Тема: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank).
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International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established, together with the International Monetary Fund, in 1945, after the Briton World Conference of 1944. The purpose of IBRD was to help countries (to) reconstruct their economies, seriously damaged by World War II. Since the early 1950s it has turned its center of interest to the developing countries engaged in building up their own self-sustained economies.
The Bank's function is to encourage international trade by financing productive projects for reconstruction and development. It lends sums to government agencies, or guaranteed private loans. Such loans are usually long-term stabilization loans in the range of 15 to 20 years.
The membership of the Bank is open to all the United Nations and the capital contributions of member country are related to its wealth. Loans and guarantees must not exceed the subscribed capital of the Bank plus its reserves, i.e. cash and securities held to cover deposits, and surplus, i.e. more cash and securities than was planned for.
Part of World Bank is the International Development Association (IDA), established in 1960. The IDA membership is open to all members of the IBRD. The aims of the IDA are the as the IBRD, its purpose is to provide assistance to the poorest countries by longer term loans, up to 50 years, with either no interest payable or at a very low rate of interest of interest. The International Development Association relies on subscriptions from members, special contributions and any funds that the IBRD transfers, otherwise it couldn't maintain its lending policy being below market rates.