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Виконання творчої частини з англійської мови для підготвки до ЗНО.

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Матеріали забезпечують підготовку випускників шкіл до іспиту з англійської мови і виконання творчої частини. В брошурі йдеться про написання формальних і неформальних листів.
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СЕЛИДІВСЬКА ЗАГАЛЬНООСВІТНЯ ГІМНАЗІЯ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ВИКОНАННЯ ТВОРЧОЇ ЧАСТИНИ З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ

ДЛЯ ПІДГОТОВКИ ДО ЗНО

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Упорядники: Чернова С.Є., вчитель англійської мови Селидівської загальноосвітньої гімназії

 

 

 

 

Посібник рекомендовано для викладачів англійської мови та учнів загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів до підготовки до ЗНО: порядок і форми виконання письмової частини.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guidelines for Writing

Types of Compositions

When you write compositions you need to understand the type of writing required. Your piece of writing can be in the form of formal letter, a report or an article for a teenage magazine. 

LETTERS are written to a person or a group of people for specific reason. Letters include:

  •     Informal letters to people you know well, written in a personal chatty style.
  •     Formal letters to managers, officials, etc, written in polite formal style.
  •     Semi-formal letters to people you do not know well or people you know but you want to sound polite and respectful, your teacher, your pen friend, written in polite and respectful style.
  •     Letters to the Editor, which present the writer’s personal opinion on a specific problem  or writer’s suggestions on a specific problem.

ARTICLES are found in magazines and newspapers. They include descriptions of people, places, buildings, festivals, ceremonies.

NARRATIVES (STORIES) are about real or imaginary events, which happened in the past. They can be written in the first person when writer is the main character of the story or in the third person when the writer is describing events which happened to another person or group of people.

REPORTS are formal pieces of writing and have a specific format and features.

They include:

  •     New reports about current events written in impersional style. New reports present facts objectively and unemoutinally.
  •     Assessment reports discussing suitability of person, place, plan, ect. For a particular purpose, job, etc.
  •     Proposal reports discussing suggestions or decisions about future actions.
  • Survey reports, which are based on research.

REVIEWS are formal pieces of discussing a film, play, TV program, book, restaurant, café, etc. and recommending   it or not to the reader.

ESSAYS are a group of compositions describing various opinions, concerning specific topics, discussing different problems and their causes. They include:

  •     Discursive  Essays about arguments concerning particular subjects.
  •     “For and Against” Essays, which present the pros and cons on a specifics topics.
  •     Opinion Essays, which writer present the writer’s personal opinion on a specific topic
  •     Providing solutions to Problems Essays, which discuss a problem and its causes, making suggestions and mentioning expected results and consequences.  

Besides, there are some other kinds of essays, which include such titles as, cause/effects essays, discursive essays, compare/contrast essays, critical definition and process essays, ect.

Understanding Rubrics

To plan your compositions you need to understand the rubrics (the main composition instructions). Read the rubric carefully and underline the key words/phrases, which will help you decide what you will write about. Key words/phrases indicate:

  •     the  imaginary  situation you will write about, this can also suggest who you are, what  has happened etc.
  •     the  imaginary reader who is going to read your piece of writing. This help you decide on the writing style formal/informal, you should use.
  •     the writing style you should use depend on the type of   composition you are writing, the situation and the intended reader.
  •     the type of writing (letter, review describing a film you saw, etc)
  •     the specific topics you should include in your answer (describe the city /place and comment on its good and bad points).

Styles in Writing

Formal Styles is characterized by:

1) formal expressions, advanced vocabulary, longer sentences

E. g Taking everything into consideration, it can be said that the facilities offered are of poor quality.

2) formal linking words and devices (i.e. Nevertheless, Consequently, However, In addition, etc.)

  E. g Cell phones are extremely useful for people who travel frequently. However, they can be dangerous.

3) no use of short forms (i.e. I’ m, he’ s been, there’ s…)

E.g. I would be grateful if… (Instead of: I’d be grateful if…)

4) impersonal tone (i.e. use of the passive ,no description of feelings)

E.g. Late this evening, 20 years old Tom McKinley was pulled to safety after being trapped under debris for more 

than twenty hours.

5) factual presentation of the information.

E.g. The City Hall, constructed in the late 1800s, was seriously damaged by fire in 1907.

 

INFORMAL  STYLE is characterized by:

1) everyday/colloquial expressions, vocabulary and idioms

E.g. I thought I’d drop you a line …, Thanks a million…, etc.

2) frequent of short forms

E.g. I won’t be able to come to your party as I’ll be away on a business trip.

3) simple linking words and phrases (i e  but, so, and, because, etc.)

E.g.  It rains a lot  here,  so you’d better take an umbrella with you .

4) informal phrasal verbs E.g. Nelly takes after her father .

5) shorter sentences

E.g. Thanks a lot of invitation. I’d love to come.

6) personal tone (the using of the first person) (I/ We)

E.g. Weve got great news. I’ve found a new job.

7) descriptive tone ( use of adjectives / adverbs for vivid description)

E.g. It was bitterly cold winter evening.  

 

Semi-Formal Style is characterized by:

1)  the use colloquial language

E.g. Thank you very much for your  letter. (Instead of: Thanks a million for your letter.)

2)  less frequent use of short forms ,phrasal verbs and idioms

E.g. I am writing to request information about…( Instead of: I thought  I thought  I’d drop you a line to ask about …)

3) a polite ,respectful tone

E.g. I was wondering if you bad… (Instead of: Do you have…)

 

 

 

Planning the Layout of  Your  Composition

Your ideas should be organized into paragraphs. The layout of the most types of writing  consists  of  three parts: an introduction, a main body and conclusion.

I INTRODUCTION

The introduction (the first paragraph ) is a short paragraph whose purpose is to give a reader a general idea of the subject of composition .It should attract the reader’s attention so that he /she wants to continue.

II MAIN BODY

The main body usually consists  of  two ,three  or more parts and its purpose is to develop points related to the subject of the composition. The number of paragraphs  and the way you divide them depends on specific topics of the composition. Each paragraph should deal with points related to the same topic. Wherever  you discuss a new topic .you should begin a new paragraph. For  example, in a ‘for and against’ essay the main body should  have two paragraphs: one discussing the points for and another discussing the points against .

  •     Main body paragraph should begin with topic sentences. A topic sentence introduces or summarizes the main topic of the paragraph and gives the reader an idea of what the paragraph  will be about.
  •     The topic sentence should followed by supporting sentences, which provide examples ,details, reasons, justifications  and or evidence to support the topic sentence

Topic sentence – There are many advantages for travelling by boat.

 Supporting sentence – To begin  with  ,boats are more comfortable than planes or cars. Instead of staying in   your  seat, you can go for a walk on the deck or eat in a restaurant. Moreover   boats   are often cheaper than other form of travel. Finally, boats are a safe alternative to cars or planes. There are fewer accidents at sea than in the air or on the roads.

III CONCLUSION

The conclusion is a short paragraph in which you should summarize the main idea of the subjects, restate your opinion in different  words, make general comments express your feeling, etc.

 

 

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До підручника
Англійська мова (10-й рік навчання, рівень стандарту) 11 клас (Карпюк О.Д.)
Додано
1 листопада 2019
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370
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