1. to cut across – to go across a place rather than around it to make the journey quicker; to affect people of different groups, classes, etc.
Example: It'll be quicker if we CUT ACROSS the park. The issue CUTS ACROSS social backgrounds as it affects us all equally.
2. to cut back – to reduce; to remove branches from a plant or tree to encourage future growth.
Example: The firm CUT BACK production because sales were sluggish. We CUT the tree BACK every winter.
3. to cut back on – to reduce expenditure.
Example: The government has decided to CUT BACK ON spending on the armed forces.
4. to cut down – to consume less; to shoot; to reduce a vertical thing to ground level by cutting; to cut something from a high position.
Example: I'm trying to CUT DOWN the amount of coffee I drink during the day. A lot of soldiers were CUT DOWN by enemy fire as they stormed the airport. The logger CUT the tree DOWN. After Christmas he didn't carefully detach all the decorations, he just CUT them all DOWN.
5. to cut down on – to reduce.
Example: Doctors advised her to CUT DOWN ON the amount of saturated fats in her diet.
6. to cut in – to start functioning; to drive in front of another vehicle without warning; to interrupt; to include someone in a deal that makes money; to mix fat and flour until the combine.
Example: The fans CUT IN when the engine starts getting too hot. A car CUT IN and nearly caused an accident. We were having a conversation when he came up and CUT IN. We had to CUT the police IN on the deal to avoid trouble. CUT the butter IN with the flour.
7. to cut off – to disconnect; to isolate or make inaccessible.
Example: The telephone's been CUT OFF because we didn't pay the bill. The heavy snow has blocked many roads and CUT OFF a number of villages.
8. to cut out – to exclude; when an engine or motor stops; to cut a picture or similar from a magazine, etc.; to leave quickly; to separate livestock from a group.
Example: I'm CUTTING OUT salt from my diet. The car CUT OUT at the traffic lights just as they went green. I CUT some pictures OUT to use as visual aids. We’d better CUT OUT, the security men are on the way. They CUT OUT three prime bulls from the herd.
9. to cut up – to cut into smaller pieces; to drive into a neighbouring lane, directly in front of another vehicle; to upset; to have a lot of small injuries.
Example: After cutting the tree down, the logger CUT it UP into logs. I was just driving onto the motorway slip-road, when a red Mini CUT me UP and I had to brake suddenly to avoid an accident. Her reaction really CUT me UP. I CUT my hand UP when I broke the glass.
II Match the phrasal verbs with their definitions.
1. to cut up a) to reduce expenditure
2. to cut across b) to cut into smaller pieces
3. to cut out c) to go across a place rather than around it to make the journey quicker
4. to cut back d) to reduce
5. to cut off e) to exclude
6. to cut back on f) to disconnect
7. to cut in g) to interrupt
8. to cut down h) to remove branches from a plant or tree to encourage future growth
9. to cut down on i) to reduce a vertical thing to ground level by cutting
III Fill in the gaps with necessary phrasal prepositions: across, back, down, in, off, out, up.
1. He cut the beef … and put the pieces in the soup. 2. You eat too much fat. You need to cut … . 3. She suddenly cut … and delivered the news. 4. She cut him … before he said something he would regret later. 5. His finger was accidentally cut … in an industrial accident. 6. Cut it …! You're bothering me. 7. She cut … on the conversation and delivered the news. 8. He cut the bone … of the steak. 9. It'll be quicker if we cut … the nearest square. 10. Will you two brothers cut it … and keep quiet.
IV Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb: cut across, cut back, cut down, cut in, cut off, cut out, cut up.
1. As he had not paid the bill, his electricity was… . 2. Stanley went to the doctor. The doctor told him to cut … on salt and sugar. A little bit is OK, but too much is unhealthy. 3. I like to … pretty photographs … of magazines and paste them on my wall. 4. Stop that! You are making me angry! … it …! 5. Don't play with those scissors, Timmy! You might … your finger …! 6. There was a terrible snowstorm. Many people were … from their friends and family. They couldn't talk to them, or call them on the phone, or see them for two weeks. 7. Please stop smoking. If you don't … smoking, you will get cancer. I can help you stop. 8. I’d like to … on my internet time. 9. We … the cake … . 10. It'll be quicker if we … the park.
