МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ
Державного вищого навчального закладу
«Український державний хіміко-технологічний університет»
Затверджую Заступник директора з навчальної роботи
Great Britain and Ukraine
Збірник текстів з країнознавства
з тестовими завданнями до них
Розглянуто і ухвалено
на засіданні комісії гуманітарних та соціальних дисциплін
Протокол № ____
від « ___ » ____________ 2019р.
Методичний посібник складений для студентів всіх спеціальностей I-II курсу і містить тексти з курсу «Країнознавство. Велика Британія та Україна» та серію тестових завдань до кожного тексту.
Запропоновані тести з англійської мови за темою "Країнознавство. Велика Британія та Україна" можуть бути використані під час тижня іноземних мов (тижня циклової комісії), на уроках англійської мови, для проведения олімпіад, вікторин, конкурсів, а також для самоконтролю знань студентів після вивчення теми "Об’єднане Королівство Великої Британії та Північної Ірландії" та "Україна".
Даний матеріал може бути використаний в будь-якому УМК, де зустрічаються уроки з країнознавства. Або як позакласний захід на тижні англійської мови.
Тести призначені для викладачів та студентів факультетів іноземних мов, для вчителів і учнів профільних та спеціалізованих шкіл з поглибленим вивченням англійської мови, а також для усіх бажаючих систематизувати свої знання з актуальних питань життя Великої Британії та України.
Список використаної літератури ……………………………………………………..133
Great Britain, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles, of Western Europe. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometers.
The country is often referred to as Great Britain, Britain or the UK. But to be precise, Great Britain comprises England, Wales and Scotland on the island of Great Britain, while the United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech "Great Britain" is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the United Kingdom is London, in England. The capitals of Scotland, Ireland and Wales are Edinburgh, Belfast and Cardiff respectively.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. Shakespeare called Britain a "precious stone set in the silver sea" because of its natural beauty. It has a varied countryside where you can find mountains, plains, valleys and sandy beaches. There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) separate England from Scotland, the Pennines stretch down North England almost along its middle, the Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales, and the Highlands of Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain, is only 1,343 meters high. There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.
Great Britain is not very much rich in mineral resources, it has some deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were discovered in the North Sea. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It has achieved this position despite the lack of most raw materials needed for industry. Ship-building, coal-mining, metallurgical and textile industries are the older fields of industry. The newer ones are aircraft, automobile, chemical industries, electronic engineering. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. The main industrial centers are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh and Cardiff.
The population of the United Kingdom is over 55 million people. The English are more than 80 % of the country's population. English is the official language of Great Britain.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. The Queen is formally the head of the state, but in fact the country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. There's no written constitution in Great Britain only a centuries-old accumulation of statutes, judicial decisions, usage, and tradition.
Тест на тему: Great Britain
1. Where is Great Britain situated?
2. Great Britain is …
3. There are over_small islands in the system of the British Isles.
4. What is the official name of this country?
b) Great Britain
d) The United Kingdom oа Great Britain and Northern Ireland
5. What countries does the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consist of?
6. What parts does Great Britain comprise of?
a) Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales
b) Northern Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales
c) England, Wales, Scotland
d) Britain, England, Wales, Scotland
7. Which part does not belong to the UK?
8. What country is the largest in the UK?
9. What country is the smallest in the UK?
10. What part of Great Britain borders on the Independent Irish Republic on land?
11. What is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?
12. What is the capital of England?
13. What is the capital of Scotland?
14. What is the capital of Wales?
15. What is the capital of Northern Ireland?
16. What's the capital of the Republic of Ireland?
17. What channel separates the British Isles from the continent?
a) the Bristol Channel
b) the English Channel
c) the St. George’s Channel
d) the Suez Canal
18. How do the English call the English Channel?
19. What strait do we usually call the narrowest part of the English Channel?
20. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by …..
21. What is the western coast of the British Isles washed by?
22. What is the eastern coast of the British Isles washed by?
23. Who was Shakespeare?
a) a prime minister
b) a king
c) a poet
d) a painter
24. The mountains which separate England from Scotland are …..
25. What mountains are situated in the North of England and stretch down almost to its middle?
26. Where are the Cambrian mountains situated?
27. The tallest mountains in Great Britain are …..
28. Where is Ben Nevis situated?
29. The longest river of Great Britain is …… .
30. The deepest river of Great Britain is …….
31. The climate of Great Britain is......
32. Great Britain is rich in such natural resources as …..
33. What are the oldest industries in the UK?
34. What are the newest industries in the UK?
35. What does the UK produce and export?
36. What are the main industrial centers in Great Britain?
37. What kind of state is the United Kingdom?
38. Who is the head of the state in Great Britain?
a) the Prime Minister
b) the President
c) the Queen
d) the Speaker
39. Who does the real power in Britain belong to?
40. Who heads the government of Great Britain?
41. How many houses does the British Parliament consist of?
42. What are the three main parties in Great Britain?
43. Does the UK have a written constitution?
National Emblems of Great Britain
The national flag of the United Kingdom combines three crosses representing England, Scotland and Ireland. It symbolizes the union of these countries and is called the Union Jack. This is the popular name given to the flag of the Great Britain. Actually it is called the Union Flag and it is a mixture of several flags. It all began in 1606 when Scotland was joined to England and Wales. The Scottish flag, St. Andrew's Cross, blue with a white diagonal cross, was joined to the English Flag, St. George's Cross, with a red cross. The flag of St. George can still be seen on churches in England. Later, in 1801, when Ireland was joined to the union, as it called, the Irish Flag of St. Patrick’s Cross was added, white with a red diagonal cross. The Welsh flag, called the Welsh dragon, represents a red dragon on a white and green background. In this way the English people got the Union Flag which is red, white and blue. King James the Third ordered that the Union Flag should be flown on all British ships, except on ships of war. Here the flag was flown at the front of the bowsprit. The end of the bowsprit was called the Jack Star and so we get the name of Union Jack. A “jack”, by the way, is an old nord for the sailor. The Union Jack is also on the flags of Australia and New Zealand.
The symbol of England is a rose. The red rose was the emblem of Lancastrians, the white rose that of the York’s, the two Houses fighting for the English throne in the War of Roses. But their struggle ended by marriage of Henry VII, the Lancastrian with Princess Elizabeth, the York’s. The red rose has since become the emblem of England. The symbol of Scotland is a thistle. It happened in very old times when Norsemen wanted to settle in this country. They came close to the Scots’ camps in the night and wanted to kill them in their sleep. That’s why they took off their shoes so as to make no noise. But one of the Norsemen stepped on a thistle and screamed. The Scots woke up and put the enemy to flight. The symbol of Wales is a daffodil. Welshmen all over the world celebrate their national holiday St David’s Day by wearing leeks. They do it because they believe St David have lived for several years on bread and wild leeks. The symbol of Northern Ireland is a shamrock and red hand. Irishmen wear their national emblem on St Patrick’s Day. It’s a small white clover with three leaves on the stem.
The main National Royal symbol is the Royal Coat of Arms, which identifies the person who is the Head of State. The royal Coat of Arms comprises the various Royal emblems of different parts of the United Kingdom. In the centre of the emblem a heraldic shield is situated. It is divided into four parts: three gold leopards on a red ground is the English emblem, a red lion on a gold ground is the Scottish emblem, a yellow harp on a blue ground is the Irish emblem. The shield is supported by two Royal Beasts — the Lion with the crown on the left and the Unicorn on the right. The Lion represents pride, bravery, valour. It is also a symbol of power and royalty. The unicorn is a symbol of purity. They are surmounted by the Royal crown. Around the shield there is a garter with the motto of the Royal family "Honi soit qui mal у pense" (French for "Evil to him who evil thinks"), which symbolizes the Order of the Garter, an ancient order of chivalry of which the Queen is Sovereign. Below the shield there is the motto of the Monarch which is also in French "Dieu et mon droit" ("God and my right"). Henry VI began to use it as the motto of the British monarch in the 15th century.
The Union Jack
The UK Flags
a) 1.The flag of the UK – the Union Jack.
b) 2. The flag of Wales and its patron saint St David.
c) 3.The flag of England and its patron saint St George.
d) 4. The flag of Northern Ireland and its saint St Patrick.
e) 5. The flag of Scotland and its saint St Andrew.
1. The Union Jack is …..
2. What countries of the UK are represented in the Union Flag?
3. What is name of the cross in England's flag?
4. The red dragon on a white and green background is on the flag of ________
5. What is the symbol flower of Wales?
6. A thistle is a symbol of _________
7. The symbol of Northern Ireland is .…..
8. What is the Irish emblem on the heraldic shield of the Royal Coat of Arms?
9. What beasts support a heraldic shield on the Royal Coat of Arms?
10. Below the heraldic shield there is the motto of the Monarch. What is it?
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. London is the seventh biggest city in the world. Its population is more than 11 million people. London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old and beautiful. It was founded more than two thousand years ago. Traditionally it's divided into several parts: the City, Westminster area (or the City of Westminster), the West End and the East End. The City of London and the City of Westminster are the most ancient parts of London. The Thames is a natural boundary between the West End and the East End of London.
The City of London is the birthplace of London. It was a place of the original Roman settlement Londinium and later commercial and trading centre. Meanwhile Westminster was outside London's walls and became England's administrative capital. When the first English Parliament was called here in the 13th century the Westminster area was a separate City of Westminster. So, London has no obvious centre, because it grew out of two formerly distinct cities. Central London includes the West End, the City of Westminster and the City. This area is roughly bounded by the Underground Circle Line (the British call their underground "the Tube"). Londoners say, the Westminster area is "the brain of London", the City is "the money of London", the West End is "the goods of London" and the East End is "the hands of London".
The City is often called the commercial and business heart of London. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Royal Exchange, the Stock Exchange, Mansion House (the official residence of the Lord Mayor), the Central Criminal Court ("The Old Bailey"), the Bank of England and Lloyds, the most famous insurance company in the world. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. It is known as "the Square Mile" (its total area is 2.59 sq km = 1 sq mile). Two masterpieces are situated within the City: St. Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London. St. Paul's Cathedral was built in the 17th century by Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was built in the 11th century. It was used as a palace, a fortress, a prison, a place of execution, royal mint and a zoo. Now it's a museum.
Westminster area is also called the City of Westminster. It is the governmental part of London. It includes Westminster Abbey, the biggest English church, Buckingham Palace, the official residence of the Queen, and the Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is a symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks and houses are situated there. English aristocracy lives in this region. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of the West End. It was named in the memory of Admiral Nelson's victory at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square. Opposite the Nelson monument is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. They contain the finest art collections in the world. Not far from the National Gallery is the British Museum famous for its rich library (about 15,000,000 books).
The East End is an industrial district of London. It is in many ways the "real" London. There are many factories and the Port of London there. The region is densely populated by working class families. Those who live in the East End are often called Cockneys, true Londoners. They have got their own peculiar dialect and accent.
Тест на тему: London
2. London is the _______ biggest city in the world.
3. What river is London situated on?
4. How many years ago was London founded?
5. Traditionally London is divided into _____ parts.
6. What parts are the most ancient parts of London?
7. What is a natural boundary between the West End and the East End of London?
8. What part of London is the birthplace of London?
9. Who founded the first settlement in London?
10. The ancient name of London was ________.
11. London grew out of _____ formerly distinct cities.
12. What parts does the Central London include?
13. How do the British call their Underground?
14. How do the Londoners call their East End?
15. The City is …..
16. Mansion House is …….
17. The Old Bailey is ……
18. What is Lloyds?
19. What part of London is known as "the Square Mile"?
20. What is the name of the architect who built Saint Paul's Cathedral?
21. Where is Saint Paul's Cathedral situated?
22. When was the Tower of London built?
23. What is the Tower of London now?
24. What part of London is the governmental part of London?
25. What is the biggest English church?
26. What is the official residence of the British Queen in London?
27. The seat of the British Parliament is in …….
28. Where is the Houses of Parliament situated?
29. The West End is …..
30. The East End is …..
31. Whose monument stands in the middle of Trafalgar Square?
32. What London museum is famous for its rich library?
33. What famous art galleries are situated in Trafalgar Square?
34. Cockneys are often called those who live in ________of London.
35. Where is the Bank of England situated?
36. Where is the Trafalgar square situated?
37. Where is the Port of London situated?
London Places of Interest
There are a lot of places of interest in London. Among them there are: Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace, St Paul’s Cathedral, London Bridge and the Tower of London.
Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Duke Wellington, Admiral Nelson, Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson and Kipling.
Opposite Westminster Abbey there are the Houses of Parliament, which are often called the Palace of Westminster. Westminster Palace was built in medieval days. It was a place of royal dwelling as early as the 11th century, which later became the meeting place of Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben".
Buckingham palace is the Queen's official London residence. The palace was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham for his wife. George IV began transforming it into a palace in 1826. The daily ceremony of the Changing of the Guards takes place in the front of the Palace, lasting about 30 minutes.
