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Матеріали до уроків на тему "Австралія - країна унікальної флори та фауни"

Про матеріал

Дані методичні розробки охоплюють чотири теми з циклу "Країнознавство. Англомовні країни", а саме: "Австралія - унікальна країна флори та фауни", "Клімат та природа Австралії", "Політична система Австралії" та "Видатні історичні події Австралії". Матеріали максимально орієнтовані на розвиток комунікативних навичок та розширення міжкультурної компетенції учнів, а також на забезпечення розвитку навичок читання та перекладу.

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Lesson 1

 

AUSTRALIACOUNTRY OF UNIQUE FLORA AND FAUNA

 

1. New words and word-combinations to be remembered.

Commonwealth (n) [ˈkɔmənwelθ] Співдружність

minor (adj) [ˈmaɪnə] незначний, маленький

criminal (n) [ˈkrɪmɪnl]– злочинець 

quite (adv) [kwaɪt] доволі, досить

useless (adj) [ˈjuːsləs] – непридатний, непотрібний

bauxite (n) [ˈbɔːksaɪt] – боксит

lead (n) [liːd] – свинець

eucalyptus (n) [ˌjuːkəlˈɪptəs] – евкаліпт

acacia (n) [əˈkeɪʃə] – акація

mimosa (n) [mɪˈməusə] – мімоза

significant (adj) [sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt] – значний, показовий

feature (n) [ˈfiːtʃə] риса

draw (drew, drawn) (v)– принаджувати, притягати

relatively (adv) [ˈrelətɪvli] – відносно

 

2. Read and translate the text.

Похожее изображение
Australia, or the Commonwealth of Australia, as it is officially called, is situated on the island continent. It also occupies the Island of Tasmania and some minor islands round the coast of the continent. It is a highly developed industrial-agrarian country.

Its area is about 8000000 km2. It is the only state in the world that occupies the territory of the whole continent. The capital of Australia is Canberra, which became the capital only in 1927. From 1787 to 1867 Australia was a place where criminals were sent from Britain. That is why the official language of Australia is English.

Almost one half of Australian territory is occupied by deserts and semi-deserts.

Без имени-1For quite a long period of time it was thought to be useless for economic development. But it is rich in coal, iron ore, bauxites, uranium, lead and many other mineral resources. For almost a century the production and export of sheep wool was the basis of the economy of the country. Now the most important industries are oil, chemical, ore mining, radio electronics and food industry. The country exports agricultural products and raw materials.

As for the nature, the commonest trees of Australia are the eucalyptus and the Australian acacia or mimosa, the national emblem of the country.

Such unusual animals as a kangaroo or a koala-bear originate from Australia. Australia is one of the most unusual and exotic countries of the world. A significant feature of modern Australian society is the representation of a lot of cultures drawn from many lands by its people.

Historically part of the British Empire and now a member of a Commonwealth of Nations, it is relatively prosperous and independent nation.

 

3. Answer the questions

1. What is the official name of Australia?

2. Where is it situated?

3. What kind of country is it?

4. What is it total area?

5. What is the capital of the country?

6. What is the national emblem of the country?

7. Why is English an official language of Australia?

8. What are the famous animals of Australia?

9. What is Australia rich in?

10. What does the country export?

11. Why is Australia an intercultural country?

 

4. What do you know about…. Give the full answer (2 or more sentences). Surf the Internet if necessary.

  • the geographical position of Australia?
  • the capital of the country?
  • the surface of the country?
  • the rivers and lakes?
  • the most important industries and mineral resources?
  • the fauna and flora of Australia?
  • the big cities of the country?

 

5. Read the text and insert the articles where necessary.

Australia occupies … continent of Australia, which lies south-east of  … Asia and … island of Tasmania with … number of small islands. It is washed by …Timor Sea in … north, by … Coral and Tasman Seas in … east, and by … Indian Ocean in … south and west. Australia is … most droughty continent on … earth. It is also … land of Great Plains.

December, January and February are summer months in … Australia. … average summer temperature is from 20 to 30 degrees above zero. Winter comes in … June, … July and … August. Then … average temperature is from 12 to 20 degrees above zero.

…largest rivers in Australia are … Darling and … Murray. In … middle part of Australia there are salt lakes, such as … Lake Eyre and … Torrance.

Australia is … agricultural country. Cattle-breeding is highly developed in Australia.

 

6. Translate into English:

1. Австралія – ​​це велика країна, що лежить між Індійським та Тихим океанами.

2. Австралія – це єдина країна-континент.

3. Населення Австралії дорівнює близько 18 млн людей.

4. Першими європейцями, які висадились в цій країні, були голландські моряки.

