18 травня о 18:00Вебінар: Інтерактивний урок математики: алгоритми та приклади створення дидактичних матеріалів

Посібник для вчителя “Зв'язок мовлення з іншими видами мовленнєвої діяльності"

Про матеріал

Посібник має своєю метою формування мовленнєвих навичок учнів 7-8 класів та пропонує детальну розробку тем:

Літній відпочинок. Подорож, Телефона розмова,Спорт, Релігія.

У посібник включено різноманітні тексти для читання та аудіювання, які націлені на пошук нової інформації та потребу її обговорювання.

У процесі роботи з текстом учні присвоюють змістовий план текстів, їх мовний матеріал, композицію, тобто те, що можливо використовувати створюючи власні монологи, або діалоги.

Ряд завдань до прочитаного спонукає учнів робити самостійні розгорнуті висловлювання з елементами аргументації та власної оцінки.

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Методична розробка на тему

“Звязок мовлення з іншими видами мовлиневої діяльності”

Вч. англійської мови Матвєєва Н.П.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

м. Запоріжжя

 



Talking points:

 

Answer the questions

When you are feeling tense what do you do to relax?

Does summer give an excellent opportunity to relax?

 

Sample text

 

Every man who works hard needs some recreation from time to time.

Every wise person has some hobby to fill up his or her leisure hours.

 A hobby is a favourite past time of a person.

If you have chosen a hobby, lucky you are: you have made your life more interesting.

Hobbies differ like tastes. Numerous hobbies can be subdivided into four large classes:

  • doing things
  • making things
  • learning things
  • collecting things

The most popular of all hobby groups is doing things-everything from gardening to traveling and from chess to volleyball.

Some people prefer to make things. Making things includes drawing, painting, making sculpture, designing costumes, and handicrafts.

Lovers of music play the piano, organ, harmonium, violin, guitar, flute, trumpet, or trombone. Some hobbyists write music.

Other find joy in collecting things. Almost every one collects something at some period of his life: stamps, coins, matchboxes, books, toys, post cards, and watches. Some collections have no real value but people with a great deal of money often collect painting, rare books or other art objects.

No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has the opportunity of learning from it.. Learning things can be the most exiting aspect of a hobby.


Talking points:

 

Formal

- is limited in certain important respects by the special situation

- is conducted at a much more formal level because the people speaking are taking care to maintain the high level of politeness.

Informal

- usually take place between friends who have nothing in particular to discuss and are simply engaged in a bit of social pleasantness

- have a great deal of informal idioms in the vocabulary

 

 

Topical Telephone Conversation:

  1. Appointments
  2. Invitations
  3. Reservations
  4. Inquiries
  5. Exchange of opinions
  6. Congratulations


Appointments

- Could I have an appointment with the dentist?

- I would like to make an appointment with…

- I’m calling to confirm our I’m calling to with…

- There’s something I’d like to talk about. When can we meet?

- I’m calling to let you know that Mr. Bell will not be able to keep the appointment. He is away from London and won’t be back until after Wednesday. We are sorry about this.

 

 

Invitations

- I’m calling to invite you to the reception party. I’ll get the invitation card in the mail late this afternoon then. I’m looking forward to see you. Good-bye.

- I’m delighted to accept your invitation.

- Could you join me for lunch, say, tomorrow?

- Thanks for your kind invitation but I’m afraid I’m booked up for tomorrow. Could you suggest an alternative day?

-Thanks a lot. It’s very kind of you and I’d be very happy to join you but I unfortunately I can’t accept it. I’ve got another engagement.

 

 

Reservations

- We’d like to make a reservation for…

- I want to make a long-distance call, please.

- Can you find his phone number for me?

- I would like to make arrangements with the manager of a restaurant for a small dinner party.

- We would prefer to have our seats in the middle of the fifth row.

-A light leaving Heathrow at


Inquiries

- Can you give arrival the times of fast trains to Edinburgh, please, and arrival time? I’d like to get there about 6.00 p.m.

- I am going to visit Great Britain as a tourist. Should I apply for visa personally or by post?

- I‘m calling to do inquire about some books.

-What information would you like to obtain?

- I’ve heard you are looking for a nice summer cottage. What sort of place do you need?

 

 

Exchange of opinions

А: I have two tickets. Would you like to watch the match?

В: Sure thing. This is the only chance, and I would not miss it.

 And what's your favourite sport?

A: It's hard to say. I like soccer all right, but I think I like tennis

better.

B: Do you play much tennis?

A: Yes, quite a bit. How about a game sometime?

B: No, thanks. I am strictly a spectator.

A: So I’m sending you the tickets for the match and hope to see you

on Tuesday.

B: Thank you. I’m looking forward to seeing you. Good-bye.

A: Good-bye.

 

Congratulations

-I was delighted to hear of your marriage/good news.

-Please accept my most sincere and hearty congratulations.

-Congratulations on the arrival of your son/marriage.

-I’m calling to offer you my heartiest congratulations on your promotion. I wish you every success in your business.

-I called to wish you a happy birthday


Read the dialogues and find out the type of  telephone conversation

 

Dialogue 1

A: This is Mr. Barlow speaking.

B: Good afternoon, Mr. Barlow. This is Weston.

B: Hello, Mr. Weston. What a surprise! I didn't expect you to be back in London so soon.

A: This time I'm here only on a short visit and I'd like very much to meet you. Could you join me for lunch, say, tomorrow?

B: Thanks for your kind invitation but I'm afraid I'm booked up for tomorrow. Could you suggest an alternative date?

A: Just a second. I'll look at my schedule. Can we make it Friday, then?

B: OK, I’ll be expecting you.

 

 

Dialogue 2

A: Is that Dr. Morton's office?

B: Yes, sir.

A: Could I have an appointment with the doctor in the middle of next week, please?

B: Just a minute, sir: I'll check his schedule. Will Wednesday be all right?

A: Yes. It’s fine. What time, please?

B: Wednesday, at 6 p.m.

A: Thank you. Good-bye.

 

 

Dialogue 3

A: Hello. May I speak to Mr. Slow, please?

B: Mr. Slow is speaking.

A: This is Mr. Abbott's secretary. I'm calling to confirm your appointment with Mr. Abbott for next Friday at 4 p.m.

B: I'm looking forward to seeing Mr. Abbott next Friday at 4.p.m. Will you give him my best regards, please.

A: I will. Good-bye.


Dialogue 4

A: I’m calling to invite you to dinner tomorrow.

B: Thanks a lot. It's very kind of you and I’d be happy to join you but I'm afraid I've got another engagement for tomorrow. I'm very sorry.