V Translate into English.
1. Ти їж занадто багато жирів. Тобі потрібно зменшити їх споживання. 2. Лікар сказав йому зменшити кількість випалених цигарок. 3. Вона несподівано втрутилася і розповіла новини. 4. Вона обірвала його до того, як він сказав що-небудь, про що б потім шкодував. 5. Вона вирізала картинку в журналі. 6. Я більше не буду перекушувати між сніданком, обідом і вечерею. 7. Він порубав курятину, і поклав шматочки в суп. 8. Буде швидше, якщо ми пройдемо через найближчий сквер. 9. Я намагаюся зменшити кількість кави, яку я п'ю протягом дня. 10. Ми обрізаємо дерева кожної зими.
1. to fall about – to laugh a lot.
Example: We FELL ABOUT when we heard what she'd done.
2. to fall apart – to break into pieces; to become emotionally disturbed and unable to behave normally.
Example: The box FELL APART when I picked it up. He FELL APART when they sacked him.
3. to fall back – to retreat.
Example: The army FELL BACK after losing the battle.
4. to fall back on – to be able to use in an emergency.
Example: It was good to have some money in the bank to FALL BACK ON when I lost my job.
5. to fall behind – to make less progress.
Example: I was ill for a week and FELL BEHIND with my work.
6. to fall down – to fall on the ground; to have a weak point.
Example: I slipped on the ice and FELL DOWN. The argument FALLS DOWN when you look at how much it'll cost.
7. to fall for – to be attracted to somebody, fall in love; to believe a lie or a piece of deception.
Example: He FELL FOR her the moment their eyes met. He FELL FOR my story and allowed me yet another extension for the submission of my thesis.
8. to fall in – to collapse.
Example: The ceiling FELL IN hurting a lot of people.
9. to fall into – to start doing something unplanned.
Example: I just FELL INTO my job when an opportunity came up.
10. to fall off – to decrease.
Example: The membership FELL OFF dramatically when the chairperson resigned.
11. to fall out – to argue and be on bad terms with someone; to lose hair.
Example: They FELL OUT over the decision and hardly speak to each other any more. He's started getting worried about baldness because his hair is FALLING OUT rather quickly.
12. to fall through – to be unsuccessful.
Example: The plans FELL THROUGH when planning permission was refused.
13. to fall under – to become controlled.
Example: At first he was independent, but then he FELL UNDER their influence.
II Match the phrasal verbs with their definitions.
1. to fall about a) to be unsuccessful
2. to fall apart b) to become controlled
3. to fall back c) to laugh a lot
4. to fall back on d) to break into pieces
5. to fall behind e) to lose hair
6. to fall down f) to decrease
7. to fall for g) to retreat
8. to fall in h) to be able to use in an emergency
9. to fall into i) to start doing something unplanned
10. to fall off j) to make less progress
11. to fall out k) to collapse
12. to fall through l) to fall on the ground
13. to fall under m) to be attracted to somebody
III Fill in the gaps with necessary phrasal prepositions: about, apart, back behind, down, for, in, into, off, out, through, under.
1. Yuki can fall … on her degree in biology if she doesn't succeed in her acting career. 2. Unfortunately, my trip to Indonesia fell … because I couldn't save enough money. 3. Hurry up or you will fall …! 4. I had a falling … with my sister last month and we haven't talked to each other since. 5. Interest in the project fell … when they realized it wouldn't be profitable. 6. Cheryl has missed several days of school and now she is falling … in her homework. 7. Student numbers have been falling … recently. 8. The people fell … and worshipped the god. 9. His cheeks have fallen …, making him look old and ill. 10. Our army forced the enemy to fall … .