St. Paul's Cathedral is Sir Christopher Wren's masterpiece built from 1675 to 1709. It took Ch. Wren 34 years to build it. From far away you can see the huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. If you climb 263 steps you will get to Whispering gallery, which runs round the dome. Inside the cathedral there are many memorials, including memorials to Duke Wellington and Admiral Nelson.
The Tower of London is associated with many important events in British history. Since it was built by William the Conqueror in the 11th century, this castle has been a fortress, a Royal palace, a prison, a place of execution, a zoo, the Royal Mint, and an observatory. Today it's a museum and houses the Crown Jewels.
Not far from the Tower of London there is Tower Bridge — a masterpiece of engineering skill. Tower Bridge is a famous drawbridge across the Thames. It was built at the end of the 19th century to match the medieval style of the fortress. It was designed so that it could be used equally by road traffic and by ships going up the River Thames.
The Royal Greenwich Observatory is situated 10 miles outside London on a hill above the River Thames. This is where Greenwich Meridian lies – the zero meridian giving the name to Greenwich Mean Time, the Standard Time of the World. The Prime Meridian is the line marked upon the ground which splits the earth into two hemispheres – eastern and western one.
Another new attraction on the bank of the River Thames is the London Eye — a ferris wheel, which at 137 meters is the world's highest observation wheel, offering good views from its enclosed capsules.
London is noted for its museums and art galleries which include the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the National Gallery, the Tate Gallery, the Wallace Collection, the Institute of Contemporary Art, the Museum of the Moving Image, the Madame Tussaud's Waxworks Museum and many others.
Тест на тему: London places of interest
1. What is Westminster Abbey?
2. What is the other name of the Houses of Parliament?
3. Big Ben is ……
4. Big Ben is in the clock tower of……
5. Where does the Changing of the Guard take place?
6. The masterpiece of Sir Christopher Wren in London is……
7. Where are the Crown Jewels kept?
8. The Whispering Gallery is situated in......
9. The Tower of London was built by……
10. The Tower of London has served as …
11._________ is the place where the official coins are made. It was situated in the Tower of London until 1809.
12. What is the name of the famous drawbridge across the Thames?
13. What is the Royal Greenwich Observatory famous for all over the world?
14. The London Eye is ……
15. ___________ is a coronation and burial place of all English kings, queens and many famous people of Great Britain.
16. What museum did Madame Tussaud create?
17. What London museum is situated at Marylebone Road?
18. Where is Piccadilly Circus situated?
The West End
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. The West End is associated with glamour, luxury and wealth. The best hotels, museums, art galleries, the most expensive restaurants, clubs, theatres, cinemas, casinos, shops and supermarkets are located here. The West End includes Trafalgar Square, the main shopping areas of Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street, and the entertainment centers of Soho, Piccadilly Circus, Leicester Square and Shaftsbury Avenue.
The parks are probably the main attraction of the West End. They occupy the most part of its territory. The most celebrated parklands are the six royal parks: St. James's Park, oldest of the six central royal parks; Buckingham Palace Gardens, bordered on the east by the royal residence; Green Park, plainest of the royal parks; Hyde Park, with its famous Speakers' Corner for soapbox orators; the more elegant Kensington Gardens, with the Prince Albert Memorial and the statue of Peter Pan; and Regent's Park, home of London Zoo.
The West End is famous not only for its parks but also for its streets. Among them Shaftesbury Avenue, London's theatrical centre, Whitehall Street with the important Government offices, Downing Street 10, the London residence of the Prime Minister, Fleet Street, where most newspapers have their offices, Harley Street, where the highest-paid doctors live, and Charring Cross Road, the famous street of bookstores. Bond, Oxford and Regent streets are known for the richest shops and supermarkets.
The prominent squares of London's West End are: Grosvenor Square, site of the F.D. Roosevelt Memorial, Leicester Square, site of the Shakespeare Memorial Fountain, and Trafalgar Square, which features a statue of Lord Nelson, hero of the Battle of Trafalgar.
Piccadilly Circus is the heart of the West End and is the centre of entertainment. It is a famous square which is a meeting point of six streets. It is called "circus" because of its shape. In the middle of Piccadilly Circus there is a graceful statue of Eros. Piccadilly Circus is beautiful with enormous advertisements. We find London's best-known theatres and cinemas, the most famous restaurants and night-clubs here.
The district of Soho is in the centre of the West End. It includes Piccadilly Circus, Shaftsbury Avenue and Leicester Square. The legend goes that in the past there were green fields in this place which were good for fox-hunting. When a hunter saw a fox, he cried to the dogs "So-ho!" and they rushed after the fox. Now the district of Soho is a foreign quarter of London, which is famous for its remarkable restaurants, offering food from different countries, especially Chinese and Italian ones. Gerrard Street is the centre of London's Chinatown. It has Chinese restaurants, clubs, shops and supermarkets and currency exchange offices.
There are over forty theatres in the West End. Most of the oldest London theatres are concentrated in a very small area between the Piccadilly and Leicester Square tube stations. The most known from them are the Royal National Theatre, the Royal Ballet and Opera House, the Old Vic Theatre and the Globe Theatre, the reconstruction of the original Globe Theatre organized in 1599 by William Shakespeare.
19. How many royal parks are there in the West End?
20. The oldest royal park in London is …….
21. The plainest royal park in London is …….
22. Where is the famous Speaker’s Corner for soapbox orators?
23. Where are the Prince Albert Memorial and the statue of Peter Pan situated?
24. Where is London Zoo situated?
25. The British Prime Minister lives in…
26. What London museum is situated at 221B Baker Street?
27. Shaftesbury Avenue is ……
28. What is the name of the street where the important Government offices are situated?
29. Fleet Street is a street, where ……
30. The street where the highest-paid doctors live is ……
31. Charring Cross Road is a street, where ……
32. What London’s street is famous for the richest shops and supermarkets?
33. The Shakespeare Memorial Fountain is situated in the middle of ……
34. What is standing in the middle of Piccadilly Circus?
35. Where is the district of Soho situated?
36. What does the district of Soho include?
37. In the past in the district of Soho there were green fields which were good for ……
38. Now the district of Soho is ……
39. How many theatres are there in the West End?
40. What theatre is organized by William Shakespeare?
London is the main Britain's tourist attraction. The city is known for its ancient cathedrals, churches and particularly for its art museums and galleries.
The National Gallery in Trafalgar Square has one of the best picture collections in the world. The main collection of more than 2,000 pictures is arranged chronologically in 4 wings: Sainsbury Wing, West Wing, North Wing, and East Wing. The National Gallery houses paintings from many of Europe’s most legendary artists, including Michelangelo, Thomas Gainsborough, Leonardo da Vinci, Rembrandt, Anthony Van Dyck, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini, Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, John Constable, Hans Holbein the Younger, Paulo Uccello, Claude-Oscar Monet, George Stubbs and Peter Paul Robens.
The National Portrait Gallery includes pictures of historical personalities, sculptures, miniatures, engravings and photographs. It was established in 1856 with the aim of illustrating British history. The visitor can see portraits of British monarchs since the reign of Richard II, and of historical celebrities such as Chaucer, Shakespeare and Cromwell. The Gallery does not display portraits of living persons, apart from members of the royal family. The portraits are accompanied by items in their historical context. The Gallery constantly changes displays and holds the annual portrait competition for young artists.
The National Gallery of British Art, better known as the Tate Gallery (Tate Britain), was given to the nation by a rich sugar merchant, Sir Henry Tate, who had a taste for the fine arts. It has two distinct collections — British painting and a modern foreign collection. It houses the superb landscapes by John Constable, some of most important works of William Blake and important 20th century works. It also possesses a unique collection of William Turner. The Tate owns more than 280 of his oil paintings. The sculpture collection includes works by Auguste Roden, Epstein, Henry Moore. This, of all the London galleries, is the young people's gallery. It has been stated that three-quarters of its visitors are under twenty-five.
Modern art can be found in Tate Modern. It is housed in a former power station. At the end of the 1990s the Tate Gallery - now known as Tate Britain - was struggling with a lack of space due to its quickly expanding collection of modern art. So it was decided to split up the collection and search for a new location to house the modern works of art. The power station, which was located at the riverbank of the Thames was chosen as it had been abandoned in 1981 and offered plenty of space. Tate Modern was opened in 2000 and since that time it became one of London's most popular art galleries. The entrance to the collection of Tate Modern is free, which adds to its popularity.
1. The main collection of the National Gallery has more than _____________ and it is arranged chronologically in __________.
2. Where can you see the portraits of British monarchs and historical celebrities?
3. What is the other name of the Tate Gallery (Tate Britain)?
4. Who was Sir Henry Tate?
5. _____________ houses the superb landscapes by John Constable, some of most important works of William Blake and important 20th century works.
6. Which of London Art Galleries is the young people's gallery?
7. How many oil paintings by William Turner does the Tate Gallery own?
8. Which of London Art Galleries is housed in a former power station?
9. Where can you see the modern works of art?
10. ________________ was opened in 2000 and the only gallery entrance to which is free of charge.
Main London Museums
The Victoria and Albert Museum is the largest decorative arts museum in the world. It's also one of London's most interesting and diverse museums. It was opened in 1857 by Prince Albert. The collection currently numbers about 4.5 million pieces, which include everything from paintings and photographs to jewelry, ceramics, furniture and textiles. Visitors can also explore the 4,000 year history of glass, bronze through myriad examples of post-classical European sculpture, and wander through rooms full of childhood treasures, including dolls, toy cars, games, and English costumes. The Great Bed of Ware was made of oak in 1580 is kept at V & A. It is big enough to hold 8 people. The people who slept in it, by tradition carved their names on it.
The Natural History Museum has 5 departments covering botany, entomology, mineralogy, paleontology and zoology. It has 69 million specimens of animals covering every aspect of life on Earth – from our prehistoric past to the present day. The museum is famous for its reconstructions of huge prehistoric animals. The collection of dinosaur skeletons is one of the museum's biggest attractions. There are several life-sized models in the Dinosaur hall and you'll also encounter the skeleton of a Diplodocus in the central hall. Also a favorite with visitors is a hall dedicated to large mammals, including an enormous full-scale model of a blue whale and several elephants. Another zone of the museum focuses on geology. Here you can see the earth seen from outer space and a simulated earthquake and volcanic eruption. There's also a large collection of minerals and stones.
The Museum of London has many displays. They tell the story of London from prehistory onwards. These include reconstructions of Roman life, Viking's weapons, and a scene with sound effects depicting the Fire of London, and the Lord Mayor's coach. The London Wall Walk is a two-mile route laid out along the remains of Roman City Walls. It starts at the Museum of London, and ends at the Tower of London.
The Science Museum covers all kinds of science – from the dawn of time to modern day marvels, with working exhibits and push-button displays. It is most loved by children and their fathers. They may press, turn, rotate, light up and make noise here. One can see the Apollo 10 capsule and other wonders of technology. In the Children's Gallery there is a real submarine periscope.
The London Transport Museum in Covent Garden, has displays on the history of transport in London. The museum has over 350 thousand travel exhibits from the last 200 years, including restored buses, trains, trams and Underground trains. It details everything from tube-train simulators to horse-drawn carriages. The exhibits are all fully interactive, so your kids can jump in the taxis and climb aboard the buses.
The Sherlock Holmes Museum at 221B Baker Street contains a representation of the fictional detective's apartment. It displays virtual things which the famous hero of Conan Doyle’s stories would have had – Holmes’ violin and armchair, his deerstalker, pipe, magnifying glass and a copy of Dr. Watson’s diary. The museum is decorated in Victorian style, with candles, fireplace and wax figures of Sherlock Holmes, Doctor Watson and Mrs. Hudson.
1. The Victoria and Albert Museum includes …
2. Which of London museums keeps the Great Bed of Ware made of oak in 1580?
3. The Natural History Museum is famous for …
4. How many specimens of animals does the Natural History Museum have?
5. In which London museum can you see the earth seen from outer space, a simulated earthquake and volcanic eruption?
6. The Museum of London displays …
7. In which London museum can you see the Apollo 10 capsule and the real submarine periscope?
8. In which London museum can you see the travel exhibits from the last 200 years, including restored buses, trains, trams and Underground trains?
9. The Sherlock Holmes Museum contains …
10. Who was Sherlock Holmes?
Main London Theatres
Theatre organization in England differs greatly from that in Ukraine. Only a few theatres have their own permanent companies. Troupes are filmed for a season, sometimes even for a single play.
The most known theatre in London is National Theatre (also known as The National or the Royal National Theatre). It has three theatres in one: "The Oliver theatre", which was named after famous actor Lord Olivier, the biggest is for the main classical repertoire; "The Lyttilton", a bit smaller is for new writing and for visiting foreign countries and "The Cottesloe theatre", the smallest is used for experimental writing and productions. The National Theatre hosts an eclectic range of theatrical productions, from William Shakespeare and other classic drama, through to edgy new theatre by the world’s greatest new talents.