A: I'm sorry too, but I do understand I should have invited you a few days ago. One can't really expect people to accept invitations at such short notice, of course. We'll have to make it some other time then. Good-bye.

 

 

Dialogue 5

A: Good morning. Is this Mr. Applebee?

B: Yes, I'm Applebee.

A: I'm calling about the house you advertised to rent for the summer months.

B: How many are you in your family?

A: Four: my wife, two children and myself. Your house sounds like the sort of place we need for three months - June, July and August.

B: Yes, of course, we have all the conveniences and plenty of rooms to accommodate all of you.

A: My wife and I would like to see your house.

B: How soon would you like to come?

A: Is this Saturday at three o'clock all right?

B: Fine. I'll expect you.

 

 

Dialogue 6

A: Hello, This is Fred.

B: Hello, Freddy, how are you?

A: Not very well, I'm afraid.

B: What's the matter? Somebody's ill?

A: No, everybody's fine. But I'm giving up. I certainly can't learn English.

B: Why are you upset? I think you're making wonderful progress.

A: No. I'm not. I try and try but still cannot speak it well.

B: Well, learning any language takes a lot of effort and time. But don't give up. What if I help you?

A: Thank you. I'm sure your help will improve things.

What would you say on the phone in reply to these remarks?

1.

A: I would like to make an appointment with Mr. Jeffries.

B:

2.

A: Hello. Could I speak to Mr. Ward’s secretary, please?

B:

3.

A: Yes, we have received your invitation.

B:

4.

A:

B: Just a minute. I’ll check his schedule. Will Wednesday be all right?

5.

A: There’s something I’d like to talk about. When can we meet?

B:

6.

A:

B: Could you give me an alternative date?

7.

A:

B: Thanks awfully, but I’m afraid I’ve got a lunch appointment for this time.

8.

A:

B: Sorry. I’m engaged.

9.

A: We’d like to make a reservation for Mr. Morris.

B:

10

A:

B: Sorry, I can’t give you a definite answer.


11.

A: We would like to invite you for our Christmas dinner.

B:

12.

A: I’ve heard you are looking for a nice summer cottage. What sort of place do you need?

B:

13.

A: What information would like to obtain?

B:

14.

A: My call is really urgent.

B:

15.

A: We would like you to confirm your reservation in writing.

B:

16.

A: Accept my best wishes for your future career.

B:

17.

A: I’m happy to offer you my hearty congratulations.

B:

18.

A:

B: Thank you very much. It’s very kind of you.

19.

A: Why are you upset? I think you’re making wonderful progress.

B:

20.

A: Hello, Mr. Barlow. Nice to hear you. How’s everything?

B:


Make up dialogues:

  • make an appointment by phone with /an engineer from the TV repair service.
  • phone your friend and tell him that you are unable to keep the appointment, give your reason.
  • invite your friends over the phone to a dinner/lunch.
  • reserve by phone a table at the restaurant/two seats on the train to Paris.
  • convey congratulations to your brother who has got married/to your American friend who has become a father
  • thank your friend who sent you a birthday card and a gift
  • discuss the film you have seen/the party you have been to

 

 

Read the text:

 

The Telephone

 

Alexander Graham Bell never planned to be an inventor; he wanted to be a musician or a teacher of deaf people. The subjects that he studied in school included music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include German, which most scientific and technical writers used in their books, or science or math.

Alexander's mother was a painter and a musician. His father was a well-known teacher. He developed a system that he called "Visible Speech", which he used to teach deaf people to speak. When Alexander was a young boy he and his two brothers helped their father give demonstrations of the system for doctors and other teachers.

In 1863, when Alexander was only sixteen, he became a teacher in a boys' school in Scotland. He liked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher of deaf people. He read all the books about sound that he could find, and started to work on some of his own experiments. Reading scientific books wasn't easy for him, but he worked very hard, and he learned a lot about the laws of sound.

In 1868, a terrible thing happened to the Bell family. Alexander's two brothers died of tuberculosis. Then Alexander became ill with the same disease. The doctor suggested a better climate, and the whole family moved to Canada. Alexander could not work for a year, but he continued his experiments with sound.

He became interested in the telegraph, and he tried to find a way to send musical sounds through electric wires. These experiments were not very successful.

After a year of rest, Alexander was offered a job at the School for the Deaf in Boston, Massachusetts. He was so successful that he was able to open his own school when he was only twenty-five.

About this time, Alexander became interested in finding a way to send the human voice through an electric wire. The parents of some of the children whom he taught contributed money for equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in an electrical shop and knew a lot about building electric machines. Tom and Alexander worked together to build a machine that people could use to talk to one another over long distances.

After two years, the two young men were becoming discouraged. Then, one day, when they were working on a new transmitter, Alexander spilled some acid on himself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room, heard a voice. The voice was coming through a wire to a receiver on the table! The voice was Alexander Graham Bell's! It was saying, "Come here, Mr. Watson! I want you!"

The spilled acid was forgotten when Tom and Alexander realized that their talking machine worked.

The first permanent telephone line was built in Germany in 1877. And in 1878, the first telephone exchange was established in the United States - 5,440 kilometres from New York to San Francisco. Alexander Graham Bell was invited to open the new line, and he asked his old friend, Tom Watson to help.

On the important day, January 25, 1915, Mr Watson was in San Francisco and Mr. Bell was in New York City. Everyone expected to hear a serious, scientific speech.

The words that Mr. Bell chose to say were, "Come here, Mr. Watson! I want you!"


Answer the questions:

  1. Did Alexander Graham Bell plan to be an inventor?
  2. What subjects did he study?
  3. Did they include German?
  4. Who used German in their books, or science or math?
  5. What was his mother?
  6. Who developed a system that called “Visible Speech”?
  7. What did his father give for doctors and other teachers?
  8. When did Alexander become a teacher in boy’s school?
  9. What did he read about?
  10. What happened to the Bell family in 1863?
  11. Why did the whole family move to Canada?
  12. Did Alexander continue his experiments with sound?
  13. That wasn’t very successful?
  14. Why was he able to open his own school?
  15. Whom did he find to work together?
  16. What did they want to build?
  17. When was the first permanent telephone line build?
  18. Where was the first telephone exchange established?
  19. What did everyone expect to hear on the important day, January 25,1915?

20.  What words did Mr. Bell chose?


Talking points:

 

Comprehension
  1. What is the name of the planet we live on?
  2. How many oceans are there on our planet?
  3. How many continents are there? What are they?
  4. What are the continents separated by?
  5. There are many countries on each continent, aren’t there?
  6. How do peoples and nations differ from each other?
  7. Who helped to get the information about the planet we live on?
  8. What great discoveries do you know?
  9. In the old days people travelled very little because travel was slow, difficult and even dangerous. What can you say about it?
  10. Our ancestors would have been astounded and dumbfounded by modern airplanes. Do you agree?


