Фуллерен - це будь-яка молекула, складена цілком з вуглецю, у вигляді порожнистої сфери, еліпсоїда або трубки. Сферичні фуллерени також називають букіболями, а циліндричні називають вуглецевими нанотрубками або батикубами.
Завдяки своїм унікальним властивостям, нанотрубки та бакиболи відкривають шлях до багатьох футуристичних додатків. Через їх розмір вони становлять ризик для здоров'я людей. Як нанотехнології сьогодні використовуються?
Нанотехнології використовуються для поверхневого самоочищення і тривалого зберігання. Нанотехнології можна знайти в косметиці, сонцезахисних засобах, одязі та багатьох інших споживчих продуктах сьогодні. Готовий чи ні, ось він приходить. У найближчі 20 років нанотехнології торкнуться життя майже кожної людини на планеті. Потенційними перевагами є невтішні роздуми та посилення мозку. Але, як і багато великих досягнень в історії Землі, це не без ризику. Ось деякі з ризиків, що наносяться суспільству нанотехнологіями.
Nanobots ще не існують, але коли вони роблять, футуристи прогнозують можливі способи використання нанороботів - це молекулярне виробництво (нанофабрики) та медичні наноботи, які керують автономно через ваш потік крові, роблячи ремонт та охороняючи від зараження.
The Future of Transportation Future Cars Fuel efficient, zero emission vehicles will use high tech electronics to assist drivers in a wide variety of ways. Vehicles will communicate with each other, with the road and with traffic signals. Autos and trucks of the future will use vision enhancement devices to help you navigate through bad weather and warn you of a possible collision with a pedestrian or animal. They will also let you know if you are getting drowsy or straying from your lane. Cars of the future will be radically different than the automobiles of today, and so will the driving experience.
Revolutionary Launcher As NASA studies possibilities for the next launcher to the stars, a team of engineers from Kennedy Space Center and several other field centers are looking for a system that turns a host of existing cutting-edge technologies into the next giant leap spaceward. image: Magnetic levitation (MagLev) system evaluated at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA) An early proposal has emerged that calls for a wedge-shaped aircraft with scramjets to be launched horizontally on an electrified track or gas-powered sled. The aircraft would fly up to Mach 10, using the scramjets and wings to lift it to the upper reaches of the atmosphere where a small payload canister or capsule similar to a rocket's second stage would fire off the back of the aircraft and into orbit. The aircraft would come back and land on a runway by the launch site.
The Future of Space Have you ever dreamed of going to space? In the past, if you wanted to leave this planet you had to dedicate your life to becoming an astronaut. Even then, there is only a select few that ever get to see Earth in the rear view mirror. What are the chances that a large asteroid will strike the Earth in the next 20 years? Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets and asteroids that have been nudged into orbits that allow them to enter the Earth's neighborhood. Efforts are being mounted to discover and study these objects and to keep an eye upon their future trajectories. . Near Earth Objects Space Tourism
British engineers are planning to put a mobile phone in space The team at Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) in Guildford want to see if the sophisticated capabilities in today's phones will function in the most challenging environment known. The phone will run on Google's Android operating system but the exact model has not yet been disclosed. It will be used to control a 30cm-long satellite and take pictures of the Earth in the mission later this year. Although mobile phones have been flown on high altitude balloons before, this would likely be the first time such a device has gone into orbit several hundred kilometres above the planet. The scientists want to see if the phone works up there, and if it does, we want to see if the phone can control a satellite.
Future Phones Future phones will be more than just phones, they will be all of your mobile devices combined into one. They may be transparent, flexible, self-cleaning, and shape-shifting, but one thing is for sure, they will be cool. The Nokia Eco Sensorconcept consists a wearable sensor unit which can sense and analyze your environment, health, and local weather conditions, and a dedicated mobile phone.
Future Medical Technology Smart Pills The SmartPill is an ingestible capsule that measures pressure, pH and temperature from within the entire GI tract and wirelessly transmits that information to a data receiver worn by the patient. Nanotechnology is a broad term that covers many areas of science, research and technology. In its most basic form, it can be described as working with things that are small. Things so tiny that they can't be seen with standard microscopes. The same stuff that has always been there, but we just couldn't see it. The building blocks of nature, atoms and molecules. Nano-technology involves understanding matter at the "nano" scale. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. In comparison, a human hair is about 100,000 nanometers in diameter.