Barbican is one of the most beautiful districts of the City of London. The Barbican takes its name from the ancient fortifications that used to surround the City. (“A barbican” is a watchtower that hangs upon a gate.) It remained an upper-class part of town for much of the 17th-century, but by Victorian times the working class had taken over. Barbican is also famous for the Barbican Centre. The Barbican Centre is an enormous complex which contains two theatres, an art gallery, three cinemas, two restaurants and two exhibition halls. It was opened by the Queen on 3rd March 1982. The building itself is very interesting: it is built on 8 levels, 4 of which are underground. On the 5th level is the lake, complete with 45 fountains, and a terrace where you can have coffee. The main auditorium of the Barbican Theatre seats 1,160 people. A smaller theatre, called the Pit, is a studio space with 200 seats. The Barbican Center, a cultural complex in the City, houses the London Symphony Orchestra and the Royal Shakespeare Company when it performs in London. The company also stages plays in Stratford-upon-Avon.
There have always been many theatres around the Covent Garden Area. One of the most famous is the Royal Opera House, home of both Royal Ballet and Royal Opera. The inside of the Opera House is in the shape of a horseshoe. Productions today are most lavish and attract many people who come to see and hear the very best names in the world of opera. Ballet was brought to the theatre in 1911, and it became headquarters of the Royal Ballet Company. The London Royal Opera House is one of the most famous theatres in the world for ballet. The Royal Theatre is said to be haunted by a ghost that appears in the Circle during matinees. He dates from 1840, when a skeleton was discovered behind a wall with a knife in his ribs.
The Old Vic Theatre started life in 1818 as the Royal Coburg, before changing its name to the Royal Victorian Theatre – in honour of the fifteen-year-old Princess. It became the home of classical plays and opera. It is famous for its Shakespearean productions.
1. Which of London theatres was named after the famous English actor?
2. Which theatre of the National Theatre is the smallest and is used for experimental writing and productions?
3. The Barbican is …
4. What does the word “barbican” mean?
5. How many theatres does the Barbican Centre contain?
6. Which of London theatres houses the Royal Shakespeare Company when it performs in London?
7. William Shakespeare is a famous English …
8. What is the most famous theatre in the Covent Garden Area?
9. Which of London theatres is said to be haunted by a ghost that appears in the Circle during matinees?
10. Which of London theatres was named in honour of the fifteen-year-old English Princess?
Main London Palaces and Castles
London is famous for its splendid palaces. Whitehall Palace was the main residence of the royal family from 1529 to 1698. The Banqueting House of the Palace was completed in 1622 by the famous architect Inigo Jones for King James I. Today it is preserved as a showplace.
St James's Palace was the official royal residence from 1698 when Whitehall Palace was destroyed by fire to 1837 when Queen Victoria ascended to the throne and Buckingham Palace became the new chief residence. It has such a name because it was built on the site of a former leper hospital for women, which had been named in honor of St. James. Princess Diana resided here for a while until her divorce in 1996. She then moved into Kensington Palace. Nowadays it provides rooms for receptions, weddings and occasions of State. Princess Diana’ two sons Prince William and Prince Harry live in the palace now.
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the British monarch in London. Originally it was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 and acquired by King George III in 1762 as a private residence. Buckingham Palace finally became the official royal palace of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. There are more than 775 rooms in Buckingham Palace, but the public is only allowed in — by guided tour — to the Palace's 19 State Rooms. The State Rooms are available for viewing in August and September when the Queen makes her annual visit to Scotland. On view in the State Rooms are some of the Royal Collection's great treasures, including paintings, sculptures, porcelain and furnishings designed specially for the royal family.
Kensington Palace was the principal private royal residence for several centuries – Queen Victoria was born here and lived until became queen, but is perhaps more famous these days for being the home of Diana, Princess of Wales. She lived here from 1996 to 1997. It is now the residence of the Queen’s sister, Princess Margaret. The State Apartments are open to the public. It is also home to an exhibition dedicated to Royal Fashion. The Royal Ceremonial Dress Collection includes dresses worn by former Queens as well as a number of dresses for Princess Diana.
Hampton Court Palace in Richmond upon Thames in Outer London was intended to be the finest palace in Europe. The Palace was built by Cardinal Wolsey who presented Henry VIII with it. Henry VIII moved in with Anne Boleyn. He was very fond of Hampton Court. He carried out many alterations to the palace. Henry VIII built an indoor tennis court and the Great Hall where he held grand feasts. The last monarch to live in Hampton Court was George II. On Anne Boleyn's Gate there is an astronomical clock. It tells even Moon phases and Thames high tide time.
Windsor Castle is the oldest royal residence of The Queen. It was a royal home and fortress for over 900 years and remains a working palace today. The Queen likes to spend her weekends at Windsor Castle. Windsor Castle is often used by The Queen to host State Visits from overseas monarchs and presidents.
1. St James's Palace was the official royal residence …
2. What royal palace was built on the site of a former leper hospital for women?
3. The official residence of the Queen in London is …
4. How many rooms are there in Buckingham Palace?
5. What royal palace was Queen Victoria born?
6. Where can you see the Royal Ceremonial Dress Collection?
7. What royal palace is famous for being the home of Princess Diana after her divorce from 1996 to 1997?
8. What royal palace was presented to Henry VIII by Cardinal Wolsey and became his royal residence?
9. _________ is the oldest royal residence. It was a royal home and fortress for over 900 years and remains a working palace today. The Queen likes to spend her weekends in it.
10. Who was the queen of Great Britain from 1837 to 1901?
Main London Parks and Gardens
London has over 80 public parks. London's largest parks are the six royal parks: St. James's Park, Green Park, Buckingham Palace Gardens, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, and Regent's Park.
London's St James's Park is the oldest Royal Park in London. The area was a deer park under Henry VIII, a formal garden under Charles II, and was remodeled into its present relaxed air by John Nash. The park's lake is home to different species of waterfowl, including ducks and pelicans, who were introduced to the park in the mid 1600s. Ceremonial parades and important national events are often held at the adjoining avenue known as The Mall. The Mall is a road that leads to Buckingham palace.
Green Park is indeed a green park. The park is owned by the Crown today, but is opened to the public. The park is better known as the meeting ground for duelists, and many corpses must have lain on the now peaceful grass.
Buckingham Palace Gardens are situated behind the Buckingham Palace, the official Queen’s residence. Here the Queen hosts her annual garden parties, but since June 2002, she has invited the public into the Garden on numerous occasions. For example, for Queen's Golden Jubilee (2002), and her 80th birthday (2006).
Hyde Park is the largest of several royal parks in London. Once a hunting ground for Henry VIII, Hyde Park's is famous for its Serpentine Lake, a large artificial lake; Princess Diana’s Memorial Fountain, which more resembles an artificial stream rather than a fountain; Rotten Row, the first King's road; Marble Arch, a great gateway to Buckingham Palace; Speaker's Corner, a venue where people would be allowed to speak freely. Here, every Sunday people stand on a soap box and proclaim their views on political, religious or other items.
The Kensington Gardens border Hyde Park on the east, but the characters of the parks are quite different. Kensington Gardens was once part of Hyde Park, until William IV enclosed it to become the gardens for Kensington Palace to the west. The Gardens are more orderly and formal than Hyde Park, with a rectangular pond by the palace. The most famous attraction in the Kensington Gardens is the Kensington Palace, the former home of Princess Diana, a bronze statue of Peter Pan, the children’s fairy-tale hero, and the Albert Memorial, built to commemorate Prince Albert I, husband of Queen Victoria.
Regent's Park, originally called Marylebone Park, was part of a vast redevelopment plan by the Prince Regent, later George IV. The Inner Circle of Regent's Park contains a canal, lake, and Queen Mary's Garden, the rose garden named after the wife of King George V. The centerpiece of the park is the London Zoo, home to dozens of mammals, birds, invertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Regent's Park is famous for an open-air theatre where every summer Shakespeare's comedies are performed.
1. How many public parks are there in London?
2. In which of London royal parks can you see pelicans?
3. Which of London royal parks is better known as the meeting ground for duelists?
4. Where does the Queen host her annual garden parties?
5. Hyde Park is famous for …
6. What is the largest royal park in London?
7. Kensington Gardens is famous for …
8. Which of London royal parks was originally called Marylebone Park?
9. Regent’s Park is famous for …
10. Which of London royal parks is famous for an open-air theatre where every summer Shakespeare's comedies are performed?
Much of London is laid out around squares. The largest square in London is Trafalgar Square. Ever since the Middle Ages, Trafalgar Square has been a central meeting place. The awarding of the Olympics was celebrated here and this has traditionally been the main place to mark the New Year celebrations. At the middle of the square stands a tall Nelson's column, which was built to commemorate the victory of Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson over the French fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar on the 21st of October 1805. Nelson was killed in the battle but the victory was won. Nelson's column is guarded by four huge bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer in 1868. Brass relief around the bottom shows battle scenes depicting the Admiral’s famous naval battles. Trafalgar square is surrounded by many great buildings. To the north-east of Trafalgar Square there is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. They contain the finest art collections in the world. Not far from the National Gallery is the British Museum famous for its rich library (about 15,000,000 books). On the east side the square is bordered by St. Martin-in-the-Fields church. Despite its tiny size and humble decorations, it has strong royal connections – it is the parish church of Buckingham Palace.
Piccadilly Circus is a famous square which is a meeting point of six streets. Piccadilly was named after the tailor Roger Baker who became rich by making high collars called “piccadillies”. He built a grand house in this area which he called “Piccadilly Hall”, and the name has lived on. The word “Circus” refers to a roundabout around which the traffic circulated. Piccadilly Circus is famous for the Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain that was installed in its centre at the end of the 19th century to commemorate Anthony Cooper, the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, whose tireless work for the poor and mentally ill led to calls for a memorial. The statue on top of the fountain depicts the Angel of Christian Charity but was later renamed Eros after the Greek god of love and beauty. The square is also famous for its range of shops, which includes Waterstone’s, Europe’s largest book shop. Keen shoppers will be in heaven here, with the following shopping localities also within walking distance: Oxford Street, Bond Street, Regent Street and Carnaby Street.
Leicester Square is the heart of the West End entertainment district. Leicester Square is named after the Earl of Leicester’s mansion, which was originally situated on the northern edge of the plot. Several major theatres and cinemas line the square, giving it its nickname "Theatre land". If you visit on a film première night, then you may even see a few movie stars walking down the red carpet. In the center of the square there is a marble fountain known as the Shakespeare Memorial Fountain. The square is embellished with several statues of famous Londoners, including Sir Isaac Newton, Sir Joshua Reynolds, John Hunter, William Hogarth and Charlie Chaplin. In addition, the square is surrounded with floor plaques that include the names and handprints of famous actors, similar to those found at the Walk of Fame in Hollywood.
1. Which of London squares has traditionally been the main place to mark the New Year celebrations?
2. You can see the column with a statue of Admiral Nelson in…
3. What square is surrounded by such great buildings as the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery, the British Museum and St. Martin-in-the-Fields church?
4. What are called “piccadillies” in 17th century?
5. Piccadilly Circus is famous for …
6. What is standing on the top of the fountain in the middle of Piccadilly Circus?
7. Which of London squares is famous for its range of shops?
8. Leicester Square is …
9. What is standing in the middle of Leicester Square?
10. What square is embellished with several statues of famous Londoners and surrounded with floor plaques that include the names and handprints of famous actors?
All London's long-past history is told by its streets. Whitehall is the governmental street. Most British ministries and official residences are situated here. In the middle of Whitehall is the simple but impressive Cenotaph, the memorial to the men who died in the two World Wars. Just, along there on the left is New Scotland Yard, the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police and familiar to all readers of detective stories. Downing Street is very small and is usually associated with Whitehall. Downing Street 10 is the official residence of British Prime Minister. If you walk down Whitehall in the direction of Trafalgar Square and then turn to the left you will see a beautiful tree-lined street Pall Mall. Once it has been an alley and the king James II played a new ballgame to London – Palle Maille. This French game similar to croquet, gave names to two neighboring streets: Pall Mall and the Mall. Pall Mall is home to London’s gentlemen’s clubs. They soon made a name as places were gentlemen could go and gamble away the interest on their fortunes. The Mall is now the front entrance to Buckingham Palace, the official royal residence in London.
Fleet Street is known for the newspaper offices situated there. The Britain's national newspapers - The Daily Telegraph, the Daily Express, The Times, The Guardian have their offices here. It takes its name from the Fleet River, which used to run where Farringdon Road does today. It soon became a major thoroughfare, and attracted senior figures from the Catholic Church. Many major residences were built along its length, which in turn attracted the learned booksellers. Harley Street was laid out in 1820 and became the street where the highest-paid doctors live. Virtually every house in the street is filled with doctor’s clinics, dentists, dermatologists and surgeons.