Listen to the text:

travellers of the past

The first people to travel round the world went by sea. They were eighteen sailors from Spain. They were the only survivors of Ferdinand Magellan's crew. Magellan, himself, did not return to Europe. He was killed by local tribesmen in the Philippines. Nearly sixty years later, the English captain, Francis Drake, repeated Magellan's voyage in his ship called the Golden Hind.

The first solo circumnavigation was made by the American, Captain Joshua Slocum, at the end of the nineteenth century. He sailed 46,000 miles (74,000 kilometres). Yet Captain Slocum could not swim!

The first people to fly non-stop round the world were Captain James Gallagher and his crew. They completed the flight on 2nd March 1949. Their plane was a USAF Boeing B-50 bomber. The flight took 94 hours 1 minute.

Two Canadians, Garry Sowerby and Ken Langley, drove round the world in a Volvo 245 DL car in 1980.

Most circumnavigators have travelled round the Equator. Sir Ranulph Fiennes and his companions did it the hard way. Between 1979 and 1982 they travelled round the world via the North and South Poles.

Since Magellan's time people have travelled round the world on foot and by all forms of transport. Some have ridden on bicycles, horses, motorcycles and trains. Others have travelled on sledges, in cars, lorries, submarines and all sorts of ships, boats and planes. In the sixteenth century, Magellan's men took three years to travel round the world. In 1961 Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth in 89.34 minutes.

 

 

Right, wrong or don’t know?

  1.    All the men in Magellan’s crew were Spanish.
  2. Magellan was the first man to travel round the world.
  3. Magellan’s ship was called Golden Hind.
  4. Captain Slocum made the first solo circumnavigation.
  5. Captain James Gallagher was an American pilot.
  6. Langley and Sowerby began their journey in Canada.
  7.  Most circumnavigators have travelled round the Equator.


Topics for discussion:

  1. Distances have dwindled to nothing in this space age of ours. Travelling to far away places has become a common activity.
  2. The best way to study geography is to travel.
  3. The best way to master a language is to live in the country it is spoken in.
  4. Travelling helps to see the world and learn different things. It is supposed to broaden one’s mind.
  5. Some important points for those who travel (advantages and disadvantages).
  6. Camera is a necessary thing when you travel.
  7. It is always interesting to discover new things, to meet new people, to try different food.
  8. People have a complex about traveling by train (by air, by sea, in a car).
  9. We get used to think that accidents can’t happen to us. Do you think so? Has an accident ever happened to you or to your friends or relatives?
  10. Experts believe that there are three main reasons why people travel. They are: on business, visiting friends or relatives, and on holidays. What do you think of that?
  11. There is nothing like a boat-trip. Are you of the same opinion?
  12. An excursion in your city.
  13. The travelers of the past were curious and brave people who explored the world around them.
  14. Ships have played a very important part in history by making it possible to discover more distant parts of our world.
  15. Despite the competition of roads and the air, railways still have an enormous future


WHY DO PEOPLE TRAVEL?

People like to travel …

в одиночестве

с друзьями

с родителями

с собакой

с дедушкой/бабушкой

alone

with friends

with parents

with a dog

with grandparents

Usually they

travel …

ради удовольствия

в поисках приключений

из любопытства

чтобы увидеть красоту мира

on business for pleasure

in search of adventures

from curiosity

to see the beauty of the world

When they travel they like to …

ходить по магазинам

встречаться с новыми людьми

заводить новых друзей

осматривать достопримечательности

изучать традиции других стран

go shopping

meet new people

make new friends

go sightseeing

learn traditions of other countries

Because traveling

is …

восхитительное

полезное

замечательное

приносящее удовольствие

полезное для здоровья

exciting

useful

fascinating

enjoyable

good for health

But some times it

can be

приносящее разочарование

дорогое

опасное

утомительное

disappointing

expensive

dangerous

troublesome tiring

And still

traveling …

расширяет кругозор

дает жизненный опыт

оставляет незабываемые впечатления

помогает исследовать мир

позволяет лучше понять других людей

broadens our mind

outlook gives us life experience

leaves unforgettable impressions

helps us explore the world allows us

to understand other people better

 


Read/listen the following opinions and choose from the statements below the one for each opinion that better illustrates its main idea.

Travelling is the best way to see the world.

Travelling is the best topic  to talk about.

Travelling is the best way to have rest.

Travelling is the best way to do business with foreign partners.

Mark: Travelling is wonderful, I think. New places, foreign countries, unknown people, mysterious traditions. It is so thrilling. Lots off things to talk about, plenty of stories to tell, a great deal of experience to share. That's why many people like to travel.

I know that some people say that I just boas? when I tell everybody about hundreds of places I've visited. So what of it?  I can easily say: "I've been to Hawaii and spent 3 weeks there in the atmosphere of peaceand serenity." Let everybody envy me.

I like to speak about it. I've been to Florida, I've visited Florence, I've ridden a camel in Egypt and I've seen festivity-show in Rio-de-Janeiro! Here are the pictures! Nobody's been there. I am the only person to see it all with my own

It doesn't matter whether I liked it or not, whether I had a rest or not, whether I saw anything else or not. I've just been to the place which nobody has  ever visited. That's the thing. I am the best!

 

 

Nataly: Travelling? I think it's great! It's the best way to enjoy your free time. For me, travelling means rest first of all. And where can you spend your vacations better than abroad? New places, new people-new lifestyles. If you get tired of all you have - the best way to have rest is to go somewhere.

Are you sick and tired of your colleagues? - Go to the place where nobody can get at you. Are you fed up with your daily doldrums? - Go to the place where everything is absolutely different.

I think, travelling's the best way to get rid of all the problems you face, all the troubles you have. It's your opportunity to have rest, to enjoy freedom and to be yourself. All you need is just relax, inhale fresh sea air, watch the yachts. passing by, get acquainted with new people. I like it all. Sun, sea, fresh air, freedom - isn't it a paradise?

Steve: People travel for many reasons. Some - for rest, others - for sightseeing, still others - for status it involves. I am an interpreter, that's why I mostly travel for business with my colleagues and boss.

Travelling is a part of my job. If my chief wants to go somewhere e abroad he takes me with him, otherwise there won't be any negotiations and meetings. I am the only person to help him to communicate with the foreigners.