IV Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb: fall in, fall through, fall down, fall behind, fall out, fall off, fall about, fall apart . 1. His world … when he lost his job. 2. The plan … when it proved too costly. 3. Jane did well in her piano exam, but … on music history. 4. I'm glad to see that you all … with me on this question. 5. If you …, you will lose your way. 6. The child … of the bed at night. 7. During a ride in the forest Jane … the horse and broke her leg. 8. She was ready to … as she heard the joke. 9. We mustn’t … in the race to develop new products. 10. Their marriage is likely to … .
V Translate into English.
1.Він не очікував, що Джек поведеться на такий дешевий трюк. 2. Хиткий стілець розвалився. 3. Після того, як Хелен втратила роботу, і її покинув чоловік, вона повністю впала у відчай. 4. Однак, здається, що ви відстаєте від ваших конкурентів у Китаї. 5. Ворог відступив в оборонну позицію. 6. Посеред виступу фігуристи впали. 7. Наші плани в останню хвилину провалилися і в результаті ми провели нашу відпустку вдома. 8. В результаті хіміотерапії в неї випало волосся. 9. У вантажівки відвалилося колесо! 10 Пара озброєних охоронців зайняла свою позицію.
1. to hold against – to have a grudge against someone, or little respect.
Example: He was very rude, but I won't HOLD it AGAINST him.
2. to hold back – not to show emotion; to prevent something moving forwards or progressing; not to disclose information or make it public.
Example: It was really hard to HOLD BACK the tears. Lack of funding HELD the project BACK. The government HELD BACK the findings of the report for fear of alienating voters.
3. to hold back from – not to allow yourself to do something.
Example: I had to HOLD BACK FROM losing my temper with them.
4. to hold down – to keep a job; to stop someone or something from moving.
Example: He's so unreliable that he can never HOLD DOWN a job for more than a couple of months. It took four of us to HOLD him DOWN and stop the fight.
5. to hold forth – to state your opinions about something, especially when talking for a long time and boringly.
Example: The manager HELD FORTH on the topic for about twenty minutes.
6. to hold off – when bad weather doesn't appear; to stop someone from attacking or beating you.
Example: The rain HELD OFF until we'd go back home. Chelsea couldn't HOLD their opponents OFF and lost the game.
7. to hold on – to wait; to hold tightly.
Example: Could you HOLD ON for a minute; she'll be free in a moment. We HELD ON as the bus started to move.
8. to hold onto – to keep as long as possible.
Example: It tried to HOLD ONTO my cash during the holiday so I could buy some duty free stuff on the way back.
9. to hold out – to resist; to hold in front of you.
Example: When the enemy attacked, they HELD OUT for six weeks. I HELD OUT my hand when she walked in.
10. to hold out against – to try to reject.
Example: The staff are HOLDING OUT AGAINST the plans to reduce the workforce.
11. to hold out for – to wait for something better or refuse something now for something better in the future.
Example: We are HOLDING OUT FOR a much better deal than the one offered.
12. to hold out on – not to pay someone or give them information.
Example: He's been HOLDING OUT ON me for weeks and I really need the money.
13. to hold over – to delay; to continue something for longer than planned.
Example: The meeting has been HELD OVER till Friday. It has been so successful that they have HELD it OVER for another fortnight.
14. to hold together – not to break up.
Example: The society managed to HOLD TOGETHER despite the crisis.
15. to hold up – to delay when travelling; to rob with violence or threats thereof.
Example: I was HELD UP by the terrible traffic and arrived half an hour late for my appointment. Two armed men HELD UP the bank in High Street this morning and got away with £75,000.
16. to hold with – to accept (usually negative).
Example: I don't HOLD WITH their plans.
II Match the phrasal verbs with their definitions.