Bond, Oxford, Regent streets are noted for their shops. Bond Street is famous for its designer shops and high-class jewellery. Some of the famous names include Gucci, Versace, Donna Karan, Asprey, Cartier and Tiffany’s. You can even see a few auction houses – Sotheby’s and Bonhams. Oxford Street has some of London’s best department stores, including the famous luxury department store called Harrods. Harrods has over 330 different departments and spread out over seven floors. The store was founded in 1834 by the tea merchant Henry Charles Harrod. Regent Street is famous for the richest shops and supermarkets, such as Liberty department store for fine fabrics, and Hamleys toy store for every kind of children’s toy. The Strand was originally just a little muddy track in London that ran east along the Thames, but by the early 16th-century the well-to-do had settled in and built mansions down to the bank. Now this street is filled up with coffee shops and drinking establishments.
The old district of Covent Garden is a great fair and a theatre district at the same time. It is known for its many open-air cafés, restaurants, pubs, market stalls and shops. It is also home to several theaters and the Royal Opera House. Covent Garden was not always the pleasant place that you see today – prisoners were dragged down the track on their way to be hanged at Tyburn. The area around St. Giles was the site of London’s first leprosy hospital, and it was here that the Great Plague took hold in 1665. During Victorian times, Covent Garden was known as the city’s worst slum – a fact attested to by Dickens in his numerous novels. In 1670 it became the largest fruit and vegetable market in London.
1. What is situated in the middle of Whitehall street?
2. Pall Mall street takes its name from …
3. Pall Mall is …
4. What is the name of the street where most English newspapers have their offices?
5. What London’s street is famous for its designer shops and high-class jewellery?
6. The famous luxury department store called Harrods situated in …
7. How many departments does Harrods have?
8. Regent Street is famous for …
9. What London’s street was known as the city’s worst slum and the site of London’s first leprosy hospital?
10. What London’s street is a home to several theaters and the Royal Opera House?
The Houses of Parliament
The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster is the seat of Britain's two parliamentary houses, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Westminster Palace was built in medieval days. It was a place of royal dwelling as early as the 11th century, which later became the meeting place of Parliament. It was destroyed many times by fire, and the foundation stone of the new Houses of Parliament was laid in 1840.
The Houses of Parliament is a beautiful building with two towers. Victoria Tower is 104 meters high and the national flag is hoisted on its top when the Parliament is sitting. The clock tower officially named Saint Stephen's Tower houses the Big Ben. The name Big Ben actually refers not to the clock-tower itself, but to the thirteen ton bell hung within. The hour bell was probably named after Benjamin Hall, a very tall and stout man, who supervised the rebuilding of Parliament, or after a famous Victorian prizefighter Benjamin Caunt, a British heavyweight boxing champion. Big Ben has boomed out the hours since 1859. When Parliament is sitting at night a light shines above the clock. The House of Commons sits to the side of the Clock Tower and the House of Lords – to the Victoria Tower side.
The Houses of Parliament can be visited by the public. The first room you enter the Houses of Parliament is called the Royal Robing Room. As you enter the Robing Room your eyes are drawn to the Chair of State. In this room the Queen receives the Imperial State Crown which is placed on her head just before she walks in procession through the Chamber of Lords. The Imperial State Crown is specially brought for her from the Tower of London where it is kept for the rest of the year. The Queen also puts on her State robes.
If you go up the staircase and then look at the ceiling just outside the Robing Room you will see the three colours of Parliament: the Sovereign (gold), the Lords (red) and the Commons (green). The building is divided up in this way too, and on your tour you will first pass through the royal part of the Palace - the Royal Apartments, then the part which belongs to the House of Lords and, finally, the part which belongs to the House of Commons.
In the Lords’ Chamber there is the historical Woolsack, where the Lord Chancellor takes his place to preside over the sittings. The Woolsack is a reminder of the times when England's commercial prosperity was founded on her wool exports. The benches in the Lords’ Chamber are coloured red.
The Commons Chamber's interior is rather austere compared to the lavishly decorated Lords Chamber. At the end of the House of Commons is the Speaker's Chair, on the right side of which the members of the parliamentary majority sit. The members of the groups that form the Opposition sit on the left, directly facing the Government benches. The benches in the Commons’ Chamber are coloured green.
One of several lobbies in the Houses of Parliament is the Central Lobby where people can meet the Members of Parliament and persuade them to defend their interests. Hence the verb 'to lobby'.
Parliament Square in front of the Palace of Westminster is famous for the monuments to great British statesmen. You can see a monument to Cromwell, Churchill and to Richard the Lion-Hearted.
1. On the top of which tower is the national flag hoisted when the Parliament is sitting?
2. Which tower houses the Big Ben?
3. What is Big Ben?
4. Where is the Chair of State situated?
5. Where is the Imperial State Crown kept?
6. How many parts does the Houses of Parliament consist of?
7. Where is the historical Woolsack situated?
8. Where is the Speaker's Chair situated?
9. The benches in the Commons’ Chamber are coloured…
10. Where can the visitors meet the Members of Parliament and persuade them to defend their interests?
The Tower of London
The Tower of London is one of the most imposing and popular of London's historical sites. It comprises not one, but 20 towers. The oldest of which, the White Tower, dates back to the 11th century. For over 900 years the Tower has been a palace, a fortress, a prison, a place of execution, an observatory, an arsenal, a royal mint and a zoo. Today the Tower of London houses the collection of Crown Jewels and is open to the public as a museum.
The Tower of London had never had a chance to serve as a fortress and to resist an enemy's attack. In 1066 the Normans built a castle on the edge of London, the southeastern corner of the old Roman city walls. The Normans joined up the walls with a ditch and fence to make a yard, in which they built a wooden tower. About ten years later William the Conqueror built the great stone tower, later called the White Tower, to commemorate his successful invasion of England. He built it right at the Gates of the City to keep the Londoners in fear. Later the kings began to use it as a royal residence.
In Tudor times, the Tower became a prison. Many people have been locked in the Tower, for religious beliefs or suspected treason. The most famous prisoners of the Tower were: Henry VIII's wives ─ Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard and Lady Jane Grey; statesman and humanist Sir Thomas More; famous sea captain Sir Walter Raleigh; Queen Elizabeth I; King Edward IV's two little sons, who were locked in the Tower by their uncle king Richard III. The last time it was used as a prison was during the Second World War when German spies were kept there. The last political prisoner was Rudolf Hess in 1941, after his crazy flight to Scotland.
As well as being a palace and a fortress, the Tower of London has also served as Royal Zoo. Kings sometimes get strange presents. About 700 years ago King Henry III got 3 leopards, 1 elephant and a polar bear. He kept them in the Tower. The elephant died after two years but the polar bear was happy as it went swimming and fishing in the Thames with a strong rope round its neck. That was the start of the London Zoo. In 1835 all animals left the Tower and were sent to the Zoo in Regent's Park.
The main entrance of the Tower of London is at the Byward Tower, where you'll find the so-called Beefeaters or Yeoman Warders. The name "Beefeater" is thought to originate from a French word "Buffetier". Buffetiers were guards in the palace of French kings and were responsible for the food in the palace. They are best known for their scarlet and gold dress uniforms which are worn on state occasions. They used to be monarch's private bodyguards. Dressed in historic clothes, they not only guard the tower, but also give guided tours of the fortress. One of the about 40 Yeoman Warders is known as the Raven master, responsible for the ravens that have been living here for centuries. Legend says that the Tower and the kingdom will fall if the ravens leave. Hence King Charles II placed the birds under royal protection and the wings of the ravens are clipped to prevent them from flying away.
1. How many towers does the Tower of London comprise?
2. What is the name of the oldest tower in London Tower?
3. What is the age of London Tower?
4. What is the Tower now?
5. Where are the Crown Jewels kept?
6. The Tower of London was built by...
7. How many Henry VIII's wives were imprisoned in the Tower?
8. Who was Sir Thomas More?
9. The fаmоus guаrds оf Lоndоn Tower are саlled…
10. Which birds, according to legend, protect the kingdom and the Tower of London from falling?
Westminster Abbey, which full name is the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic church, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for British monarchs. The abbey is a Royal Peculiar and briefly held the status of a cathedral from 1546 to 1556. The Westminster Abbey has been regard as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.
The Westminster Abbey was originally founded in the 960s as a Benedictine monastery – the West Minster. And later, a stone abbey was built around 1050-1065 by King Edward the Confessor. In 1245 it was rebuilt in French style by Henry III who had selected the site for his burial, and after many times of rebuilt, the present Westminster Abbey was finally finished in 15th century.
The Westminster Abbey measures 156 by 22 meters. The Abbey has the highest Gothic vault in England (nearly 31 meters), and the clock tower ranks 68.5 meters. The Westminster Abbey serves as a sacred place for coronations of English and British monarchs, royal weddings and burials and memorials. Westminster Abbey has witnessed 38 coronations: the first documented coronation here was that of William the Conqueror in 1066, the most recent was that of Queen Elizabeth II on 2 June 1953.
The ancient Coronation Chair – King Edward's Chair, the throne on which English and British sovereigns have been seated at the moment of coronation, is housed within the Abbey and has been used at every coronation since 1308. The chair also housed the Stone of Scone upon which the kings of Scots are crowned. Although the Stone is now kept in Scotland, in Edinburgh Castle, at future coronation the Stone will be returned briefly to St Edward's. The Stone captured by Edward I and taken to Westminster Abbey in 1297 was the symbol of defeat of Scotland.
There is a great addition to the Abbey was the construction of the Chapel of Henry VII, with its magnificent vault. It was built in 1503-1519. The chapel has a large stained glass window, which commemorates the Royal Air Force pilots and aircrew who died during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
The abbey is sometimes compared with a mausoleum, because it is stuffed with memorials and tombs of famous people. In total 3300 people are buried in the church and cloisters. The south side of Westminster Abbey is called Poet's Corner. Among the famous people buried there are Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, Rudyard Kipling and others. Here too, though these writers are not buried in Westminster Abbey, are memorials to Chaucer, Shakespeare, Burns, Byron, Walter Scott, Thackeray, Shelley and to the American poet Longfellow. The north side of Westminster Abbey is often referred as Scientist's Corner. Among the famous people buried there are Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, David Livingstone, Sir Charles Barry, Thomas Telford and Clement Attlee.
Near the West Door of the Abbey you can see the tomb of the Unknown Warrior. It commemorates all British soldiers who died in the First World War.
1. The Westminster Abbey was originally founded in the 960s as …
2. The Westminster Abbey was built in stone by …
3. What is the height of Gothic vault in the Westminster Abbey?
4. How many coronations were held in the Westminster Abbey?
5. What is the Stone of Scone?
6. Where is the Stone of Scone kept?
7. The Chapel of Henry VII has a large stained glass window, which commemorates …
8. How many people are buried in the Westminster Abbey?
9. Where is Isaac Newton buried?
10. Where is the memorial to Shakespeare situated?
Buckingham Palace has been the official royal residence since 1837 and today is the administrative headquarters of the Monarch. The original building was constructed as a country house in 1705 by the duke of Buckingham, John Sheffield. The Duke's son sold the house in 1761 to King George III, who bought the house for his wife and altered it. When it passed to George IV in 1820, he asked famed architect John Nash to expand the house - then known as Buckingham House ─ into a palace. Meanwhile St. James's Palace was still the principal palace used by the royals for ceremonies and receptions. Queen Victoria was the first to reside in the palace. In July 1837, three weeks after her accession to the throne, she moved from Kensington Palace, where she grew up, to the new Buckingham Palace.
A part of the palace is still used by the Royal family. A flag is hoisted each time the Queen is in the Palace. The palace is not only home to the royal family; there are also a number of staff members living here. More than 700 people work here every day. The palace has about 775 rooms, including a throne room, a ballroom, picture gallery, a cinema, a restaurant, a hospital, a swimming pool and even a night club. It also has its own post office and police station. Some of these rooms are open to visitors during August and September - when the Royal Family is not in the palace - including the lavishly decorated State Rooms: the Throne Room, Green Drawing Room, Silk Tapestry Rooms, Picture Gallery, State Dining Room, Blue Drawing Room, Music Room and White Drawing Room are all part of the tour around the Buckingham Palace.
Another interesting part of the palace that is open to visitors is the Queen's Gallery, where works of art from the royal collection are on display. In the picture gallery there are wonderful art treasures by Rubens, Rembrandt, Canaletto, Vermeer, and many others.
The palace's stables, the Royal Mews, can also be visited. Here you'll find a number of royal horse-drawn carriages and motor cars, the State vehicles used by the Royal Family for coronations, State Visits and royal weddings. The stables are also home to the horses that take part in The Queen's official and ceremonial duties.