I would say that I hate travelling. It takes too much time and effort. My relatives don't like it either. I have to leave them for months, because I've got some

 

 

Irene: Well, I think that different people travel for different reasons. But the majority of them, I believe, travel to see countries, places they've heard a lot about. And I am one of them.

Personally for me, travelling is a wonderful opportunity to experience a different way of life. I travel to see new lands, people, new cultures. It's a good chance to learn a lot about foreign history, traditions and customs. I like to see how other people live, what they do, what they eat and what dresses they wear.

What's more, travelling gives me a good opportunity to see with my own eyes the castles, parks, memorials and streets I've heard so much about. Wise people say: "One eyewitness is better than two hear-so's and I completely agree with them. It's fantastic to find myself in the centre of Trafalgar Square, or to see Paris from the top of the Eiffel Tower, or to walk along Broadway? I think it's superb.

 

 

Give a detailed answer to the following questions:

  1. When do you usually travel?
  2. What big cities have you been to?
  3.  Do you collect information about the places you would like to visit?
  4. When do you start preparing for your trip?
  5. Do you like to take pictures of different places that you pass through and show them to your friends later?
  6. What do you like better, to travel alone or in-group?
  7. Which is the quickest (the fastest, the dullest, the most comfortable, the most pleasant, the most expensive) way of traveling?
  8. What means of transport is the best way to communicate with other?
  9. What do you prefer: to meet people or see them off? Why?
  10. Where can you get help with your means of travelling or planning your vocation?
  11. If you won a free trip around the world what places you would like to visit and what would you do?
  12. Do you think that travelling broadens one’s mind?
  13. Do you know some peculiarities of getting about town in England? Can you compare the traffic in London and that in your native town? What is the principal difference between both?

 

 

Analyze the statements

  1. The British Rail’s advertisements say: ”Don’t travel long distance by car. Driving makes you tense. Tension makes you ill. Think of your heart and don’t go by car.” Do you agree that long car journeys are unpleasant and tiresome? The greater part of the journey is spent on narrow, bumpy roads, which are crowded with traffic.
  2. Hardly any one can positively enjoy sitting in a train for more than a few hours. Reading is only a partial solution, for the monotonous rhythm of the wheels clicking on the rails soon lulls you to sleep. During the day, sleep comes in snatches at night, when you really wish to go to sleep, you rarely manage to do so and arrive at your destination almost exhausted.
  3. Trips by sea offer a great variety of civilized comforts. You can stretch your legs on the spacious desks, play games, swim, meet people and enjoy good food-always assuming, of course, that the sea is calm. If it is not, you are likely to get seasick, no form of transport could be worse. Even if you travel in ideal weather, sea journeys take a long time.
  4. Airplanes have the reputation of being dangerous and the most expensive form of transport. But nothing can match them for speed and comfort. Airplane gets you to your destination rapidly. For a few hours you settle back in a deep armchair to enjoy the flight. An airplane offers you an unusual and breathtaking view of the world. You soar effortlessly over high mountains and deep valleys. You really see the shape of the land. There is nothing to prevent you from reading or sleeping, as the journey is so smooth. However you decide to spend your time, one thing is certain: you will arrive at your destination fresh and uncrumpled. You will not have to spend the next day recovering from a long and arduous journey.
  5. Touring the country without any great planning in advance, beyond a vague idea of the general direction you want to take, has all the attractions of surprise and fun that’s missing when everything cut and dried.

 

Make up the situations where you can use or hear the following words:

  1. Only when I get into the train do I feel the vocation time has really come.
  2. The train moved out with all my luggage in it.
  3. I was involved in a slight crash about 5 years ago and ever since I’m dreaded the thought of a train/car journey.
  4. I prefer to reach the station with plenty of time to catch the train.
  5. I’ve lost/misplaced my railway ticket.
  6. When I’m in a hurry, it seems to me that the whole world has conspired to delay me, to make me miss my train/plan, to be late.
  7. I’m not all that keen of flying. Traveling by air makes me nervous. I don’t think it’s very natural to be all that way up in the air.
  8. This year we have decided to go to the Crimea in a car. If you have a car things are undoubtedly easier. You put some of your luggage into the boot, and the rest on the luggage rack on the roof of your car…Maps are useful.
  9. If you are a camping family you have even more freedom of choice.
  10. I always marvel at some of my clever friends who manage to get their summer holidays all tied up by the second week in January or thereabouts.

WAYS OF Travelling

Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It is always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. them at the cinema.

Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun.

Most travellers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests or pleases them-the sights of a city, old churches and castles; views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants; animals and birds; famous men and women; the ruins of ancient buildings.

Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had.

People travel by train, by boat and by car.

All means of travelling have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations. Wherever you go for your holidays you must arrange everything before you get on a trip.

There are travel agencies, where you can get help with your means of traveling and planning your vocation.

If we are fond of travelling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand the people is to meet them in their own homes.


Read the text and complete the sentenses below:

TRIP ON A JET AIRPLANE

You're going to take a trip on a jet airplane! What will it be like?

When the big day comes, you and your family will go to the airport take your tickets, passports, and bags to a counter.

An airline employee will look at your tickets and passports and take your big suitcases. (You can carry small bags and backpacks on the plane yourself.) Then you'll find a place to sit and wait. If you sit by one of the big windows, you can look out and see the planes landing and taking off.

A voice on a loudspeaker will tell you when it's time to board your plane. A door will open next to one of the big windows. You and your "family will pick up your bags and get in line to go through the door. When it's your turn, an airline employee will check your ticket. Then you'll walk through the door and into a tunnel. The tunnel will take you right to the door of the plane!

When you step onto the plane, you'll see rows of slats on both sides of an aisle. You'll walk down the aisle until you find the seats that match the numbers on your tickets. You'll find places for your bags under the seats or in an overhead compartment. Then you can sit down and look around.

On the back of the seat in front of you, you'll see a pocket full of magazines and a table you can pull down. On the arm of your seat, you'll find a button that makes the seat tilt back. Over your head, there will be buttons to turn on a little light and a fan with cool air.

When everyone is sitting down, the flight attendants will hurry up and down the aisle to make sure all the passengers have fastened their seat belts. Next, the flight attendants will explain what to do in case of an emergency.

You will hear the engines hum as the jet moves slowly out onto a runway. Then the sound of the engines will become a loud roar. The plane will begin to roll forward, faster and faster. The ground will seem to rush by. Suddenly you'll feel a bump - and realize that the plane is in the air!