A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs, and cylindrical ones are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. Because of their unique properties, nanotubes and buckyballs open a path to many futuristic applications. Because of their size, they pose a risk to human health. How is nanotechnology being used today? Nanotechnology is being used to make surfaces self-cleaning and stay clean for a long time. Nanotech can be found in cosmetics, sunscreens, clothing and many other consumer products today. Ready or not, here it comes. In the next 20 years, nano-technology will touch the life of nearly every person on the planet. The potential benefits are mind boggling and brain enhancing. But like many of the great advancements in earth's history, it is not without risk. Here are some of the risks posed to society by nanotechnology. Nanobots Nanobots do not exist yet, but when they do, futurists predict possible uses for nanorobots will include molecular manufacturing (nanofactories) and medical nanobots that steer autonomously through your blood stream making repairs and guarding against infection. Buckyballs and Nanotubes
Chemistry for the Future As chemists, biologists, physicists, and other scientists continue to unveil nature's secrets, a flood of facts accumulates with stunning momentum. Each answer is a new beginning— material for new experiments. Many researchers assert that there's never been a more exciting time to be a scientist. After much effort was spent in the last century finding individual puzzle pieces, scientists can now revel in the process of fitting the pieces together. Not that everything's been figured out— not by a long shot. The science of today beckons researchers to think big—to integrate singular items, and even single pathways—into the grander scheme of what it is that makes entire organisms tick with such precision. Unraveling—and making sense of—the genetic instructions that spell life for organisms as diverse as flies, plants, worms, and people has sparked a most exciting revolution. Every minute of every day, scientists all over the world work feverishly, weaving a compelling tale of the chemistry that underlies our health. It's all very exciting, but the progress mandates still more work. Much more work! Among the questions still awaiting answers are these: How do the 6-foot long stretches of DNA in every cell in our bodies know how to keep our biochemical factories running smoothly? Who will find a way to outwit resistant bacteria? When will someone figure out how to fight disease by manipulating the intricate sugar coatings on our cells?
Biomimetics Biomimetics is design inspired by nature. Billions of years of natural R&D” have resulted in effective, optimized biological solutions that really work. By studying and mimicking nature’s processes and structures, scientists and engineers can develop nature inspired solutions that are far more effective than solutions conceived and developed exclusively by man. This field of study is called biomimetics, which falls into two distinct areas: 1) mimicking of natural creation of chemical compounds 2) imitating mechanisms found in nature.
Small Thinking A micrograph is a highly magnified image taken through a microscope or similar device. When I searched the internet for high quality micrographs, I found very few in the public domain. Some of the most spectacular images can be licensed, but there is a hefty fee. A decision had to be made by the owner of this site (me), do I show a really cool scanning electron micrograph with this article or buy a big screen TV?
The Brain Future breakthroughs in neuroscience could have a great effect on society. What will the world be like when technology can tell us without a doubt that the accused is guilty of a crime, a spouse has cheated, or an employee would likely steal? How about uploading your memories for posterity or downloading the skills you need for that new job? Record your dreams for later viewing or control your computer (or any device), just by thinking about it. Many of these futuristic technologies are already in development. Some of the most controversial issues to face society in the future will come from cognitive breakthroughs. In my mind it comes down to this, the more we understand about the human brain, the more we know about ourselves, and that can be a bit unnerving. Brain Backup Some experts predict that by the year 2050, computers will have the capacity to store all of the information contained in the human brain. For those that can afford immortality, their brains could be scanned and downloaded to machines, perhaps to be uploaded to a new brain. Brain-Machine Interface Brain machine interfaces (BMIs), allow for activity in the brain to be sent to, or received from, a computer. Some BMIs use sensors mounted in a removable cap or MRI technology to read signals from the brain. Others connect directly to the surface of the brain, through tiny wires and an array of micro-electrodes. BMIs can also be entirely implanted in the brain. Detection Lie
Internet Resources http:// www.bbc.co.uk / worldservice http://www.cbtplanet.com/the future-of-computers.htm.; “The Future of Computers”, http://www.future-forall.org/computers.htm-; “ The Future of Computers” Past, Present and Future of Computer Computers of the Future Hologram - The Computer of the Future