Right in front of the building is the Queen Victoria Memorial, designed by Sir Aston Webb and built in 1911 in honor of Queen Victoria, who reigned for almost 64 years.
At the back of the Palace there is a large park-like garden. Here the Queen hosts her annual garden parties each summer, but since June 2002, she has invited the public into the Garden on numerous occasions. For example, for Queen's Golden Jubilee (2002) and her 80th birthday (2006).
The changing of the guard takes place daily at 11:30 a.m. in front of Buckingham Palace. A colorfully dressed detachment, known as the New Guard, parades along the Mall towards Buckingham Palace and during a ceremony replaces the existing, Old Guard. The ceremony, which is accompanied by music played by a military band, always attracts throngs of onlookers.
1. Buckingham Palace was constructed in …
2. Who was the first to reside in Buckingham palace when it became the official royal residence?
3. How many rooms are there in Buckingham Palace?
4. When are the State Rooms open to public?
5. Where can you see the royal collection of works of art?
6. Where can you see the royal horse-drawn carriages and motor cars?
7. In front of Buckingham Palace there is a memorial of …
8. How many years did Queen Victoria reign?
9. Where did the Queen celebrate her Golden Jubilee (2002) and her 80th birthday (2006)?
10. The changing of the guard in front of Buckingham Palace is at …
St. Paul’s Сathedral
St. Paul’s Cathedral is the biggest Anglican cathedral in the UK. It locates on the north Shore of Thames River. It is a gorgeous Baroque architecture and famous for its spectacular dome. Moreover, it is the second biggest dome church in the world which imitated the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. It was completed at the end of 17th century and became the representative of British classical architecture. It was memorably used for a number of important historic events such as the funeral of Admiral Nelson in 1806 and the funeral of Winston Churchill in 1965. Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer married here in 1981.
The great English architect Sir Christopher Wren built the Church between 1675 and 1710 to replace the original St. Paul's, which was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. It took Ch. Wren 35 years to build this cathedral. When he died he was buried in his own magnificent building. Such words are written on his grave: "If you want to see his monument, look around".
St. Paul was built of white stone as well as many other buildings in the City of London. But smoke and soot made the stones black and only the columns and edges were washed by the rain and remained white. That is how the building got its peculiar white-and-black look.
On top of St. Paul's Cathedral is a huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. The church's huge dome towers 111 meters above the ground. The Dome of Saint Paul's is made of two domes, Outer and Inner, one inside the other. Inner dome is decorated with scenes from the life of Saint Paul. The dome of St Paul's Cathedral is the second biggest dome in the world, after St Peter's in Rome.
At the dome's base is a balcony called the Whispering Gallery, a circular walkway halfway up the inside of the dome. Due to the acoustics of the curved surface, a phrase whispered against one wall can be heard against the far wall 112 feet away.
For the fit or ambitious, you can climb 530 steps to the Golden Gallery, an observation platform on the top of the dome of the cathedral. From there you can look out over the modern skyline of the city of London.
The clock tower on the West Side houses the bell known as Big Paul. At three meters in diameter, it is the heaviest swinging bell in the country. Big Paul rings every weekday at 1 p.m. to let people know that it is lunch time. Another bell, Big Tom, tolls when a monarch or important churchmen die. The church bells in the other tower are rung on Sundays and to celebrate great occasions.
You can also go down underneath the cathedral, into the Crypt with over 300 memorials to the great people of Britain. Among them are Christopher Wren, Duke of Wellington and Admiral Nelson, Florence Nightingale and Lord Kitchener. There is a display of Cathedral treasures, including priest's robes.
The American Memorial Chapel is at the eastern end of Saint Paul's. It commemorates the Americans who died in the Second World War. Their names are written in a roll of honor kept in a glass and gold case.
1. The dome of St Paul's Cathedral is ______________ in the world.
2. How many years did it take Christopher Wren to build St. Paul’s Cathedral?
3. What explains the inscription: "If you want to see his monument, look around"?
4. What is the name of a circular walkway halfway up the inside of the dome, which is famous for its acoustics?
5. What is the name of an observation platform on the top of the dome of the cathedral?
6. What is the name of a bell, which rings every weekday at 1 p.m. to let people know that it is lunch time?
7. Big Tom…
8. How many memorials to the great people of Britain are there in the Crypt of St. Paul’s Cathedral?
9. Where is Christopher Wren buried?
10. The American Memorial Chapel commemorates …
The British Museum
The British Museum is one of the most famous museums in the world. Established in 1753 with the donation of 71,000 objects from the collection of Irish botanist and physician Sir Hans Sloane, the British Museum quickly became one of the London's top attractions. The British Museum comprises the National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, and the National Library. It houses a collection of ancient civilizations and 15-million-volume national library. The British Museum is divided into the 11 major departments: Ancient Egypt & Sudan; Greek & Roman Antiquities; Middle East; Treasures of the Islamic World; Prints & Drawings; Asia; Oceania, Africa & The Americas; Coins & Medals; Prehistory & Europe; Portable Antiquities and Treasure; Conservation, Documentation & Science. The Museum is situated in London in Bloomsbury district.
The Elgin Marbles, the collection of marble sculptures that were taken from the Parthenon in Athens, is one of the museum's most famous attractions. They are located in the purpose-built Parthenon Galleries.
Another highlight of the British Museum is the extensive Egyptian collection. Besides many sarcophagi and statues, including an enormous one of Pharaoh Ramesses II, the collection is home to the famous Rosetta stone, which was the key to understanding Egyptian picture writing, hieroglyphs. The text on the stone, created in 196 BC after the end of the Egyptian dynasties, tells of battles of that time. The British Museum is also known for its very large and popular collection of Egyptian mummies of kings and queens.
The Assyrian collection features relief carvings from the palaces of the Assyrian kings at Nimrud, Khorsabad and Nineveh. The enormous winged bulls from the palace of Sargon II are especially impressive.
There are also extremely important ethnological collections, including exhibits from the Pacific islands, such as ancient Polynesian idols, and America, such as the Aztec sculptures.
But the first thing which associates with the British Museum is its Library. The Library consisted at first of the collection of books belonging to Sir Hans Sloane and other collections of manuscripts and books of the royal library. Today there're 15-million of volumes in the library. By law a copy of every book, periodical or newspaper published in Britain must be pre-served in the British Museum. All printed matter is kept in a separate building in another part of London. The British Museum Library is a reading-room and a reference library, but not a lending library. The famous circular Reading Room of the Museum has an unusual shape. It is a perfect circle. The superintendent and his assistants sit in the centre of the room and collect books. The catalogues are kept behind them.
The British Museum contains books and manuscripts: Greek, Roman, British and oriental antiquities. It has a department of ethnography. This collection is so vast that only a very small percentage is on show to the public. There is also a department of prints and drawings. There are departments devoted to maps, coins, medals and philately. Those who come to the British Museum can see a fascinating array of clocks and watches.
1. How many objects did Sir Hans Sloane donate to the British Museum?
2. Who is Sir Hans Sloane?
3. How many books does the Library of the British Museum contain?
4. How many departments are there in the British Museum?
5. In what department can you see the Elgin Marbles?
6. What can you see in the Parthenon Gallery?
7. In what department can you see the statue of Pharaoh Ramesses II and Rosetta stone?
8. The Assyrian collection is famous for…
9. In what department can you see the ancient Polynesian idols and the Aztec sculptures?
10. The Reading Room of the British Museum has a shape of …
Madam Tussaud's Museum
Madame Tussaud's Museum is a major tourist attraction in London, displaying the wax figures of world celebrities. It was founded by a French wax modeler Madam Tussaud.
Marie Tussaud, was born as Anna Maria Grosholtz in 1761 in Strasbourg, France. Her mother worked as a housekeeper for her brother Dr. Philippe Curtius in Bern, Switzerland, who was a physician skilled in wax modelling. Curtius taught Tussaud the art of wax modelling. Tussaud created her first wax figure, of Voltaire, in 1777. Other famous people she modelled at that time include Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Benjamin Franklin. During the French Revolution she modelled many prominent victims. In her memoirs she claims that she would search through corpses to find the decapitated heads of executed citizens, from which she would make death masks. Her death masks were held up as revolutionary flags and paraded through the streets of Paris. Following the doctor's death in 1794, she inherited his vast collection of wax models and spent the next 33 years travelling around Europe. Her marriage to François Tussaud in 1795 lent a new name to the show: Madame Tussaud's. In 1802, she went to London having accepted an invitation from Paul Philidor, a magician, to exhibit her work alongside his show at the Lyceum Theatre, London. By 1835 Marie had settled down in Marylebone Road in London, and opened a museum. In 1842 she sculpted the self-portrait that faces tourists as they enter the museum. Madame Tussaud died on 16 April 1850 at 90. She was succeeded by her sons Francis and Joseph Tussaud.
There are several themed sections in the museum: Garden Party, Legends and Superstars, Grand hall, 200 Years, Chamber of horrors, Spirit of London, Marvel Super Heroes and others. They display about 500 life-size wax figures of living and dead world historical and royal figures, film and sports stars, writers and artists, religious figures, musicians, infamous murderers and criminals, victims of the French Revolution and fiction characters. The oldest figure on display is that of Madame du Barry, the mistress of Louis XV. It was modeled in 1765 by Curtis. She is nicknamed the Sleeping Beauty.
Each figure is disconcertingly realistic. When a new one is made, experts research the real person as thoroughly as they can, where possible measuring, weighing, photographing and taking plaster casts to ensure that the wax figure matches in every detail. It takes half a year to complete one wax model, and it costs over £30,000. A lot of the waxworks celebrities are interactive. Computer controlled figures are especially popular with the visitors.
New models are being produced all the time while the old ones are quietly removed from display. Over the years hundreds of celebrities have made their way to Madame Tussaud's studio. Most people agree to be portrayed, but some refuse. Mother Teresa was one of the few who declined, saying her work was important, not her person.
You can find Madame Tussaud’s branches in other cities all over the world. It has expanded in Amsterdam, Berlin, Las Vegas, New York City, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Washington and Hollywood.
1. The first wax figure that Marie Tussaud created was a figure of …
2. When did Madame Tussaud open a wax museum in London?
3. Whose wax figure faces tourists as they enter the Museum?
4. How many wax figures are displayed in Madam Tussaud's Museum?
5. What is the oldest wax figure on display in the Museum?
6. Whose wax figure has a nickname “Sleeping Beauty”?
7. How much time does one need to complete one wax model?
8. How much does it cost to make one wax model?
9. Who refused to be portrayed for the wax figure?
10. In what section can you see a wax model of Mickey Mouse?
Political System of Great Britain
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. It means that the monarch reigns but does not rule. Britain does not have a written constitution, but a set of laws and conventions.
The British Parliament is made up of three parts: the Monarch, the House of Lords; and the House of Commons. In reality the House of Commons is the only one of the three which has true power. The monarch serves formally as head of state. Nevertheless, the monarch still performs some important executive and legislative duties including opening and dissolving Parliament, signing bills passed by both Houses and fulfilling international duties as head of state. But the monarch is expected to be politically neutral and should not make political decisions. The present monarch is Queen Elizabeth II.
The House of Commons consists of 650 elected Members of Parliament (called MPs for short). They are elected by secret ballot. General elections are held every five years. The country is divided into 650 constituencies. All citizens aged 18 and registered in a constituency, have the right to vote. But voting is not compulsory in Britain.
There are few political parties in Britain. The main ones are: the Conservative Party (its nickname is "the Tories", the party that from the 19th century supported the King), the Liberal Party ("the Whigs", who from the 19th century supported the Parliament), the Labour Party (it was founded in 1900), the Social Democratic Party (the alliance of two parties was made in 1988), and others. Each political party puts up one candidate for each constituency. The one who wins the most votes is elected MP for that area.
The party which wins the majority of seats in the House of Commons forms the government and its leader usually becomes Prime Minister. The Prime Minister appoints about 20 MPs from his party to form the Cabinet of Ministers. The second largest party forms the official Opposition, with its own leader and "shadow cabinet". The Opposition has a duty to criticize government policies and to present an alternative programme. The functions of the House of Commons are legislation (or law-making) and scrutiny of government activities. The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker. The Speaker is appointed by the Government. MPs sit on the two sides of the hall, the right side is for the governing party and the left side is for the opposition.
The House of Lords comprises about 1,200 peers, although only about 250 take an active part in the work in the house. The House of Lords has no real power. It acts rather as an advisory council. Unlike MPs, members of the House of Lords ("hereditary peers") are not elected. They are holders of an inherited aristocratic title. The House of Lords is a relic of earlier times. The chairman of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor. And he sits on a special seat - a large bag of wool covered with red cloth, called "Woolsack". The Woolsack is a reminder of the times when England's commercial prosperity was founded on her wool exports.