During your flight, you can look out the window and see the sky. Far below, you can see the ground - unless clouds are blocking your way! If you'll be on the plane a long time, the flight attendants will bring you something to eat and drink. You can read or draw pictures or play games. If you're sleepy, you can tilt your seat back and go to sleep. The flight attendants will give you a pillow and a blanket.

Finally, you'll hear a voice on the loudspeaker telling you that you're close to your destination (the place you're going). The plane will begin to drop lower, and you'll see the ground getting closer. Soon you'll see an airport runway. When the plane's wheels touch the ground, you'll feel a bump and hear a loud squeak. The plane will roll quickly along the runway and then begin to slow down.

The plane will stop near the airport terminal1. Then you can unfasten your seat belt and find your bags. You'll leave the plane through a tunnel that takes you right into the airport. Perhaps someone you know will be waiting for you - someone you can tell all about your trip on a jet airplane!

 

  1. If you are going to take a trip on a jet airplane you will...
  2. An airline employee will look...
  3. When you step onto the plane you'll see....
  4. On the arm of your seat you'll find a button that....
  5. Over your head there will be....
  6. The flight attendants will hurry up to make sure...
  7. During your flight you can…
  8. Finally, you'll hear a voice on a loudspeaker telling...
  9. The plane will stop near...

 

Listen to the joke "Seasickness" and say why it sounds true:

In the first morning of the voyage the ship met with a storm on the sea, which steadily grew worse. There were twenty-five passengers at the captain's table for dinner, and he addressed them with a welcoming speech.

"I hope that all twenty-five of you will have a pleasant trip." The soup appeared, and he continued, "I sincerely hope that this little assembly of twenty-four will enjoy the voyage. I look upon these twenty-two smiling faces as a father upon his family, for I am responsible for this group of seventeen. And now I ask that all fourteen of you join me in drinking to a merry trip. Indeed, I believe that we eight are most happy, and I thank the good fortune that brought these three persons to my table. You and I, my dear sir, are-Here, steward, take away all those dishes, and bring me the fish."

Read the text and answer the questions:

  1. What are the joys of travelling on board a ship?
  2. What are the sips used for
  3. Why do some people prefer aeroplanes to ships?

 

Ships

The person who can see a ship without some feeling of excitement must have very little imagination. Even the idea of leaving the solid land on which most of us were born and brought up, and going out on to the ever-moving waters must rouse in us all some feelings of strangeness. We may remember stories of terrible storms, with waves as high as mountains; and of people from ships which have sunk spending weeks in small boats hundreds of miles from land. But we have also heard of the joy of travelling over calm seas under blue skies, and of the unforgettable excitement of coming, one fine morning, to a new and beautiful land, which we have seen only in pictures before.

But ships are not, of course, made chiefly for pleasure: their biggest use is in carrying goods from country to country. In fact, ships can carry more goods than any other means of transport, and can do so more cheaply; but, on the other hand, they are slower than trains or aeroplanes.

This slowness means that travellers who want to get somewhere in a hurry and who have not got too much luggage now usually prefer to fly rather than to go by ship. But even for passengers, ships have the advantage of being cheaper than trains or aeroplanes, and also much more comfortable, so that if you want a restful, not too expensive voyage, the ship will suit you best.

Ships have played a very important part in history by making it


Read the text and answer the question:

LONDON TRAFFIC

Traffic in London differs from that of the Continent. In England they keep to the left but not to the right. In England people say: "If you go left, you go right. If you go right, you go wrong."

They say that once upon a time people kept to any side of the road they liked. But then they decided to make it a rule to keep to the left. As Napoleon hated the British very much, he decided that in France the people should keep to a different side. And later on in all the countries which he conquered he made the traffic keep to the right.

In London one can see many buses, cars and taxes in the streets. The English omnibuses are often called double-deckers', because they are very high and have seats on the upper and lower decks. The London buses first came into the streets in 1829. At first they were horse-drawn omnibuses, with three horses. They say they were imported from Paris. The double-deckers of today are speedy and comfortable, but they seem to be very clumsy moving slowly through the endless line of taxis and cars of all sizes and models. Still they manage to maneuver very well without running into one another bus stop. You must do so because in busy street there may be four or five bus stops close together.

Double-deckers have seats for 65 people. Only 5 people are allowed to stand when the seats are full. So the conductor may stop you getting on the bus if there are five passengers already standing.

There are no trams in London since 1952. The main transport is the underground. The London underground is often called the tube, because it looks like a long, narrow and dimly lit tube, with its walls plastered with all kinds of advertisements. There are no vestibules in the London underground. The sign of the London underground-a red circle crossed with a blue stripe can be seen on the buildings or just under a staircase leading straight under the ground. The London underground stations are old and not attractive to the eye. Trains haven't any fixed schedule. During rush hours big crowds gather. The tube tunnels seem to be very small, too narrow for a train.

One must be very careful using the word "subway" in London. It does not mean "the underground". It means "a passage under the street for pedestrians".


Answer the questions:

  1. Does traffic in London differ from that of the Continent?
  2. What is the principal difference between the traffic in England and from that of the Continent?
  3. Why did Napoleon make the traffic keep to the right in all the countries, which he conquered?
  4. What are the main kinds of buses in London?
  5. What is the double-decker?
  6. When did the London buses come into the streets first?
  7. What are the double-deckers of today?
  8. Where are the main places the bus goes shown?
  9. Are there trams in London?
  10. What is the main transport?
  11. What is the sign of the London underground?
  12. Is the London underground often called the tube or the subway?
  13. Are the London underground stations attractive to the eye?
  14. What kind of schedule have trains?

 

Listen to the text and find some peculiarities of getting about town in England:

London Buses

There are two main kinds of buses in London: the red double-decker and the red single-decker. There are a large number of routes in London. The main places the bus goes to are shown on the front of the bus.

Some double-deckers in London have automatic doors, and you pay the driver when you go in. On the single-deckers you buy your ticket from a machine in the bus. These buses travel between the main stations and stop at fewer stops than the double-deckers. But most London buses have a conductor, who will come round and collect fares.

You can get a bus map of London at most underground stations. This map shows the routes for all the buses. But you'll have to find the bus stop yourself and remember to look for the number of the bus on the post at the bus stop. You must do so because in busy street there may be four or five bus stops close together.

Double-deckers have seats for 65 people. Only 5 people are allowed to stand when the seats are full. So the conductor may stop you getting on the bus if there are five passengers already standing.

 

Answer the questions:

  1. What are two main kinds of buses in London?
  2. Is there any difference between them?
  3. Who comes round and collect fares?
  4. How many people are allowed to stand when the seats in double-deckers are full?
  5. Where can you get a bus map?
  6. What does a bus map of London show?

