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Listening Comprehension 10th form
John Muir commented that every time he saw a grizzly bear the wilderness got bigger. Others faced with such an encounter might readily agree with the Scottish-born American naturalist who explored large parts of the western United States. Yet today's predators are smaller than those of the past, and the reason seems to have something to do with the speed of their prey.
Large predators gain tremendous benefits from being big. Killing other animals and protecting or stealing a carcass from others tends to be easier since their teeth and claws are larger. Handling struggling prey is safer as the larger predator has less trouble holding the prey firmly and preventing it from striking out at the hunter's vital organs. These attributes were even more important in the past since life was tougher for predators then.
A new study, however, reveals that excessive size can interfere with predators' hunting. Daniel MacNulty of the University of Minnesota and his colleagues have found that for predators which need to run after their prey, being big can be more of a hindrance than a help. Using a combination of radio-tags and direct observations, the researchers analyzed ninety-four wolves as they hunted elk in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. They made a detailed record of their hunting and kills between 1995 and 2003. The researchers reported in the Journal of Animal Ecology that although on the whole big animals are indeed better at handling and killing prey, the largest wolves struggled in the chase.
1. It is easier for big animals to steal a carcass from others since their teeth and claws are larger.
2. Daniel MacNulty has determined that big predators that chase prey are at a disadvantage.
3. Researchers examined the hunting patterns of wolves in Minnesota.
4. The researchers analyzed ninety-four wolves using only radio-tags.
5. To fulfill the research the scientists made a detailed record of wolves hunting and kills between 1995 and 2000.
6. In the past predators had a more difficult time.
1. John Muir, the American naturalist, was born in … .
A The USA;
2. Animals that kill and eat other animals are called …
A wild animals;
C dangerous animals;
3. Large predators gain tremendous … from being big.
4. Handling struggling prey is safer as the larger predator has less trouble holding the prey firmly and preventing it from …
A striking out at the hunter’s vital organs;
B running away easily;
C killing the “enemy”;
D being violently attacked;
5. Killing animals, protecting and stealing a carcass from others is easier because of …
A the big teeth and claws;
B the ability to run fast;
C the speed of a victim;
D the large size;
6. A new study reveals that excessive size can
A help in hunting;
B be very useless while being hunted;
C spoil hunting
D improve hunting;