It's in the House of Commons that new bills are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members are in favour of a bill, it goes to the House of Lords to be debated. The House of Lords has the right to reject a new bill twice. But after two rejections they are obliged to accept it. And finally a bill goes to the monarch to be signed. Only then it becomes law.
Тест на тему: Political System of Great Britain
1. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, it means that ……
2. What English-speaking country does not have a written constitution?
3. How many parts does the British Parliament consist of?
4. What Houses does the British Parliament consist of?
5. Whom does the true power in Britain belong to?
6. Who opens and dissolves the Parliament in the UK?
7. Who is the present monarch of the UK?
8. How many members are there in the House of Commons?
9. The people who sit in the House of Commons are called ___________.
10. The Members of the House of Commons are elected by secret ballot every _____ years.
11. How many constituencies is the UK divided into?
12. All citizens aged _________ have the right to vote.
13. What are the two oldest English parties?
14. What is the nickname of the Conservative Party?
15. What is the nickname of the Liberal Party?
16. What is the name of the party that from the 19th century supported the King?
17. What is the name of the party that from the 19th century supported the Parliament?
18. What two parties made the alliance in 1988?
19. The Government in Great Britain is formed by the party which wins the majority of seats in _________.
20. Who appoints and forms the Cabinet of Ministers?
21. There are ______ ministers in the Cabinet of Ministers in Britain.
22. The _______ largest party forms the official Opposition in Parliament.
23. The "shadow cabinet" represents the leading members of ……
24. The function of the House of Commons is ……
25. Who presides over the House of Commons?
26. Who sits on the left side of the Parliament hall?
27. The people who sit in the House of Lords are called ___________.
28. How many members are there in the House of Lords?
29. How many members take an active part in the work in the House of Lords?
30. The function of the House of Lords is ……
31. The Members of ____________ are not elected; they are holders of an inherited aristocratic title.
32. Who is the chairman of the House of Lords?
33. Who sits in the British Parliament on a woolsack covered with red cloth?
34. Where are the new bills introduced and debated?
35. How many times can the House of Lords reject a new bill?
36. Who signs the laws in the UK?
37. Who takes part in the law-making process? Place the parts of the British Parliament in the order of the bill passing through them.
38. Определите, правильны или нет следующие выражения (+,─)
Educational System of Great Britain
Education in Great Britain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5 and 16. There are three stages of education: primary education, secondary education and further, higher education.
Primary education (from 5 to 11 years of age). A Primary School is subdivided into a nursery school for children aged 3 to 5, an infant school for children aged 5 to 7 and a junior school for children aged 7 to 11. In Primary School children learn to read and write and the basis of arithmetic. In the higher classes of Primary School children learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language.
Secondary education (from 11 to 16 years of age). There are three main types of Secondary Schools: grammar schools, modern schools and comprehensive schools. In grammar schools, which give secondary education of a very high standard, entrance is based on the test of ability, usually at 11. Grammar schools are single sexed schools. In modern schools, which don't prepare pupils for universities, education gives good prospects for practical jobs. Children are sent to one of these three types of school according to their abilities. These three types of school still exist, but their number is decreasing. They are being replaced by the so-called comprehensive schools. The main advantages of the comprehensive schools are that these schools are open to children of all types of ability from the age of 11 without exams. In such schools pupils are often put into certain sets or groups, which are formed according to their abilities for technical or humanitarian subjects. Almost all senior pupils (around 90 per cent) go there. Some parents choose private schools for their children. Most of these schools are boarding ones, where children live as well as study. Education in such schools is very expensive, that's why only 5 per cent of schoolchildren attend them. The most famous British public schools are Eton, Harrow and Winchester Collage.
After completing compulsory education at 16, pupils can stay at school, work or go to a Further Education College. Pupils of a secondary school take “0 level” General Certificate of Secondary Education exams at 16 and “A-level” (advanced level) exams at 18 (if they remain at school), which are necessary for entering a university. Other 16-year-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work. There are 400 colleges for more specialized needs, such as agriculture, economy, art and design, and law, providing part-time and full-time education.
Universities of higher education accept students from 18 basing on their A-level results. Generally, universities award three kinds of degrees: the Bachelor's degree, the Master's degree and the Doctor's Degree. Students study for a degree which takes on average three years of full-time study. In England there are 126 universities, including the Open University which offers extramural education. Students learn subjects at home and then post ready exercises off to their tutors for marking. The most famous British universities are, of course, Oxford and Cambridge called 'Oxbridge', London School of Economics, London Imperial College, and London University.
Тест на тему: Educational System of Great Britain
1. In Great Britain children go to school at the age of …
2. How long do children study at school in Great Britain?
3. What stages of education are in Great Britain?
4. How long does primary education last in Great Britain?
5. What schools is Primary School subdivided into?
6. When does an infant school begin and end?
8. What subjects do children learn in the higher classes of Primary School?
9. Secondary education in Britain is …
10. How long does secondary education last in Great Britain?
11. What are the three main types of Secondary School?
12. In which type of Secondary School entrance is based on the test of ability, usually at 11?
13. Which type of Secondary School gives good prospects for practical jobs?
14. Which type of Secondary School is open to children of all types of ability from the age of 11 without exams?
15. Which type of Secondary School are boarding schools?
16. Which type of Secondary School are single sexed schools?
17. Which type of Secondary School doesn’t prepare pupils for universities?
18. In which type of Secondary School education is very expensive?
19. Around 90 % of all senior pupils go to …
20. Only 5 % of schoolchildren attend …
21. The main advantages of the comprehensive schools are that …
22. What are the most famous British private schools?
23. The students graduate from secondary schools at the age of …
24. What exams do children have to take at 16 years old?
25. When do pupils take their “A-level” exams?
26. What exams are necessary to take for entering a university?
27. How many colleges of further education are in Great Britain?
28. Whom do universities of higher education accept?
29. How many kinds of degrees do universities award?
30. How long do students study for a degree?
31. How many universities are there in England?
32. What university offers extramural education?
33. What are the most famous British universities?
Universities of Great Britain
There are 126 universities in Britain. They are divided into 5 types: the Old ones, which were founded before the 19th century, such as Oxford and Cambridge called 'Oxbridge'; the Red Brick, which were founded in the 19th or 20th century; the Plate Glass, which were founded in 1960s; the Open University, which is the only university offering extramural education; the New ones.
Until the 19th century England had no other universities, apart from Oxford and Cambridge. The universities founded between 1850-1930, including London University are known as redbrick universities (because of the favorable building material of the time). Redbrick universities were built to provide a liberal education and to give technological training for the poorer boys. Oxford and Cambridge graduates scorned them.
In 1971 the Open University was set up for the people who do not have time or the qualifications to study full-time at a university. The university's courses are taught through television, radio and course books. Its students work individually and with tutors, to whom they send their papers. The final mark is based on the exam and the written assignments done during the year. It takes six (or eight) years to get a degree.
The universities founded after World War II are called the new universities (Kent, Essex, York, etc.). They are former polytechnic academies and colleges.
The Universities were only for men until 19th century when the first women's college was opened. Later the doors of colleges were opened to both men and women. Nowadays almost all the colleges are mixed.
All British universities are private institutions. Every institution is independent, autonomous and responsible only to its governing council, but they all receive financial support from the state. The admission to the universities is by examinations or selection (interviews). Some universities have extra-mural departments.
Education in Britain is not free of charge, it is rather expensive. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may receive a personal grant from the local authority of the place where he lives.
The course of study at a university lasts three or four years. In general Bachelor's degree, the first academic degree is given to the students who pass their examination at the end of the course: Bachelor of Arts, for history, philosophy, language and literature, Bachelor of Science or Commerce or Music. Many students then continue their studies for a Master's Degree and then a Doctor's Degree.
A university consists of a number of faculties: arts, science, medicine, agriculture, education, law and theology. The teaching is organized in departments, such as engineering, economics, commerce, history, French, etc. At the head of each faculty there is a professor. Others teachers are lectures, some of the senior teachers have the title of reader or senior lecturer.
1. Oxford and Cambridge universities were founded …
2. Oxford and Cambridge universities belong to …
3. Which British universities were built to provide a liberal education and to give technological training for the poorer boys?
4. The Red Brick universities were founded …
5. London University belongs to …
6. The Plate Glass universities were founded …
7. The Open University was founded …
8. How many years does it take you to get a degree in the Open University?
9. Which British universities are former polytechnic academies and colleges?
10. The New universities were founded …
Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Great Britain. They are jointly called Oxbridge to denote an elitarian education. Only rich people send their children to these universities. Many great men studied there: Bacon, Milton, Byron, Darwin, Rutherford, Cromwell, and Newton; many prominent politicians and members of the Royal family were educated here too.
Oxford and Cambridge universities were founded in the medieval period and consist of a number of colleges, each self-governing and independent. Each college has its name. In every college there are such faculties as classics, divinity, English, architecture, history of art, modern and medieval languages, Oriental studies, music, economics, politics, history, law, philosophy, engineering, earth sciences, geography, mathematics, biology, archaeology, physics, chemistry and medicine as well as computer laboratories, dining halls, libraries and chapels.
Before 1970 most of all Oxbridge universities were only for men. Later the doors of colleges were opened to both men and women. Nowadays almost all the colleges are mixed. The administrative body of the University consists of the Chancellor (who is elected for life), the Vice-chancellor (who is in practice the head of the University, and is appointed annually by the Chancellor) and two proctors, whose job is to maintain discipline and who are appointed annually. The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Some courses may be a year or two longer.
The main characteristic feature of these universities is their unique system of education known as tutorials in Oxford and supervisions in Cambridge (tutorials means the individual tuition). Each student has a tutor (a Don) who gives personal instructions to the students either one-to one or in very small groups, numbering not more than four. Every week the tutor and his students meet to discuss the work they have done, to criticize it in detail and to set the next week's work.
Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. The first of its colleges was founded in 1167. The university now has 39 colleges and the four-hundred-year-old library, which has about five million books. The most famous colleges are Christ Church, University College and All Souls. A characteristic feature of Oxford is that many traditions of the Middle Ages are still current there. One of them is that the students have to wear gowns.
Cambridge University was founded in 1209. Today there are 31 colleges in it. The University is situated on the river Cam. The colleges line the right bank. The oldest college is Peterhouse and the most recent is Robinson College. But the most famous is the King's College, because of its magnificent chapel.
Students at Oxbridge have different societies and clubs. Different sports are very popular. But the most popular sport is rowing. Every year at the end of March (or in early April) a traditional rowing race between Oxford and Cambridge universities takes place on the river Thames. The course is the 41/4 mile stretch of river. The race usually starts at midday or at 3 o'clock. By 1966 Cambridge had won 61 times, Oxford - 50 times.
1. Who is in practice the head of the University?
2. The Chancellor of the University is elected…
3. Proctor's job is …
4. How does one call a person who gives personal instructions to the students either one-to one or in very small groups, numbering not more than four?
5. What is the oldest university in Great Britain?
6. How many colleges does Oxford University have?
7. What is the age of the Oxford University library?
8. What is the oldest college of Cambridge University?
9. What is the most famous college of Cambridge University?
10. On what river does a traditional rowing race between Oxford and Cambridge universities take place?
Industry and Agriculture of Great Britain
Great Britain is one of the most highly-developed industrial countries in the world. It has achieved this position despite the lack of most raw materials needed for industry. Apart from coal and iron ore Britain has very few natural resources. Most of the raw materials such as oil and various metals have to be imported.
Until the 18th century the economy of England was mainly agricultural. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, however, England gradually evolved into industrial region.
The original basis of British industry was coal-mining, and the early factories grew up not far from the main mining areas. Coal-mining, metallurgy, textile, shipbuilding are the oldest fields of industry. Great progress was made in the development of new industries, such as the aircraft, automobile, chemical, pharmaceutical, electrotechnical, microelectronics and electronic engineering. Now high technology industries are more developed than heavy engineering. Heavy engineering and other traditional industries have experienced a certain decline.
Great Britain is one of the world’s largest exporters of manufactured goods. Britain produces high quality expensive goods, which has always been characteristic of its industry. A shortage of raw materials, as well as the high cost of production makes it unprofitable for British industry to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles. Britain mostly produces articles, requiring skilled labour, precision instruments, railway and motor vehicles, machinery, aircraft, ships, electronic equipment, chemicals, plastics, cotton and woolen fabrics, high quality consumer goods and articles made of various kinds of synthetic materials.
Certain areas are traditionally noted for various types of industries. For instance, Newcastle is famous for coal-mining industry. The most ancient centers of English metallurgical industry are Birmingham and Sheffield. Leeds, Bradford and Manchester are famous centers of textile industry. Glasgow is a major port on the River Clyde where shipbuilding industry is developed. Liverpool on the River Mersey is a flour milling and engineering centre. In recent times regional industrial distinctions have become less clear as more and more new factories are built in the different parts of the country. Big cities and towns such as London, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and Birmingham have enterprises of nearly all branches of industry.
Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in British economy. It supplies only half the food it needs and directly employs about 2.5 per cent of the working population. Great Britain is self-sufficient in milk, eggs, meat and potatoes. However it has to import wheat, butter, cheese, sugar, tea, fruit and some other agricultural products.
Britain used to be richly forested, but most of the forests were cut down to make more room for cultivation. The greater part of land is used for cattle and sheep breeding, and pig raising. Among the crops grown on the farms are wheat, barley and oats. The fields are mainly in the eastern part of the country. Most of the farms are small. Farms tend to be bigger where the soil is less fertile. British agriculture is efficient for it is based on modern technology and research. The work in agricultural sector is highly mechanized. Computers and different agricultural machines are used by the farmers in Great Britain.
Тест на тему: Industry and Agriculture of Great Britain
1. What raw materials does Great Britain import?
2. After the 18th century the economy of England became mainly ……
3. What was the original basis of British industry?
4. What did Great Britain export to Europe in the 19th century?
5. What are the oldest fields of industry in Great Britain?
6. What are the new industries in Great Britain?
7. What industries are more developed now?
8. What has always been the characteristic feature of British industry?
9. Birmingham and Sheffield are the most ancient centers of ……
10. What is a famous coal-mining centre in Great Britain?
11. Glasgow is traditionally noted for ……
12. What area of Great Britain is famous for textile industry?
13. Liverpool is situated on ……
14. What city is a flour milling and engineering centre?
15. About 2.5 per cent of the working population is employed in ……
16. What agricultural products is Great Britain self-sufficient in?
17. Why were the most of the forests cut down?
18. What is the greater part of land used for?
19. What crops are grown on the farms of Great Britain?
20. The major agricultural region of Great Britain is in the _______.
Ukraine is a country in the south-eastern part of Europe, and the second largest country in Europe after Russia.
It occupies the territory of about 603,700 square kilometers and administratively is divided into 24 regions and the Crimean autonomous republic. The capital of the Crimean autonomous republic is Simferopol. The capital of the Ukraine is Kyiv, which is situated on the river Dnieper. The population of Ukraine is near 46 million people.
Ukraine borders on Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in the west and on Romania and Moldova in the southwest. Its northern neighbor is Belarus, and the eastern one is Russia. Also Ukraine has a sea-border with Russia, Georgia and Turkey. The territory of Ukraine is mostly flat and mountains make up only 5% of its territory. The highest mountains, situated in the country are Roman Kosh in the Crimean mountains, it is 1545 metres high, and Goverla in the Carpathian mountains, it is 2061 metres high. Most of the territory is covered with woods and forest-steppes.
Ukraine is washed by the Black sea and the Asov one. There are 131 rivers in Ukraine. The main navigable rivers are the Dnieper, the Dniester, the South Bug, the Danube and the Seversky Donets. Our country has a lot of lakes on its territory, the largest is Yalpug. The climate of Ukraine is temperately continental, with a subtropical Mediterranean climate prevalent on the southern past of the Crimean peninsula.
The continental climate, fertile black soil and excellent geographical position make Ukraine ideal for the development of agriculture. Among the crops grown in Ukraine are sugar-beet, wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, maize, soybean, potatoes, sunflower, flax and a large variety of vegetables and fruit. That’s why it is easy to guess that the Ukrainian national blue and yellow flag symbolizes golden wheat fields below the blue sky. Cattle and pig-breeding is spread on the most part of Ukraine. It is the famous producer of dairy products, meat and poultry.
Ukraine is a well developed industrial country. The country has many industrial raw materials, such as iron ore, titanium and uranium ores, coal and graphite, gas and oil, rock salt, manganese, gypsum, zinc, limestone and nickel. The leading industries of the country are ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, machine-building, power industry, electronic engineering, coal-mining and chemical industry. The country produces machinery, steel, rolled metals, tractors, cement and other building materials, mineral fertilizers, chemicals, and cheap consumer goods. Ukraine's main industrial centers are Donetsk, Kryvyi Rig, Zaporizhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Kharkov, Nikopol, Mariupol and Luhansk. The main seaports of Ukraine are Odessa, Sevastopol, Kerch, Nikolaev, Yalta.
Ukraine is infamous for its Chernobyl nuclear disaster. The 4th reactor of the nuclear power station of Chernobyl burst on the 26th of April 1986, the explosion happened in the northern Ukrainian town Chernobyl situated on the river Pripyat. It radiates and will continue to radiate radioactive emanation for thousands of years. Therefore it has been covered by a thick layer of concrete. This layer is nicknamed the Sarcophagus.
Ukraine is a country of ancient cultural traditions, many of which have roots in the pre-Christian times. Easter is the biggest Christian holiday in Ukraine. Pysanka, a decorated Easter egg is a meaningful symbol of Ukraine. The most popular food in Ukraine is varenyky (dumplings), kovbasa (sausage), holubtsi (stuffed cabbage) and borsch (beet soup). Hopak is the famous traditional folk dance in Ukraine. Kobzari are folk professional minstrels unique to Ukraine. They are special because they are blind. Korovay is traditional Ukrainian wedding bread decorated with kalyna berries, ribbons and topped with flying birds.
Тест на тему: Ukraine
1. Where is Ukraine situated?
2. Ukraine is ………
3. How many regions is Ukraine administratively divided into?
4. Which of the following cities is the capital of Ukraine?
5. Which of the following cities is the capital of the Crimean autonomous republic?
6. What is the other name of the Crimean autonomous republic?
7. What countries does Ukraine border on in the west?
8. What country is the eastern neighbor of Ukraine?
9. Ukraine has a sea-border with …….
10. The highest mountain of Ukraine is ……
11. Ukraine is washed by …….
12. How many rivers does Ukraine have?
13. What are the main rivers of Ukraine?
14. What river is Kyiv situated on?
15. Which of these towns is not situated on the river Dnieper?
16. Which of these Ukrainian towns is not situated on the Crimean Peninsula?
17. The largest lake of Ukraine is …….
18. The climate of Ukraine is ……..
19. What favors the development of the Ukrainian agriculture?
20. The Ukrainian national blue and yellow flag symbolizes ………
21. Ukraine is rich in such industrial raw materials as …..
22. What are the leading industries in Ukraine?
23. What does Ukraine produce?
24. What are the main industrial centers of Ukraine?
25. The largest nuclear power station in Ukraine is located at ………
26. When did the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl burst?
27. What is the nickname of the thick layer of concrete, which covers the 4th reactor of the nuclear power station of Chernobyl?
28. What is the biggest Christian holiday in Ukraine?
29. What is Pysanka?
30. What is the most popular food in Ukraine?
31. Holubtsi is made of .......
32. What is Hopak?
33. Who are Kobzari?
34. What is Korovay?
35. What is the official Ukrainian currency?
Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine, its political, economic and cultural centre. Its population is about 3 million. Kyiv is situated on the river Dnieper. It's one of the oldest cities of Europe. According to the legend Kyiv was founded in 5th-6th centuries on the right bank of the River Dnieper by 3 brothers – Kiy, Scheck and Khoriv and their sister Lybid. The city was named in honour of the eldest brother Kiy, but some streets and blocks in Kiev still have the names of the other founders. A small river was named after sister Lybid. The monument erected in their honor stands on the bank of the Dnieper. Kyiv is called the mother of Slavic cities. In 9th-11th centuries Kyiv was the capital of the first Slavic state, known as Kyivan Rus, which was the most powerful state in Europe.
There are many places of historic interest in Kyiv. Among them there is Kyivo-Pecherska Lavra, or the Cave Monastery, known for its underground catacombs, which contain the mummified remains of saint monks who lived here and were buried, and from which the monastery's name is derived; St. Sophia’s Cathedral, the Kyiv’s oldest church; St Michael’s Golden-Domed Monastery, devoted to the archangel Michael, the saint patron of Kyiv; St. Volodymyr Cathedral, the main temple of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kiev Patriarchate, etc.
Kyiv is a scientific and educational centre of Ukraine. There are more than 350 scientific and research institutes and 18 higher educational establishments in it. Among the best known universities are Kyivo-Mohylyanska Academy, the Kyiv’s oldest university, named after Metropolitan Petro Mohyla; Shevchenko Kyiv National University, which contains the National Scientific Library and the Main Astronomical Observatory; and Kyiv Polytechnic University, the largest Kyiv’s university.
Among the most famous Kyiv's museums are: the National Museum of Ukrainian History, the biggest historical museum in Ukraine, the Museum of Ukrainian Art, the Museum of Russian Art, the Museum of Western and Oriental Art, the Taras Shevchenko Memorial Museum, the Lesya Ukrainka Memorial Museum, and others.
There are over fifty theatres in Kyiv. The most famous are: the Kiev National Opera House, the Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre, Shevchenko Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Lesya Ukrainka Russian Drama Theatre, Young People’s Theater, the Puppet Theatre. Other significant cultural centre includes the famous Dovzhenko Film Studios, which has eight film studios; one of them is the largest in Europe.
Kyiv professional musical ensembles include the National Philharmonic, the State Symphony Orchestra, the Hrihory Veryovka Ukrainian State Choir, the "Dumka" State Choir, the Lev Revutsky Men's Chorus, the State Banduryst Kapelle, the Pavel Virsky State Dance Ensemble, the Chamber Orchestra, the Chamber Choir, etc.
Among Kiev's best-known monuments are the monuments to the Magdeburg law on the right bank of the Dnieper, statue of the baptizer of Rus Prince St. Volodymyr in the Volodymyr Hill Park, and statue of the famous Ukrainian hetman B. Khmelnytsky in St. Sophia Square. Most monuments have been erected to honor Ukrainian cultural, political and scholarly figures. They include monuments to T. Shevchenko in front of the Kyiv National University, I. Franko near the Ukrainian Drama Theatre, M. Lysenko at the Kiev National Opera House, L. Ukrainka in Pechersk district of Kyiv, M. Rylsky on the prospectus of 40 years of October, M. Zankovetska in the Mariyinsky Park near the Dynamo Stadium, H. Skovoroda opposite Kyivo-Mohylyanska Academy, etc.
Тест на тему: Kyiv
1. What river is Kyiv situated on?
2. In what century was Kyiv founded?
3. Who founded Kyiv according to the legend?
4. The city was named in honour of _________.
5. A small river was named after __________.
6. How is Kiev called?
7. In 9th-11th centuries Kyiv was the capital of the first Slavic state, which was the most powerful state in Europe. What was this powerful Slavic state known as?
8. What monastery is known for its underground catacombs, which contain the mummified remains of saint monks?
9. What is the Kyiv’s oldest church?
10. Who is the saint patron of Kyiv?
11. What cathedral is the main temple of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kiev Patriarchate?
12. How many higher educational establishments are there in Kyiv?
13. What is the oldest university in Kyiv?
14. Kyivo-Mohylyanska Academy is named after ……
15. What Kyiv’s university contains the National Scientific Library and the Main Astronomical Observatory?
16. What is the largest university in Kyiv?
17. What is the biggest historical museum in Ukraine?
18. Where can you see the pictures of Katerina Bilocur in Ukraine?
19. Where can you see the pictures of Victor Vasnetsov and Ilya Repin in Ukraine?
20. Where can you see the Chinese water-colours, Egyptian ancient statues and Greek antique works in Ukraine?
21. How many theatres are there in Kyiv?
22. Who is Ivan Franko?
23. Who is Taras Shevchenko?
24. Who is Lesya Ukrainka?
25. Who is Aleksandra Dovzhenko?
26. How many film studios does the famous Dovzhenko Film Studio have?
27. Who is Hrihory Veryovka?
28. What is "Dumka"?
29. Who is Pavel Virsky?
30. What monument stands in the middle of St. Sophia Square?
31. What is Prince Volodymyr famous for?
32. Under the rule of ____________ Kyivan Rus achived the zenith in its prime. Under his rule there were built close to 400 churches and monasteries, including St. Sophia’s Cathedral, many schools and the first library.
33. Where is the monument to the great Ukrainian composer M. Lysenko situated?
34. Whose monument stands opposite Kyivo-Mohylyanska Academy?
35. Where is the monument to the great Ukrainian actress Maria Zankovetska situated?
36. What monument stands on the prospectus of 40 years of October?
37. Who is Maxim Rylsky?
38. Who is Hrihory Skovoroda?
Kyiv Places of interest
Kyiv is more than two thousand years old and during this time Kyiv has made a long way from an ancient settlement to one of the largest cities in the world. Its monuments, architectural ensembles and cathedrals charm with their beauty, harmony and historical meaningfulness.
Kyiv's most famous historical architecture complexes are St. Sophia Cathedral and Kyiv Pechersk Lavra, which are recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Sofia Cathedral was built in 1037 by Prince Yaroslav the Wise to commemorate the victory over the Pechenegs. Kyivo-Pecherskaya Lavra is a complex of 80 buildings constructed on its territory during 900 years of the monastery’s existence. It takes its name for "pechery", that is in Ukrainian "caves" which are to be found in its territory and in which early monks used to live and were buried, and "lavra" is in Greek "a city block", later an honorific title given a monastery of extra-size and religious importance.
