Taking into consideration the incoming school leavers' independent assessment in English, some aspects of English grammar seem to be of special importance. For example, the gerund, i.e. the non-finite form of the verb refers just to that kind of grammar material. On the one hand, it obtains the same ending as Participle 1 and Verbal Noun that is quite complicated for students' perception. On the other hand, this grammar material is insufficiently represented in school teaching manuals.
(Тестові завдання для 10 класу ЗНЗ)
Taking into consideration the incoming school leavers’ independent assessment in English, some aspects of English grammar seem to be of special importance. For example, the gerund, i.e. the non-finite form of the verb refers just to that kind of grammar material. On the one hand, it obtains the same ending as Participle 1 and Verbal Noun that is quite complicated for students’ perception. On the other hand, this grammar material is insufficiently represented in school teaching manuals.
The gerund is the -ing form of the verb that is used as a noun.
1.1 GERUND: USES
A gerund is used in the same ways as a noun. It can be subjects, direct object, predicate nominatives, and objects of prepositions.
Reading is fun.
Cooking requires skill.
Jogging is a popular exercise in the United States.
Eating is important for growth and health.
Predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames or identifies the subject of the sentence.
My favourite exercise is swimming
A very enjoyable pastime is reading
His chief hobby is gardening
An important step for writers is planning.
Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. The followings are common verbs that are followed by gerunds.
enjoy postpone prevent
appreciate delay miss
mind keep despise
quit consider deny
stop dislike admit
risk suggest understand
finish dread anticipate
avoid involve discuss
miss detest practice
forget advise regret
recall mention recollect
tolerate recommend excuse
She quit smoking.
I enjoy watching TV.
He denied knowing anything about the missing jewels.
Avoid drinking too much alcohol.
I couldn't resist buying such lovely apples.
Would you mind closing the door?
If a preposition is followed by a verb, the verb should end in -ing. A gerund is frequently used after the following verb + preposition constructions
insist on depend on object to
advantage of dream about /of accuse of
instead of keep from interested in
complaining of worry about excited about
decide up on tell of charge of
feel like complain about talk about
forget about tell about care about
get out of capable of confess to
give up congratulate on decide against
prevent from fed up with go on
think of believe in talk about
worry about approve of succeed in
think about argue against afraid of
suspect of famous for excuse
be accustomed to be looking forward to
He is afraid of going
Mykola is in charge of organizing the meeting.
Dmytro isn’t interested in looking for a new job.
Before going out, I phoned my friend.
He ran 10 miles without stopping.
She is accustomed to having a big breakfast.
A possessive noun and pronoun is used to modify a gerund
The teacher complained about our coming to class late.
We are excited about Fever’s winning a scholarship.
Her joining the team pleased us.
We greatly appreciate your taking time to help us.
I will be imitating her singing.
No smoking No spitting.
Smoking is forbidden. No parking.
Can't stand (endure) Worth
Can't help (perceive, avoid) There is no point in
It is no use (good) Have difficulty
It is no use trying to persuade me.
I live only a short walk from here, so it is not worth taking a taxi.
He has difficulty finding a place to live.
The form is being + past participle.
I appreciated being invited to her home.
I didn't enjoy being laughed at by other people.
Mykola had a narrow escape. He was almost run over by a car. He barely avoided being hit by the speeding automobile.
The form is having + past participle. The past gerund is used to express that the action of the gerund took place before that of the main verb.
I am very happy having had this opportunity to meet you and talk with you.
She admitted having stolen the money.
I now regret having said what I said
The form is having been + past participle.
My boss sent me to another country to study. I am very pleased having been given the opportunity to learn about another culture.
I was helped yesterday by someone. I appreciate that.
I appreciate now having been helped yesterday by someone.
She complained about not having been told about the meeting.
Exercise - 1
Underline the gerund in each sentence. Label it subject, direct object, predicate nominative or object of a position.
Exercise - 2
Use the correct form of the verb in Parentheses to complete the sentences.
(photograph) family, friends and scenery.
The tests below aim at discrimination the gerund and the other non-finite forms of the verb.
DIRECTION: The following sentences are incomplete. Decide whether the sentence uses gerund, infinitive or participle to complete the sentence (s)
11. He encouraged ______ again.