5. Сьогодні Австралія є незалежною федеративною державою, що складається з 6 держав і 2 територій.

6. Вона є членом Співдружності на чолі з британською королевою.

7. Назва країни походить від латинського слова "australis", що означає південь.

8. Австралія є конституційною монархією, як Великобританія.

9. Найважливішими торговельними партнерами Австралії є Японія та США.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 2

 

CLIMATE AND NATURE OF AUSTRALIA

 

1. New words and word-combinations to be remembered.

droughty (adj) [ˈdrautɪ] посушливий

isolation (n) [ˌaɪsə'leɪʃən] ізоляція

explain (v) [ɪkˈspleɪn]– пояснити 

preserve (v) [prɪˈzɜːv] зберігати

wombat (n) [ˈwɔmbæt] – вомбат

trunk (n) [ trʌŋk] – стовбур

similarity (n) [ˌsɪmɪˈlærɪti] – подібність

relate (v) [rɪˈleɪt] – мати відношення, встановлювати зв’язок

fume (n) [fjuːm] – дим

poisonous (adj) [ˈpɔɪzənəs] – отруйний

jellyfish (n) [ˈdʒelifɪʃ] – медуза

possum (n) [ˈpɔsəm] – опосум

harmless (adj) [ˈhɑːmləs] нешкідливий

lizard (n) lɪzəd]– ящірка

hefty (adj) [ˈhefti] – здоровенний, дужий

 

2. Read and translate the text.

Australia is situated to the southeast of Asia. It is washed by the Timor Sea in the north, by the Coral and Tasman Seas in the east, and by the Indian Ocean in the south and west. Australia is the droughtiest continent in the earth. It is the extremely hot country.

Summer months are December, January and February. The average summer temperature is from 20 to 30 degrees above zero. Winter months are June, July and August. The average winter temperature is from 12 to 20 degrees above zero. The most part of the territory lies in tropics. Its southwestern territories lie in subtropics.

As droughts are rather common and the amount of rainfalls is rather small there are not many rivers in Australia. The largest rivers are the Darling and the Murray.

Картинки по запросу картинки деревья австралииThe isolation of Australia from other continents explains much of the unusualness of Australian plant and animal life. There are forests in the southern and eastern parts of the country. The most common tree of Australia is the eucalyptus. In the drier areas there is the Australian acacia or mimosa. In those areas one can also find strange bottle trees. They preserve water in their trunks.

Похожее изображениеAustralian animals are also very unusual. There are many different types of kangaroo. The biggest are the great grey kangaroos. They are 213 centimetres tall and can run at 56 kilometres per hour. Wombats and koalas have many similarities and are probably related. Both have pockets inside their mouths to store food and neither has a tail. The number of koalas is getting smaller. This is partly because of fumes from bush fires.

There are many dangerous animals including poisonous spiders and snakes, sharks and jellyfish. However there are normally a lot of beach patrols and protective nets to stop sharks. And of course, people do not swim when there are many jellyfish in the water. There are a number of types of crocodiles found in northern Australia, ranging from the potentially dangerous saltwater crocodiles to smaller harmless varieties.

This is only a small selection of the creatures of the country. Others include penguins, turtles, seals and possums. In the dry areas, you can see an amazing variety of lizards; some grow to a very hefty size.

 

3. Answer the questions

1. How many seas is Australia washed by?

2. What are winter and summer months in Australia?

3. What is the average winter and summer temperature?

4. What are the longest rivers?

5. What are the most common trees in Australia?

6. What animals are dangerous in the country?

7. What animals have pockets inside their mouths?

8. How big can be a kangaroo?

9. Why is the number of koalas getting smaller?

10. What other animals live in Australia?

 

4. Find in the text the names of Australian animals and reptiles. Write them in alphabetic order.

 

5. Copy out from the text adjectives. Form comparative and superlative degrees. 

 

6. Read the text and insert the necessary word from the table.

 

 

 

 

The population of ……. is a little more than 25 mln with a population ……… of about 3.2 people per square kilometre. Most of the population is ………. along the southeast coast of the country. Australia is the 52nd most populous country in ………. and the most populous Oceanian country. Australia's population is mostly urbanized, with about 88 ……….. of its people living in an ………. area. Sydney alone has over 20 percent of the country's people. Australia's population has become ……….. multicultural. It is still a land of ………… and each year attracts new ………. from all over the world.

