СЕЛИДІВСЬКА ЗАГАЛЬНООСВІТНЯ ГІМНАЗІЯ
ВИКОНАННЯ ТВОРЧОЇ ЧАСТИНИ З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ
ДЛЯ ПІДГОТОВКИ ДО ЗНО
Упорядники: Чернова С.Є., вчитель англійської мови Селидівської загальноосвітньої гімназії
Посібник рекомендовано для викладачів англійської мови та учнів загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів до підготовки до ЗНО: порядок і форми виконання письмової частини.
Guidelines for Writing
Types of Compositions
When you write compositions you need to understand the type of writing required. Your piece of writing can be in the form of formal letter, a report or an article for a teenage magazine.
LETTERS are written to a person or a group of people for specific reason. Letters include:
ARTICLES are found in magazines and newspapers. They include descriptions of people, places, buildings, festivals, ceremonies.
NARRATIVES (STORIES) are about real or imaginary events, which happened in the past. They can be written in the first person when writer is the main character of the story or in the third person when the writer is describing events which happened to another person or group of people.
REPORTS are formal pieces of writing and have a specific format and features.
REVIEWS are formal pieces of discussing a film, play, TV program, book, restaurant, café, etc. and recommending it or not to the reader.
ESSAYS are a group of compositions describing various opinions, concerning specific topics, discussing different problems and their causes. They include:
Besides, there are some other kinds of essays, which include such titles as, cause/effects essays, discursive essays, compare/contrast essays, critical definition and process essays, ect.
To plan your compositions you need to understand the rubrics (the main composition instructions). Read the rubric carefully and underline the key words/phrases, which will help you decide what you will write about. Key words/phrases indicate:
Styles in Writing
Formal Styles is characterized by:
1) formal expressions, advanced vocabulary, longer sentences
E. g Taking everything into consideration, it can be said that the facilities offered are of poor quality.
2) formal linking words and devices (i.e. Nevertheless, Consequently, However, In addition, etc.)
E. g Cell phones are extremely useful for people who travel frequently. However, they can be dangerous.
3) no use of short forms (i.e. I’ m, he’ s been, there’ s…)
E.g. I would be grateful if… (Instead of: I’d be grateful if…)
4) impersonal tone (i.e. use of the passive ,no description of feelings)
E.g. Late this evening, 20 years old Tom McKinley was pulled to safety after being trapped under debris for more
than twenty hours.
5) factual presentation of the information.
E.g. The City Hall, constructed in the late 1800s, was seriously damaged by fire in 1907.
INFORMAL STYLE is characterized by:
1) everyday/colloquial expressions, vocabulary and idioms
E.g. I thought I’d drop you a line …, Thanks a million…, etc.
2) frequent of short forms
E.g. I won’t be able to come to your party as I’ll be away on a business trip.
3) simple linking words and phrases (i e but, so, and, because, etc.)
E.g. It rains a lot here, so you’d better take an umbrella with you .
4) informal phrasal verbs E.g. Nelly takes after her father .
5) shorter sentences
E.g. Thanks a lot of invitation. I’d love to come.
6) personal tone (the using of the first person) (I/ We)
E.g. We’ve got great news. I’ve found a new job.
7) descriptive tone ( use of adjectives / adverbs for vivid description)
E.g. It was bitterly cold winter evening.
Semi-Formal Style is characterized by:
1) the use colloquial language
E.g. Thank you very much for your letter. (Instead of: Thanks a million for your letter.)
2) less frequent use of short forms ,phrasal verbs and idioms
E.g. I am writing to request information about…( Instead of: I thought I thought I’d drop you a line to ask about …)
3) a polite ,respectful tone
E.g. I was wondering if you bad… (Instead of: Do you have…)
Planning the Layout of Your Composition
Your ideas should be organized into paragraphs. The layout of the most types of writing consists of three parts: an introduction, a main body and conclusion.
The introduction (the first paragraph ) is a short paragraph whose purpose is to give a reader a general idea of the subject of composition .It should attract the reader’s attention so that he /she wants to continue.
II MAIN BODY
The main body usually consists of two ,three or more parts and its purpose is to develop points related to the subject of the composition. The number of paragraphs and the way you divide them depends on specific topics of the composition. Each paragraph should deal with points related to the same topic. Wherever you discuss a new topic .you should begin a new paragraph. For example, in a ‘for and against’ essay the main body should have two paragraphs: one discussing the points for and another discussing the points against .
Topic sentence – There are many advantages for travelling by boat.
Supporting sentence – To begin with ,boats are more comfortable than planes or cars. Instead of staying in your seat, you can go for a walk on the deck or eat in a restaurant. Moreover boats are often cheaper than other form of travel. Finally, boats are a safe alternative to cars or planes. There are fewer accidents at sea than in the air or on the roads.
The conclusion is a short paragraph in which you should summarize the main idea of the subjects, restate your opinion in different words, make general comments express your feeling, etc.