and so much more... Robinson Crusoe's story is also Biblical in many of its themes and discussions. It's the story of the prodigal son, who runs away from home only to find calamity.

After more than 20 years on the island, Robinson encounters cannibals, which represent the first human contact he's had since being stranded: "One day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, which was very plain to be seen on the sand." Then, he's alone--with only the brief far-off view of a shipwreck-- until he rescues Friday from the cannibals.
Robinson finally makes his escape when a ship of mutineers sail to the island. He and his companions help the British captain to take back control of  the ship. He sets sail for England on December 19, 1686--after spending 28 years, 2 months, and 19 days on the island. He arrives back in England, after being gone for 35 years, and finds that he is a wealthy man.

5.  Reading the excerpt from Robinson Crusoe.

  1. Brainstorming pupils’ ideas:

Have you ever wondered what you would do if you washed up on a deserted island? What would you feel?

  1. Make predictions about Crusoe’s first actions after he got ashore. Write at least 5 ideas about what you think he would do at once.

(Volunteers read aloud their predictions to the class)

  1. Read the story and see if your predictions were right. Mark your ideas with the words True/False.

Now as the waves were not so high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took I got to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God that my life was saved in a case wherein there was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. 

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and troth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore!

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that in a word I had a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any thing either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me, was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs; in a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and a little tobacco in a box; this was all my provision, and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman.  Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life.  I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so, as that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I awaked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me against it; this being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that, at least, I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand.  I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief:  for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was.  This forced tears from my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of.  I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship.  Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, and her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water:  by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what was free; and first I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and untouched by the water; and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with bisket, and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.  I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large drain, and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit me for what was before me.  Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me. My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight; my next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this:  I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft.  I took some bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little remainder of European corn which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. I rummaged  for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-loading of gold would have been at that time:  I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

Glossary:

To abate – to become less strong or decrease;

To clamber – to move slowly somewhere using your feet or arms;

Contemplation – quiet, serious thinking about something;

Deliverance – the state of being saved from harm or danger;

To perish – to die in a sudden way;

Sustenance – food that people or animals need to live;

Ravenous – very hungry;

To endeavour – to try very hard;

A lodging – a place to stay;

To toss – to throw something light with a quick movement of your hand;

Intent – to be determined to do something;

Destitute – having no money, no home, no food;

To spy – to suddenly see something, especially after searching for them;

 Bulged – sticked in a rounded shape because it is full or too tight;

  1. The pupils articulate how many predictions out of those they wrote before reading were right. What actions don’t coincide with those described in the story?

6.  Reading Comprehension.

Order the events below:

  1.  Crusoe finds some fresh water to drink;
  2. Crusoe takes some food and some necessary things from the ship;
  3. He finds a boat to get to the wrecked ship;
  4.   He makes a kind of a lodging to sleep in;
  5.  He manages to clutch a cliff and get out of the water;
  6.  He realizes that he is the only survivor;
  7.  He manages to get on board a ship;
  8. He looks around and walks along the shore;

7.  Analysis of the excerpt.

1) What details in the text show that:

  1.  Robinson Crusoe was in despair and got frustrated for some time;
  2.  Crusoe has strong character;

In pairs discuss your answers and find the lines to prove them. Read the lines aloud to the class.

2) Read the statements about Crusoe’s behavior on the island and agree or disagree             with them. Divide into groups of 5-6 and discuss your answers. Prove your thoughts with the lines from the text.

  1. When Robinson Crusoe realized he was alone on a deserted island he wasn’t overwhelmed by fear.
  2. He wasn’t scared to fall asleep at his first night on the island.
  3. He began his struggle with nature from the very moment he regained consciousness and found himself in the sea not far from shore.
  4. Crusoe was upset that he didn’t find any money to take with him.
  5. He took all the necessary things to survive thinking of prospect to spend a long time on the island.

3)  Answer the questions:

What was Crusoe afraid of? What kind of fear did he master during all years he spent on the island?

Did Crusoe subdue nature? What idea does Defoe imply in Crusoe’s struggle with nature?

Crusoe comes from rich family. At the beginning of the novel he details how much money he has, what he does with it, and what he gains by his actions. What is the role of money on the islands? How does Crusoe measure his worth being isolated from civilization?

  1.  Follow-up.

      Group Work. Identifying and articulating the themes in the novel.

  1. The pupils are to discuss in groups and identify the themes using the answers they gave to the questions in the previous task. The teacher writes on the board all themes the groups identified.
  2. The teacher puts down his list of themes on the board. Then, the pupils compare the two lists and see if they coincide.
  3. The pupils are to read and articulate the events or actions of the main hero that confirm their ideas about the themes covered.

Background information for teachers:

Themes

Fear

Robinson Crusoe must overcome his fear in order to survive his long ordeal on the deserted island. The trial by fear begins when he runs about like a madman, scared of every shadow, and sleeps in a tree with a weapon: "fear banished all my religious hope, all that former confidence in God." He quickly realizes that he must recover his wits and reason if he is to survive. At several points in the narrative, Crusoe is almost overwhelmed by his fear of the unknown. It propels him to colonize the island, securing his shelter and becoming self-sufficient. His ability to funnel his fear into productivity and creativity allows him to survive under extreme conditions. Crusoe masters his fear when he faces the ultimate challenge — the devil. Investigating a cave, he is met by a pair of eyes. At first scared, he realizes that he can confront this enemy just like he has met every other challenge on the island. With that, he rushes in to confront the devil and discovers a dying goat. He has passed his trial. Had he not faced his fears, he would have run away in full belief that the devil lived in that cave. Instead, he investigates and confronts his fear.

 

 

 

Human Condition

Robinson Crusoe is a meditation on the human condition, and an argument for challenging traditional notions about that condition. Finding himself alone in a deserted island, Crusoe struggles to maintain reason, order, and civilization. His "original sin" is his rejection of a conventional life. When he leaves England for a life on the high seas, he refuses to be "satisfied with the station wherein God and Nature hath placed" him. Crusoe struggles with — and eventually triumphs over — nature. The book suggests that this struggle is at the heart of human nature: man is on earth to triumph and gain profit from nature. Any profit makes sense in this view of the world, whether that means getting just one plank out of a huge tree or building a boat too heavy to bring to the water. Once Crusoe is able to overcome his fear and subdue nature is rewarded handsomely.

Money

Consistent with Defoe's writings on economics, money is an important theme in Robinson Crusoe. At the beginning of the narrative, Crusoe details how much money he has, what he does with it, and what he gains by his actions.

On the island, money loses all value. Crusoe has to find another way to measure his worth. While rummaging through a ship for salvage he laments aloud at the sight of some money, "O Drug! what are thou good for." At that point he realizes that just one knife is worth more than money. Usefulness is the key to evaluation of worth.

Homework. 1. Robinson Crusoe was very popular as a children's book. What do you think children were supposed to learn from Crusoe? What moral lessons, if any, can be drawn from his story? Answer the question. List the supposed lessons and write a brief comment on each item in your list. 2. Make 5 to 7 special questions about the period of Enlightenment in English literature using the information in the lecture and be ready to ask and answer them in class. Write each question on a separate slip of paper and bring your slips in class.

 

The keys: 

Activity II.1. a) to obtain  b) superstition  c) prosaic  d) pamphlet  e) article  f) hosier  g) anticipate  h) encounter  i) hostile  j) stranded

Activity II.6. 1. e)  2. h)  3. f)  4. a)  5. d)  6. c)  7. g)  8. b)

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До підручника
Англійська мова (9-й рік навчання, профільний рівень) 10 клас (Несвіт А.М.)
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30 червня 2018
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