 

7. Translate into English:

В Австралії багато «непопулярних» тварин, включаючи павуків, які є небезпечними. Їх можна зустріти в Сіднеї. Якщо вони голодні вони атакують все, що рухається. У них гострі зуби і вони отруйні. На щастя є протиотрута. З 1927 року від укусів павуків загинуло 15 чоловік. Іншою «непопулярною» твариною є дінго. Це помісь волків і собак. Їх не люблять, оскільки вони їдять домашніх тварин. Велику проблему представляють австралійські очеретяні жаби. Їх дуже багато і до того ж вони також отруйні. Не дивлячись на це, деяким людям вони подобаються: їх тримають вдома як своїх улюбленців і пишуть про них вірші.

 

Картинки по запросу картинки тварини австралии

 

Lesson 3

 

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF AUSTRALIA

 

1. New words and word-combinations to be remembered.

Council (n) [ˈkaunsl] рада

advisory (adj) [ədˈvaɪzəri] консультативний

direct (adj) [dəˈrekt]– прямий

vote (n) [vəut] – голосування

coalition( n) [kəuəˈlɪʃən] коаліція

political affairs (n) [ əˈfeəz] – політичні справи

curricula (n) [kəˈrɪkjula] навчальні плани

obligatory (adj) [əˈblɪɡətərı] обов’язковий

primary schools (n) [ˈpraɪməri] початкові школи

junior high schools (n) [ˈdʒuːniə] молодші середні школи

private (adj) [ˈpraɪvət] – приватний

fee (n) [fiː]гонорар, плата

 

2. Read and translate the text.

Peter_Cosgrove_2014Australia is a constitutional monarchy, with the Queen of Great Britain at its head. It consists of six states and two territories. The Queen is represented by the Governor General, who is appointed by the Australian government. The Governor General appoints members of the Executive Council, his advisory cabinet.

The main legislative body in the country is Federal Parliament. It consists of the Queen, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The members of the Senate are elected for a six-year term. There are ten senators from each state and two from each territory in the Senate. The House of Representatives is elected by general direct vote for a three-year term.

The executive power belongs to the Queen and the government. It is headed by the Prime Minister. The ministers are chosen from members of Parliament and the Executive Council.

There are two major political parties in Australia: the Australian Labour party and a coalition of the Liberal and the Agrarian parties.

Till the 1930s Australia mostly depended upon Great Britain in its political affairs. But in 1931 Australia became fully independent from Great Britain.

3. Answer the questions

1. What is the political system of Australia?

2. How many states are there in it?

3. Who is the head of the country?

4. What are the authorities of the Governor General?

5. What is the main legislative body of the country?

6. What does it consist of?

7. How are the members of the Senate elected?

8. How many senators are there in the Senate?

9. How are the members of the House of Representatives elected?

10 What political parties of Australia can you name?

11. When did Australia become independent from Great Britain?

 

4. Read and correct the following sentences

1. Australia is a parliamentary monarchy, with the Governor General at the head.

2. The main legislative body of the country is the Queen.

3. The Senate comprises five senators from each state and two more representing two territories of Australia.

4. Australia became fully independent from USA in 1930.

5. The Commonwealth of Australia consists of ten provinces and two territories.

6. The Governor General is appointed by the Queen Elizabeth II.

7. The Executive Council is elected for the six-year term.

8. The Judicial Council is a Governor General’s advisory cabinet.

9. The House of Representatives is elected as well as the Senate for a three-year term.

 

5. Read and translate the text, filling the propositions.

 

Education in Australia

There is a centralized national system … education … Australia.   But there are still many differences … the structure and the curricula … schools … different states. 80% … Australian children go … state schools, and only 20% attend private fee-paying schools. School education is obligatory … all children … 6 … 15 years. Most children begin primary schools … the age … about five. Primary schools include … 1 … 6 or 7 grades. … the primary school children pass … the secondary school without examinations. Junior high schools comprise 3 or 4-year courses. … these courses students complete two year senior high school. … senior classes … secondary schools students may enter any higher educational institution … the country.

 

6. Put some questions to the text.

7. Translate into English:

1. На чолі освітньої системи Австралії знаходиться федеральне міністерство освіти.  

2. В країні є два типи шкіл: приватні та державні.

3. Навчання в державних школах – безкоштовне.

4. Сплата за навчання в приватних школах досить висока.

5. На сьогоднішній день зявилась тенденція відміни від випускних іспитів в середніх та старших класах.

6. Не залежно від здібностей більшість дітей мають змогу отримати середню освіту.

7 Сплата за навчання відрізняється в кожному штаті.