 

Translate:

  1. some peculiarities
  2. rout
  3. to travel on business
  4. to miss the train
  5. to change
  6. abroad
  7. nevertheless
  8. entrance
  9. enjoyable
  10. towards

 

Express your opinion about traveling using the words:

enjoyable

horrible

superb

dangerous

marvelous

tiring

amazing

dreadful

fascinating

troublesome

fantastic

disappointing

perfect

terrific

good for health

unintresting


Talking points:

 

 

Discuss the following:

Good health is better than the best medicine (English proverb)

A sound mind in a sound body (Latin saying)

Sport is one of the things that makes people kin.

Physically inactive people get old earlier than those who have plenty of exercises.

Callisthenics helps girls to be slim, healthy and strong.

 

Be ready to write a composition on one of the topics:

  1. My favourite kind of sport (sportsman).
  2. I’m not a professional or a champion, just an ordinary amateur.
  3. Sport is essential part of my daily life.
  4. I go in for sport because I want to keep fit.
  5. To keep fit you do not have to run a marathon every day.
  6. Any kind of exercise is better than none at all.
  7. A sound mind is in a sound body.
  8. Spring gives an excellent opportunity for outdoor games.
  9. The British are sports-loving nation.
  10. Cricket is very much the English game.
  11. The Olympic games.
  12. Sport life in my school.


Answer the questions:

  1. Are you personally interested in sport?
  2. Which is your favourite game or sport?
  3. What team do you fan for?
  4. Have you ever taken part in sport competitions?
  5. What competitions have you participated in?
  6. Are there many sportsmen in your class?
  7. What indoor games do you know?
  8. What outdoor games do you know?
  9. What would you say about the most popular game in Ukraine?
  10. What is the national game in England?
  11. Can you play your favourite game well without proper training?
  12. Is there difference between the words “game” and “sport”?

 

Use spoken phrases:

First of all; In my opinion; Personally I; To my mind; If you ask me; I am quite sure that; It is well known that; I fully support; To tell the truth; To sum it up.

 

 
SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAIN

The British are known to be great sports-lovers, so when they are neither playing, nor watching games, they like to talk about them. Many of the games we play now have come from Britain.

One of the most British games is cricket. It is often played in schools, colleges, universities and by club teams all over the country. Summer isn't summer without cricket. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behaviour. When they consider anything unfair, they sometimes say "That isn't cricket".

But as almost everywhere else in the world, the game which attracts the greatest attention is Association football, or soccer. Every Saturday from late August till the be­ginning of May, large crowds of people support their favourite sides in football grounds. True fans will travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play. There are plenty of professional and amateur soccer clubs all over Britain. International football matches and the Cup Finals take place at Wembley.

Rugby football is also very popular, but it is played mainly by amateurs.

Next to football, the chief spectator sport in British life is horse-racing. A lot of people are interested in the races and risk money on the horse which they think will win. The Derby is perhaps the most famous single sporting event in the whole world.

Britain is also famous for motor-car racing, dog-racing, boat-racing, and even races for donkeys. The famous boat-race between the teams of Oxford and Cambridge attracts large crowds of people.

A great number of people play and watch tennis. Tennis tournaments at Wimbledon are known all over the world. The innumerable tennis courts of Britain are occupied by people between the ages of 16 and 60 who show every degree of skill - from practically helpless to the extremely able.

The British also like to play golf, baseball, hockey, grass-hockey. Various forms of athletics, such as running, jumping, swimming, boxing are also popular. You can some­times hear that there are no winter sports in England. Of course the English weather is not always cold enough to ski, skate, or toboggan, but winter is a good season for hunting and fishing.

Indeed sport in one form or another is an essential part of daily life in Britain.

 

Questions

  1. What do the British do when they are neither playing, nor watching games?
  2. What kind of sport is especially associated with Britain?
  3. What is cricket for an Englishman?
  4. What is the most popular game in the world?
  5. Where do the Cup Finals take place?
  6. Is rugby played by professionals?
  7. What kinds of racing are popular in Britain?
  8. What do you know about Wimbledon?
  9. What other kinds of sports do the British go in for?
  10.  What winter sports are popular in Britain?

Listen to the text

 SPORTS AND GAMES

We are sure you are all interested in sport. Many of you certainly play such games as volley-ball or football, basketball or tennis. People who play a game are players. Players form teams and play matches with other teams - their opponents. Two players playing with each other are partners. Each team can lose or win. In a football match players try to score as many goals as they can.

Most matches take place in large stadiums.

Athletics is the most popular sport. People call it "the queen of all sports". It comprises such kinds of sports as: running (for different distances), jumping (long and high jumps) and others.

From time to time international championships and races (horse-races, motor-races, cycle-races) take place. Representatives of various countries can win a gold, silver or bronze medal.

Such great championships in sport are organized every four years and we call them Olympic Games. Only the best may take part in them.

There are so many kinds of sports, such as cycling, swimming, gymnastics, boxing, skating, skiing, rowing, yachting and many more in which you can take an active part or just be a devoted fan.

Everybody may choose the sport he (or she) is fond of or interested in.

 

Read the text 'Sports and Games' and find in it:

1) names of games;

2) names of sports;

3) what arc players;

4) what are partners;

5) what are opponents;

6) where matches usually take place;

7) what people call "the queen of all sports";

8) what takes place from time to time;

9) what representatives of various countries can win;

10) what Olympic Games are;

11) who may take part in Olympic Games;

12) what everybody may choose.


Questions

1. When and where did the Olympic Games begin?

2. Why did the Olympic Games become the Symbol of peace and friendship?

3. When did the Games in Greece stop?

4.Who renewed the Olympic movement?

5. When and where did the first modern Games take place?

6. When was the International Olympic Committee set up?

7. What is its function? Are Summer and Winter Games held separately?

8 How does the city-host prepare for the Olympic Games?

 

OLYMPIC GAMES

The Olympic Games have a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olimpia. They included many different kinds of sports: running, boxing, wrestling, etc. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olimpia to compete in the Games. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship.

In 394 AD the Games were abolished and were not renewed until many centuries later.

In 1894, a Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, addressed all the sports governing bodies and pointed out the significance of sports and its educational value.

Two years later the first modem Olympic Games took place. Of course, the competitions were held in Greece to symbolize the continuation of the centuries-old tradition.

In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is the central policy-making body of the Olympic movement. It is formed by the representatives of all countries which take part in the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee decides upon the programme of the games, the number of the participants and the city-host for the Games. Over one hundred and fifty countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee now. Besides, each country has its National Olympic Committee.