1. to hold against a) not to show emotion
2. to hold back b) to stop someone from attacking or beating you
3. to hold back from c) to keep as long as possible
4. to hold down d) to try to reject
5. to hold forth e) not to allow yourself to do something
6. to hold off f) to wait for something better or refuse something now for something better in the future
7. to hold on g) to have a grudge against someone
8. to hold onto h) not to pay someone or give them information
9. to hold out i) to continue something for longer than planned
10. to hold out against j) to delay when travelling
11. to hold out for k) to state your opinions about something
12. to hold out on l) to accept (usually negative)
13. to hold over m) not to break up
14. to hold together n) to resist
15. to hold up o) to wait
16. to hold with p) to stop someone or something from moving
III Fill in the gaps with necessary phrasal prepositions: against, back, onto, off, out, on, up.
1. Five men held the bank … yesterday. 2. The accident held traffic … for an hour. 3. They held out … enemy attack. 4. Stop holding … and tell us where you found all of these old records. 5. Make sure you hold … the hand rail as you walk down the stairs. 6. Hold … a minute. I'll get Carol. 7. Hold … tight! The roller coaster is about to take off. 8. Mr. Johnson held the dog … while we crossed the yard. 9. The teacher held Frank … a year, so he couldn't enter fifth grade. 10. Mr. Johnson held the dog off while we crossed the yard.
IV Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb: hold against, hold back, hold down, hold forth, behind, hold out, hold off, hold on, hold up. 1. My husband never remembers my birthday but I do not … it … him. 2. The traffic was by heavy rain.. 3. You can … your hand if you have some questions. 4. Stop shouting at me! It was not my fault. I could not … her …!. 5. She had to … her joy. 6. Do you believe you’ll be able to … your job …? 7. The speaker … about the social politics in 18 th century England. 8. The rain … all morning. 9. I … to the banisters. 10. How long will our supplies …?
V Translate into English.
1. Це була його помилка, але я не збираюся звинувачувати його. 2. Ти хочеш, щоб він страждав? — Звичайно, ні. — Тому, будь ласка, приховуй правду від нього. 3. Якщо така прекрасна погода протримається, ми зможемо кудись поїхати. 4. Не піднімайте голови! 5. Моя мати просторікувала про грошову реформу цілий день. 6. Вона зазвичай відкладає візит до лікаря. 7. Чи слід мені триматися за людину, яку я люблю? 8. Він простягнув руку і привітався з Гаррі. 9. Це жахливо, але катастрофа згуртувала нас.10. Мою сестру поставили в приклад.
1.b 2.c 3.e 4.h 5.f 6.a 7.g 8.i 9.d
1.up 2.down 3.in 4.off 5.off 6.out 7.in 8.out 9.across 10.out
1.cut off 2.cut down 3.cut out 4.cut out 5.cut off 6.cut off 7.cut out 8.cut down 9.cut up 10.cut across
1.cut down 2.cut down on 3.cut in 4.cut off 5.cut out 6.cut out 7.cut up 8.cut across 9.cut down 10.cut back
1.c 2.d 3.g 4.h 5.j 6.l 7.m 8.k 9.i 10.f 11.e 12.a 13b
1.back 2.through 3.behind 4.out 5.off 6.behind 7.off 8.down 9.in 10.back
1.fell in 2.fell through 3.fell down 4.fall in 5.fall behind 6.fell out 7.fell off 8.fall about 9.fall behind 10.fall apart
1.fall for 2.fell apart 3.fell apart 4.falling behind 5.fell back 6.fell down 7.fell through 8.fall out 9.fell off 10.fell in
1.g 2.a 3.e 4.p 5.k 6.b 7.o 8.c 9.n 10.d 11.f 12.h 13.i 14.m 15.j 16.l
1.up 2.up 3.against 4.out 5.onto 6.on 7.on 8.off 9.back 10.off
1.hold against 2.held up 3.hold up 4.hold back 5.hold back 6.hold down 7.held forth 8.held off 9.held on 10.hold out
1.hold against 2.hold back 3.hold up 4.hold down 5.held forth 6.holds off 7.hold on 8.held out 9.held together 10.held up