 

 

Похожее изображение

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 4

 

OUSTANDING HISTORICAL EVENTS OF AUSTRALIA

 

1. New words and word-combinations to be remembered.

geologically (adv) [ˌdʒiəˈlɔdʒɪkəlɪ] геологічно

mark (v) [mɑːk]– позначати 

reach (v) [riːtʃ] досягати

investigate (v) [ɪnˈvestɪɡeɪt] – досліджувати

bay (n) [beɪ] – залив

loss (n) [lɔs]втрата

seize (v) [siːz] – захвачувати, захопити

convict (n) [kənˈvɪkt] – засуджений, ув’язнений

rapid (adj) [ˈræpɪd] – швидкий, стрімкий

charm (n) [tʃɑːm] – чарівність, привабливість

resemble (v) [rɪˈzembl] нагадувати, бути схожим на когось

surround (v) [səˈraund] – оточувати, охоплювати

 

2. Read and translate the text.

Geologically Australia is the most ancient of the continents. But for many centuries it was marked on the maps as “terra incognita”. The first man who reached the Australian coasts was Willem Jansz, a Dutch seaman. He landed on the northern coast of the continent in 1606. The northern and western coasts were investigated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The sailors named the continent New Holland.

220px-CaptainjamescookportraitIn 1770 James Cook, a British navigator, reached the coasts of Australia. He was the first to investigate the Australia and named a lot of its mountains and bays.

The beginning of the British colonization of Australia was connected with the loss of the thirteen American colonies during the War of Independence. The British government lost the right to send criminals from England to North America. The loss was compensated by seizing new territories. The first group of criminals arrived in Australia in 1787 and founded a settlement named Sydney. And only in 1793 the first group of settlers who were not convicts came to Australia

The 50s of the 19th century were the turning point in the history of Australia. The deposits of gold were found then and it led the country to the rapid economic development. Till that time Australia had held the first place at the world wool market. Since that time the industry started to develop in the country. The discovery of gold also led to a large wave of immigrants to the country.

Похожее изображениеIn 1900 the British colonies got the rights of states. In 1901 they united in a single state. That was the beginning of modern Australia.

 

3. Answer the questions

1. How was Australia named for many centuries?

2. Who was the first man who reached the Australian coasts?

3. When was it?

4. Who named the continent New Holland?

5. When did James Cook reach Australia?

6. Who founded a settlement named Sydney?

7. Who came to Australia in 1793?

8. What years were the turning point in the history of Australia?

9. What deposits were found?

10. What did it lead the country to?

11. When did British colonies unite in a single state?

 

4. What are the following dates connected with?

1. 1793    5. 1900

2. 1606    6. 1787

3. 1901    7. 1850s

4. 1770

 

5. Read and translate the text. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the right tense form. 

Australian cities

1200px-Canberra_montage_2The capital of Australia, Canberra, _____(to be) a young and comparatively small city. It _______(to found) in 20th century and now ________(to have) a population of about 260000 people. Special charm ______(to give) to Canberra by an artificial lake in the centre of the city. A fountain more than 100 metres high _______(to be) in the western part of the lake. At night powerful lights _______(to illuminate) the water. It _____(to be) the Captain Cook Fountain, one of the main places of interest in Canberra.

Melbourne _______(to be) the second largest city in Australia. It ______(to be) the capital of the country till 1927 and now _______(to be) the centre of Australian business world. It _______(to be) a beautiful port-city with a numerous skyscrapers, large parks and gardens for a long time. One of its attractions _______(to be) the house of Captain Cook.

Картинки по запросу картинки Sydney Sydney _______(to be) Australia’s largest and oldest city. It ______(to be) the first British settlement. It ________(to have) the oldest in the country botanical gardens and the Zoo. One of the main places of interest ________(to be) the Opera House, which ________(to resemble) large white shells in form. It _________(to surround) by sea on three sides.

 

6. Put some questions to the text.

 

7. Translate into English:

1. Австралію іноді називають «щасливою країною». Одна з причин – підземні багатства: золото, срібло, залізо, вугілля та багато інших цінних металів.

2. Королева Британії має обмежену владу в австралійському уряді і в основному служить символом давнього історичного зв’язку між Британією та Австралією.

3. В Австралії є сучасні фабрики, високопродуктивні шахти і ферми та бізнес-міста.

4. Більшість австралійців давно мріють про сніжне Різдво, оскільки в Австралії воно припадає на літо.

5. Австралія – це країна, яка головним чином, складається з пустель та піщаних пляжів.

6. За останні десять років великі зміни відбулись в австралійському способі життя.

7. В Австралії проводиться ряд важливих змагань по серфінгу.

8. Ви зустрінете тут різні види футболу, а також автомобільні гонки, гонки на мотоциклах, кінські скачки, змагання парусної регати, крикетні матчі та інші види змагань.

 

 

 

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