Summer and Winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, constructs new sports facilities, stadiums, hotels, press centres. Thousands of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc., for each Games.

 

 

Warming-up

Make-up your complex of exercises as in examples:

 

Stretching

Stand with your feet apart.

Hold, your arms straight out level with your shoulders, Raise your arms above your head. Press your elbows against your ears.

At the same time lift, your heels. Stretch up on to your toes.

Slowly lower your arms and your heels.

 

For the next 2 exercises you will need a chair with a back to hold on to.

Wrist and ankle flexing

Stand behind a chair. Hold the back of the chair with you right hand.

Raise your left arm and your left leg.

Rotate your foot at the ankle and your hand at the wrist. Do this ten times.

Repeat with your right arm and right leg.

 

Spine, hip and knee bending

Stand with your feet together behind a chair.

Hold the back of the chair with one hand

Slowly bend forward. Start with your neck then your back, down to your  waist and hips. At the same time lift one knee.

Touch your knee with your forehead.

Lower your knee and slowly stand up straight.

Repeat with the other knee.


HEALTHY WAY OF LIFE

Discuss these questions  in groups.

Sport in Your life

  1. What are the advantages of being fit? How can you measure your own fitness level?
  2. Do all kinds of exercise have the same effect on the body?
  3. What does a sportsperson need in order to succeed at the very highest level?
  4. Have you ever given up playing a sport? If yes, why did you stop?
  5. Have you ever managed to win a sporting competition? What was it?
  6. Are there any sports or activities you would refuse to play or watch?
  7. In Britain many people believe that playing fair and being a good sport are more important than actually winning. Which is more important to you: to be a winner or 'a good sport'?
  1. Do our national teams have the reputation of being winners or losers?
  1. Do you mind losing a game or match?
  1.        Would you ever dare to do a parachute jump?
  2.        Is it possible to over exercise? What actually happens inside the body while you're exercising?
  3.        At what age should children go in for sport in a professional way?
  4.        What kinds of sport don't require any special facilities or equipment?
  5.        What is 'aerobic exercise'?
  6.        How do you evaluate the performance of our Olympic team?
  7.        Why do you think so many top sportspeople use sports psychologists? What pressure do you think highly paid sportspeople are under? What do you think will happen to them when their sporting careers are over? Will they continue to be successful or have problems?


Be ready to write short compositions on the topic

Sample composition:

A human being is a part of nature and society. Our health depends on the world around us and social surrounding. Health is the basis of human's happiness. Every person wants to avoid suffering from heart attacks and other diseases, every girl dreams of being slim and fragile with clean skin and thick beautiful hair, every young man wants his body to be strong. To fulfill these desires one can't but keep to a healthy way of life. What does it include? There are certain laws of healthy life which deserve particular attention and keeping them will surely make your body and mind healthy.

 

 

SPEAKING

Look at the leaflet and discuss the following

 

WHAT EVERYBODY NEEDS HEALTHY EATING- WHY BOTHER?

To eat healthily is not a 'bother' - as this leaflet sets out to show. It is worth getting into a healthier pattern of eating.

We would feel fitter for it, and it would help to reduce the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure and certain forms of cancer.

The problem is: what changes do we make?

To sort out the confusion, that has arisen over healthy versus unhealthy eating, two independent medical committees (the National Advisory Committee on Nutrition Education - NACNE, and the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy - COMA) have looked into the links between diet and health.

Although they worked independently of each other. Their recommendations were remarkably similar.

 

Their general advice was that we should:

Eat Less Fat - to reduce the of heart disease.

Eat Less Sugar - to help stop us being overweight.

Eat Less Salt - to reduce the risk of high blood pressure.

Eat More Fibre - to improve our digestive systems.

How can we act on these recommendations?

We hope that this leaflet will go some way to showing you how, and what Tesco is doing to help.


FITNESS FIGHTS FATNESS

Physical exercise not only makes you feel better - it also makes your body function better.

Regular exercise increases your metabolic rate (that's how quickly you burn up calories) 24 hours a day.

It means you will gradually lose weight, even if you do not cut back on your food.

And you will rind also that it's easier to stay slim.

Finally, regular exercise can be a blessing for dieters - it can actually reduce your appetite.

You will find yourself getting hungry only when your body needs nourishment, not when you fancy a little something.

 

WHAT IS HEALTHY EATING?

Eating food that is best for our health should not be boring, time-consuming or expensive.

What we eat has to be balanced against practical considerations - price, availability, personal taste, lifestyle.

The two medical committees do not suggest we change the habits of a lifetime overnight. It's much easier to make small, gradual alterations to our normal eating patterns.

 

The sort of changes we might start with are:

Grill foods rather than fry them to reduce fat. Put one less spoonful of sugar in tea and coffee. Add less salt to food.

Change from white bread to whole meal to increase fibre intake.

 

THE IMPORTANCE OF EXERCISE

This leaflet is primarily concerned with healthy eat­ing, for a healthy life.

It is not a total fitness plan.

However, both NACNE and COMA (the medical committees we talked about earlier) emphasised the contribution that regular exercise can make to our general well-being.


WHAT IS REGULAR EXERCISE?

Don't panic!

To keep fit, you do not have to run a marathon every day.

Exercise briskly for about 20 minutes, three times a week and you will soon see the difference it can make. (Do remember to take it slowly at first, especially if you are not used to physical activity. And, if you do have health problems, see your doctor first.)

Human nature being what it is, many of us find even the shortest exercise plan a hopeless task. If we all did what we know would do us good, the swimming pools would be packed and the parks con­gested with joggers!

But there are many things we can do to help ourselves.

Any kind of exercise is better than none at all. How about a walk in the park, try getting off the bus a stop earlier, use the stairs instead of the lift and if you are feeling really energetic try taking the stairs two at a time.

 

 

ASSIGNMENT: Find out if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.

Getting into a healthier pattern of eating is not at all easy, but it is worth it.

NACNE and COMA, working closely together, came to the same conclusions about the relation between diet and health.

Although health-food is dearer than ordinary food, it is just as easy to prepare.

We should change our eating pattern regardless of how expensive health-food is or how much we dislike it.

It is all right to take one's time over changing eating patterns.

The brochure mainly promotes healthy eating.

You will only lose weight if you eat less as well as exercise more.

If you do not exercise 20 minutes a day, you will not see any differences.

Regular exercise will make you feel less hungry.

Before starting any activity, you should do some warming-up exercises. If you don't. you'll injure yourself. Here are some exercises. They're good for stretching your muscles.


