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Taking into consideration the incoming school leavers' independent assessment in English, some aspects of English grammar seem to be of special importance. For example, the gerund, i.e. the non-finite form of the verb refers just to that kind of grammar material. On the one hand, it obtains the same ending as Participle 1 and Verbal Noun that is quite complicated for students' perception. On the other hand, this grammar material is insufficiently represented in school teaching manuals.

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ВЖИВАННЯ ГЕРУНДІЯ

(Тестові завдання для 10 класу ЗНЗ)

 

Н.О. ТЕПЛУХІНА

Taking into consideration the incoming school leavers’ independent assessment in English, some aspects of English grammar seem to be of special importance. For example, the gerund, i.e. the non-finite form of the verb refers just to that kind of grammar material. On the one hand, it obtains the same ending as Participle 1 and Verbal Noun that is quite complicated for students’ perception. On the other hand, this grammar material is insufficiently represented in school teaching manuals.

THE GERUND

The gerund is the -ing form of the verb that is used as a noun.

1.1 GERUND: USES

A gerund is used in the same ways as a noun. It can be subjects, direct object, predicate nominatives, and objects of prepositions.

  1.   THE GERUND AS SUBJECT

Examples:

Reading is fun.

Cooking requires skill.

Jogging is a popular exercise in the United States.

Eating is important for growth and health.

  1.   THE GERUND AS PREDICATE NOMINATIVE

Predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames or identifies the subject of the sentence.

Examples:

My favourite exercise is swimming

A very enjoyable pastime is reading

His chief hobby is gardening

An important step for writers is planning.

  1.   THE GERUND AS DIRECT OBJECT

Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. The followings are common verbs that are followed by gerunds.

enjoy postpone prevent

appreciate delay miss

mind keep despise

quit consider deny

stop dislike admit

risk suggest understand

finish dread anticipate

avoid involve discuss

miss detest practice

forget advise regret

recall mention recollect

tolerate recommend excuse

pardon resist

Examples:

She quit smoking.

I enjoy watching TV.

He denied knowing anything about the missing jewels.

Avoid drinking too much alcohol.

I couldn't resist buying such lovely apples.

Would you mind closing the door?

  1.   THE GERUND AS OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION.

If a preposition is followed by a verb, the verb should end in -ing. A gerund is frequently used after the following verb + preposition constructions

Examples:

insist on depend on object to

advantage of dream about /of accuse of

instead of keep from interested in

complaining of worry about excited about

decide up on tell of charge of

feel like complain about talk about

forget about tell about care about

get out of capable of confess to

give up congratulate on decide against

prevent from fed up with go on

think of believe in talk about

worry about approve of succeed in

think about argue against afraid of

suspect of famous for excuse

forgive for

be accustomed to be looking forward to

Examples:

He is afraid of going

Mykola is in charge of organizing the meeting.

Dmytro isn’t interested in looking for a new job.

Before going out, I phoned my friend.

He ran 10 miles without stopping.

She is accustomed to having a big breakfast.

  1.   GERUND AFTER A POSSESSIVE NOUN/ PRONOUN OR POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE.

A possessive noun and pronoun is used to modify a gerund

Examples:

The teacher complained about our coming to class late.

We are excited about Fever’s winning a scholarship.

Her joining the team pleased us.

We greatly appreciate your taking time to help us.

I will be imitating her singing.

  1.   GERUND IS USED IN SHORT PROHIBITIONS

Examples:

No smoking No spitting.

Smoking is forbidden. No parking.

  1.            GERUND IS USED AFTER THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS

Can't stand (endure) Worth

Can't help (perceive, avoid) There is no point in

It is no use (good) Have difficulty

Examples:

It is no use trying to persuade me.

I live only a short walk from here, so it is not worth taking a taxi.

He has difficulty finding a place to live.

  1. THE PASSIVE GERUND

The form is being + past participle.

Examples:

I appreciated being invited to her home.

I didn't enjoy being laughed at by other people.

Mykola had a narrow escape. He was almost run over by a car. He barely avoided being hit by the speeding automobile.

  1. THE PERFECT GERUND (PAST GERUND)

The form is having + past participle. The past gerund is used to express that the action of the gerund took place before that of the main verb.

Examples:

I am very happy having had this opportunity to meet you and talk with you.

She admitted having stolen the money.

I now regret having said what I said

  1. PAST-PASSIVE GERUND

The form is having been + past participle.

Examples:

My boss sent me to another country to study. I am very pleased having been given the op­portunity to learn about another culture.