Noteworthy historical architectural landmark also includes the Mariyinsky Palace, which was built for Empress Elizabeth I in 1750 by Bartolomeo Rastrelli. The magnificent building was used as Kyiv residence of the Tsar family. Today it is a ceremonial residence of the President. Near the palace there is the House of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukraine, the seat of the higher body of state power of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada.
The Golden Gate is a monument-reconstruction of the historic gateway in the ancient city's walls. The name Zoloti Vorota is also used for a nearby theatre and a station of the Kyiv Metro. This gateway was constructed by Yaroslav the Wise, Prince of Kiev, in the mid-11th century to protect the city from foreign invaders.
Askold's Grave is a part of the park complex on the right bank of the Dnepr River. In ancient days this area was called Ygorskoe Urochishe. According to a legend, on this very site near the Dnepr River in 882 Prince Oleg killed sons of Kyi, princes Askold and Dir. Then he ascended the prince throne and became the ruler of Kyivan Rus.
One of Kyiv's widely recognized monument is the highly visible giant Mother Motherland statue standing at the Museum of the Great Patriotic War on the Right bank of the Dnieper River. Other notable sites are the cylindrical Salut hotel, located on the Glory Square opposite the eternal flame at the World War Two memorial Tomb of the Unknown Soldier; and the House with Chimeras standing near the Mariyinsky Palace. In 1901-1903 popular Kiev architect Vladislav Gorodezhkii put up a private house that is known as the House with Chimeras. The walls and the roof of the building are decorated with quaint sculptures, including mermaids and fantastic creatures.
Andriyivskyy Descent is one of the best known historic streets and a major tourist attraction in Kiev. It is called "The Monmartre of Kyiv" for being the center of folk craftsmen, painters and antiquarians. The hill is the site of the Castle of Richard the Lionheart; the baroque-style St. Andrew's Church, the masterpiece of architect Rastrelli; the home of Kiev born writer, Mikhail Bulgakov; the monument to Yaroslav the Wise; a unique Museum of One street in which it is situated; and Kyiv funicular, which binds the lower part with the upper part of Andriyivskyy Descent.
Kreschatik is the main street in Kyiv. It leads to Independence Square, the city's main square. There is a lot to see in Independence Square: the Independence Column; the artificial waterfall; the ‘Friendship of Nations’ fountain; the monument to Kyi, Schek, Khoryv and Lybid, the legendary founders of the city; and the underground entertainment and shopping centre Globus.
Тест на тему: Kyiv Places of interest
1. How old is Kyiv?
3. What is UNESCO?
4. St. Sophia Cathedral was built in 1037 by ……
5. St. Sophia Cathedral was built to commemorate ……..
6. What does the word "Sofia" mean in Greek?
7. Prince Yaroslav the Wise was buried inside ……
8. How old is Kyivo-Pecherskaya Lavra?
9. Kyivo-Pecherskaya Lavra is a complex of ……
10. What does the word "pechery" mean in Ukrainian?
11. What does the word "lavra" mean in Greek?
12. St. Michael’s Golden-Domed Monastery was founded in 1108 by…....
13. St. Alexander's Church was built in 1817-1842 to commemorate the victory over Napoleon and was named after the Russian Emperor ……
14. What is the name of the architect who built the Mariyinsky Palace for Empress Elizabeth I in 1750 by?
15. What is a ceremonial residence of the President of Ukraine?
16. Where is the seat of the higher body of state power of Ukraine?
17. The Golden Gate (Zoloti Vorota) is ……
18. The Golden Gate was constructed in the mid-11th century ……
19. What area of Kyiv was called Ygorskoe Urochishe in ancient days?
20. Whose sons were princes Askold and Dir?
21. Who killed princes Askold and Dir, then ascended the prince throne and became the ruler of Kyivan Rus?
22. What historical buildings were built by Yaroslav the Wise in 11th century in Kyiv?
23. What widely recognized monument stands at the Museum of the Great Patriotic War in Kyiv?
24. What monument is located on the Glory Square opposite the cylindrical Salut hotel in Kyiv?
25. Where is the monument dedicated to the Great Famine of 1932-1933 situated?
26. What is the name of popular Kiev architect who built the House with Chimeras in 1901-1903?
27. What street is called "The Monmartre of Kyiv" for being the center of folk craftsmen, painters and antiquarians?
28. Where is the Castle of Richard the Lionheart situated?
29. What church is situated in Andriyivskyy Descent?
30. Where was a famous writer Mikhail Bulgakov born?
31. Whose monument is situated in Andriyivskyy Descent?
32. What street is a unique Museum of One street devoted to?
33. Funicular is a name of ……
34. What historical buildings were built by Bartolomeo Rastrelli in Kyiv?
35. Why Kreschatik (Crossed) Boulevard was named in such way?
36. What street is the main street in Kyiv?
37. What square is the main square in Kyiv?
38. The monument to Kyi, Schek, Khoryv and Lybid, the legendary founders of the city, is situated on ……
39. Globus is ……
40. Where is the Dynamo Stadium situated?
Political System of Ukraine
Ukraine is a presidential-parliamentary republic. The President of Ukraine is the head of the state. The powers of the government are divided into three branches – the legislative, which consists of the Verkhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the President, and the judicial, which is led by the Supreme Court.
The Ukrainian political system consists of a popularly elected President, a 450-person single-chamber Parliament – the Verkhovna Rada, and a Prime Minister, who is a head of the Cabinet of Ministers. The members of Verkhovna Rada are elected at general, equal and direct elections which take place every four years in the last week of March. The country is divided into 255 constituencies. Voting, which is not compulsory, is by the secret ballot and from the age of 18. The candidate polling the largest number of votes in a constituency is elected.
The Verkhovna Rada is the highest body of the legislative power in Ukraine. It works at a session basis. It elects the Chairman from its membership. Chairman of the Parlament is the Speaker. The Speaker conducts meetings of the Verkhovna Rada and organizes its work. The main function of the Verkhovna Rada is making laws. It also calls for elections of the President, gives consent for the appointment of the Prime Minister by the President, performs oversight of the activity of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, declares wars and concludes peace, upon the President’s proposal adopts the State Budget and controls the execution of it.
The President of Ukraine appoints the Prime Minister with the consent of the Verkhovna Rada, appoints members of the Cabinet of Ministers, heads of central bodies of executive power, as well as heads of local state administrations. The President of Ukraine is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. He is elected for a term of five years with no more than two full terms.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest body of the executive power. There are 21 ministers in the Cabinet of Ministers. It carries out the fulfillment of the Constitution, as well as the acts of the President, develops and fulfills national programs on the economic, technological and cultural development of Ukraine. The executive power in the districts is exercised by local state executive administrations.
The Constitutional Court has exclusive constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine. It consists of 18 judges which are appointed for 9 years. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction.
The Constitution is the main law in the country. The new post-Soviet Constitution was adopted by the Verkhovna Rada on June 28, 1996. It consists of 15 chapters dealing with the political, social and economic structure of the Ukrainian State. The Independence of Ukraine was proclaimed on August 24, 1991 and approved by a nation-wide referendum on December 1, 1991. The first President of the country became Leonid Kravchuk.
Ukraine has a multi-party system. It includes the Region party, the BUT, the Communist party, the Green party, Republican party, Democratic party, Christian-Democratic party, the Rukh, Liberal party, Socialist party and others. Small parties often create different coalitions or electoral blocs to participate in parliamentary elections.
Ukraine comprises 24 regions called oblasts. In addition, Crimea has a special status as a republic within Ukraine. The control of Crimea is at the center of political dispute between Ukraine and Russia.
Тест на тему: Political System of Ukraine
1. What kind of state is Ukraine?
2. Who is the head of the state in Ukraine?
3. What branches are the powers of the government divided into?
4. What does the Ukrainian political system consist of?
5. How many chambers does the Ukrainian Parliament have?
6. How many deputies are there in the Verkhovna Rada?
7. Who is a head of the Cabinet of Ministers in Ukraine?
8. The members of Verkhovna Rada are elected by the secret ballot every _____ years.
9. When do the elections into the Verkhovna Rada usually take place?
10. How many constituencies is Ukraine divided into?
11. All citizens from the age of _________ have the right to vote.
12. What is the highest body of the legislative power in Ukraine?
13. The chairman of the Verkhovna Rada is __________.
14. The main function of the Verkhovna Rada is ……
15. The Speaker ……
16. Who appoints the Prime Minister in Ukraine?
17. Who is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine?
18. The President of Ukraine is elected for a term of ____ years with no more than two full terms.
19. The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is ……
20. Who appoints members of the Cabinet of Ministers?
21. There are _____ ministers in the Cabinet of Ministers in Ukraine.
22. Who develops and fulfills national programs on the economic, technological and cultural development of Ukraine?
23. What court has exclusive constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine?
24. The Constitutional Court consists of ……
25. The judges of the Constitutional Court are appointed for ……
26. What is the highest body of the judicial power in Ukraine?
27. When was the Constitution of Ukraine adopted?
28. How many chapters does the Constitution of Ukraine consist of?
29. When was the Independence of Ukraine proclaimed?
30. When did the nation-wide referendum on the question of Ukraine’s independence take place?
31. Who was the first President of Ukraine?
32. Who is the President of Ukraine nowadays?
33. What is the right succession of the Ukrainian presidents according to the time of their government?
34. Ukraine has ……
35. What political party is in power nowadays?
36. How many regions (oblasts) does Ukraine comprise?
37. What region (oblast) has a special status as a republic within Ukraine?
38. Определите, правильны или нет следующие выражения (+,─)
Educational System of Ukraine
Education in Ukraine is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 6 and 17. There are three stages of education: pre-school education, secondary education and further, higher education.
Pre-school education is from 3 to 6 years of age and it is not compulsory. Parents may give their children to the kindergarten or may leave them at home with their grandparents.
Secondary education is from 6 to 17 years of age. A secondary school is subdivided into a primary school for children aged 6 to 10, a lower (middle) school for children aged 10 to 15 and an upper school for children aged 15 to 17. Primary school comprises grades 1-4. In Primary School children learn reading, writing, mathematics, natural history, music, art, labour, physical training and the English language.
After four years of primary school children go to a secondary school. Lower secondary (middle) school comprises grades 5-9. It has to give the young generation profound and solid knowledge of the fundamentals of sciences. After finishing the 9th grade pupils receive a Certificate of Incomplete Secondary Education and can go to a college of further education to study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work or can stay at school and continue their education in the upper grades for entering a university.
Three types of institutions offer a secondary school curriculum for the upper grades 10-11: the general academic schools; the secondary vocational-technical schools (colleges) and the specialized secondary schools. The core curriculum is similar in all three; however, the present vocational education system covers both general secondary and vocational programmes. In Ukraine there are 778 vocational institutions for more specialized needs, such as agriculture, heavy and light industry, building, services, economy and law. Many Ukrainian children attend gymnasia and lyceums. These schools major in humanities or science. The majority of the schools in Ukraine are financed by the state. Private schools are few in number.
Upper secondary school comprises a 2-year general school (grades 10-11). After finishing the 11th grade students receive a Certificate of Complete Secondary Education which is leading to the Matriculation Examination, giving successful students access to university.
Universities of higher education accept students from 17 basing on their final tests results. Generally, universities award three kinds of degrees: the Bachelor, the Specialist and the Master. Higher education institutions offer a 5-year programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course, he or she writes a thesis receives a candidate's degree or a doctoral degree.
In Ukraine there are 232 universities. The most famous Ukrainian universities are Kyivo-Mohylyanska Academy, the Kyiv’s oldest university; Shevchenko Kyiv National University, which contains the National Scientific Library and the Main Astronomical Observatory; and Kyiv Polytechnic University, the largest Kyiv’s university. Of these, Kyivo-Mohylyanska Academy is the oldest outright, having been founded as a theological school in 1632, however the Shevchenko University, which was founded in 1834, is the oldest in continuous operation.
Тест на тему: Educational System of Ukraine
1. How long do children study at school in Ukraine?
2. What education is not compulsory in Ukraine?
3. How many schools is Secondary School subdivided into?
4. How long does primary education last in Ukraine?
5. When do children start to learn the English language in Ukraine?
6. When does a primary school begin and end?
7. How long do children study in a lower (middle) school in Ukraine?
8. What school do children attend at 11 years old?
9. How long do children study in an upper school in Ukraine?
10. What school comprises 10-11 grades?
11. The pupils receive a Certificate of Incomplete Secondary Education at the age of …
12. When do students receive a Certificate of Complete Secondary Education?
13. Where can pupils enter after finishing the 9th grade?