I was helped yesterday by someone. I appreciate that.

I appreciate now having been helped yesterday by someone.

She complained about not having been told about the meeting.

 

Exercise - 1

Underline the gerund in each sentence. Label it subject, direct object, predicate nominative or object of a position.

  1.               Leaving will be difficult but necessary.
  2.               They delayed digging for several weeks.
  3.               Hiking can be a worthwhile activity.
  4.               Many people enjoy knitting.
  5.               His favourite activity is sailing.
  6.               He was suspected of embezzling large sums of money.

Exercise - 2

Use the correct form of the verb in Parentheses to complete the sentences.

  1.               Most people enjoy ______

(photograph) family, friends and scenery.

  1.               My ______ (be) asked to tutor pleases me.
  2.               He has a few pictures that are well worth ______ (look) at.
  3.               It’s not good her ______ (try) to calm him.
  4.               I couldn’t help ______ (ask) where he had left his sister.
  5.               Ivan claimed that his ______ (teach) others made him learn more.
  6.               This year I am studying abroad. I appreciate (have) this opportunity to live and study in a foreign country.
  7.               I am thinking ______ (go).
  8.               The police insisted ______ (know) the whole truth.
  9.          I am accustomed ______ (have) a big lunch.
  10.          She is capable ______ (do) better work.
  11.          I am looking forward ______ (visit) my friends this weekend.
  12.          We show people we are happy by ______ (smile).
  13.          I have no excuse ______ (be) late.

The tests below aim at discrimination the gerund and the other non-finite forms of the verb.

 

DIRECTION: The following sentences are incomplete. Decide whether the sentence uses gerund, infinitive or participle to complete the sentence (s)

  1. I object ______ to this nonsense.
  1.   to listen C. from listening
  2.   listening D. to listening
  1. None of us can help ______ ill sometimes.
  1.   be C. to being
  2.   to be D. being
  1.     Did you enjoy ______ ?
  1.   to walk C. walk
  2.   walking D. walked
  1.     He insisted ______ the bill.
  1.   to pay C. paying
  2.   pay D. on paying
  1.     A ______ child needs a diet.
  1.   growing/balancing C. growing/balanced
  2.   grown/balancing D. grown/balanced
  1.     Any ______ person knows that smoking is a destructive habit.
  1.   Think C. thinking
  2.   Thought D. thinks
  1.     I am accustomed ______ a big breakfast.
  1.   to have C. having
  2.   to having D. have
  1.     He told a really funny joke. We couldn't stop ______ .
  1.   Laugh C. to laugh
  2.   Laughing D. to laughing
  1.     The teacher permitted ______ early.
  1.   me to leave C. to leave
  2.   me leave D. leaving
  1. I remember ______ with dolls when I was a child.
  1.   play C. playing
  2.   to play D. played

11. He encouraged ______ again.

  1.   to try C. me to try
  2.   me try D. me trying
  1. He admitted ______ the money.
  1.   to steal C. stealing
  2.   steal D. to stealing
  1. I let my friend ______ my bicycle.
  1.   Borrow C. borrowing
  2.   to borrow D. to borrowing
  1. Sonny had the waiter ______ her some tea.
  1.   Brought C. bringing
  2.   Bring D. to bring
  1. The doctor made the patient ______ in bad.
  1.   Staying C. to, stay
  2.   stay D. staying
  1. Alex stopped at the service station to have the tank ______ .
  1.   fill C. filled
  2.   filling D. to filled
  1. I look forward ______ you soon.
  1.   Seeing C. to seeing
  2.   to see D. for seeing
  1. No one appreciated ______ the game.
  1.   Lose C. to lose
  2.   to losing D. losing
  1. Sashko was delighted ______ the new class president.
  1.   have become C. becoming
  2.   to become D. to becoming
  1.   ______ the principal's welcoming remarks, they waited for the senator to address them.
  1.   Heard C. Hearing
  2.   Having heard D. To hear
  1. You had better ______ again.
  1.   try C. trying
  2.   to try D. to have tried
  1. Nobody is accusing you ______ the watch.
  1.   from stealing C. to steal
  2.   with stealing D. of stealing
  1. I suggest ______ to the cinema.
  1.   to go C. that to go
  2.   going D. for going
  1. She is counting ______ elected.
  1.   to be C. on being
  2.   being D. for being
  1. I shall never forget him ______ so kind to us.
  1.   being C. to be
  2.   be D. to being
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