Talking points:

 

 

 

 

 
Easter Calendar

Palm Sunday is the Sunday before Easter and celebrates the arrival of Jesus in Jerusalem. Small crosses made of palm leaves are given to church-goers to mark the occasion.

Maundy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter and commemorates the Last Supper of Jesus and his disciples. It is the day when the Queen gives small parses of money to some specially chosen people. Originally the sovereign used to wash the people's feet, too, as Christ once washed the disciples' feet.

Good Friday commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus. The name comes from 'God' rather than 'good'.

Easter Sunday is the day for celebrating Jesus's rising from the dead. It falls on the first Sunday after the spring full moon, in March or April. Chocolate Easter eggs are given to children on this day.

Easter Monday, the day after Easter, is a bank holiday in the UK, as is Good Friday.


RELIGION

The most widespread religion in Ukraine is Christianity. Most of the faithful belong to the Orthodox Church. Christianity was adopted as the state religion by Prince Volodymyr in 988.

In 1596 a split occurred in the church, creating two churches: the Orthodox and the Uniate (Greek Catholic) church.

Today, much of the population of western Ukraine belongs to the Greek Catholic Church.

In modern times, the Greek Catholic Church experienced persecution, as did the Orthodox Church. The rebirth of the

Ukrainian state in 1917-18 gave impetus to the movement within the Orthodox Church to break away from the Russian church.

From 1930 to 1980 religious life was stifled; most hurches and cathedrals were closed; members of the clergy were persecuted. Since Ukraine's independence, the number of the faithful has increased dramatically, There has been a rebirth in religious activity: Sunday schools, religious publications abound. Religious schools have been opened. Since  1994, 138 religious buildings have been returned to their rightful owners, 261 new churches have been constructed, and 1,739 more are being Today, the leading churches of Ukraine are: Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchy, headed by the Metropolitan Vladimir); Ukrainian Greek Roman (Catholic) Church (headed by Cardinal Myroslav Ivan Lobachivskyi); Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kyiv (headed by Patriarch Filaret).

 

 

Questions:

  1. What is the most widespread religion in Ukraine?
  2. When was Christianity adopted as the state religion?
  3. When did a split occur in the church?
  4. When did a rebirth in religious activity begin?
  5. What are the leading churches of Ukraine today?


Ancient traditions rise again at Easter

In Kyiv on the morning of the Sun day before Orthodox Easter, well- dressed families on their way to church reverently clutch bunches of willow branches! This is Willow Sunday - the equivalent of Palm Sunday in Ukraine, where palm leaves are hard to come by. On this day the devout bring bunches of willow to church for blessing Ask someone why they're taking branches to church, and they're likely to reply simply that it's tradition.

This is only one of many Ukrainian Easter traditions, which start long before the day itself. Post, the Orthodox version of Lent, starts 40 days caster Sunday. During this time, tradition-followers are not supposed to consume meat, fish or milk.

Two weeks before Easter, Ukrainian villagers used to paint their houses white. And on Willow Sunday, Ukrainians still commemorate how Christ's followers spread palm leaves in front of Jesus as he entered Jerusalem.

Then on Clean Thursday, it's time for spring cleaning. Ukrainians traditionally get the house spic-and-span in time for all the Easter preparations. On Friday they cook, and on Saturday they paint pysanky, the world-famous Ukrainian Easter eggs.

Many of these traditions have their roots in pre-Christian Slavic culture; long ago the inhabitants of this region welcomed spring with fertility rites, songs and dances. When Christianity started to take hold in Ukraine a thousand years ago, people did not reject their previous pagan traditions outright, but adapted them to fit their new beliefs. Today the most famous Ukrainian Easter tradition involves an ancient fertility symbol, the egg.

Soon after the Bolshevik revolution, the Soviets attempted to abolish all religious holidays entirely. Even as late as the 1970s, militia squads would surround large churches such as St. Volodymyr's Cathedral in Kyiv and bar young people from entry at Easter.

In the 1980s, perestroika brought a religious revival. Many villages and towns began renovating run-down, neglected churches. And these days most Ukrainians celebrate Easter. Even non-believers often tidy up their homes and cook something special for the holiday.

When you ask foreigners what they know about Ukraine, the first response is usually "Ukrainian Easter eggs." The pysanka is an intricately deco-rated, multi-colored piece of folk art. The decorator takes a raw egg and Draws a design - the parts which are to remain white - with a special tool and melted wax from a candle. The tool, called a kistka, is a pencil-sized piece of wood with a small metal funnel at the end. In Kyiv many are sold on Andriyevsky street. When the first design is finished, the egg is dipped into a glass of dye, usually beginning with a light color, such as yellow. It is then left to dry -When the time to start on another egg is! Then the sections to remain that color are covered in wax, and the egg dipped into a darker color. This process is continued until the egg is almost entirely covered in wax. Then the egg is held over a candle so the wax melts and can be wiped away.

If the colored egg is to be preserved, the decorator should remove the white and yolk. One can poke holes in both ends of the egg and use a miniature straw to blow the contents out. As anyone with a Ukrainian mother knows, decorating a good-looking pysanka requires the sort of immense patience and skill that traditional cultures fostered and the 20th century has driven toward extinction. Ukrainians aren't taking these developments lying down, however, and have developed the electric kistka to avoid splattering and the egg lathe to help draw straight lines.

Another popular tradition is to make special holiday bread - paska and have an Easter basket blessed. The bread is traditionally round in form, symbolizing the eternal circle of life. The top is often decorated with cross-shaped indentations or pine cones.

The paska is put in a reed or wicker basket along with other traditional Easter foods and is taken to Easter ass, which often lasts from midnight Saturday until Sunday morning.

At the end of the ceremony, the priest blesses the paska and the contents of the basket with holy water. He tells worshippers one by one that "Christ has risen," and they reply, "Truly risen."

Then after 40 days of a strict fast with no meat or dairy products, Easter celebrants especially enjoy their baskets full of edible holiday treats.


Easter Eggs and Easter funnies

In 1884, the Russian emperor Alexander III presented a jewelled Easter egg to Empress Marie Feodorovna. It was made by the goldsmith Carl Faberge, whose name is now mainly associated with these wonderful objects.

Eggs are a symbol of birth and rebirth, and are therefore appropriate gifts at this time of year. Although Easter is a Christian feast, celebrating Christ's rising from the dead, the word Easter itself comes from the name of the Angles' goddess of dawn - Easter. Easter is the dawn of spring, a time of fertile renewal after the cold, dark winter.

Easter "bunnies", as rabbits are affectionately known, only became popular in the Thirties. Before that it was the hare which was associated with this time of year. Hares were thought to sleep with their eyes open, and to have a particular connection to the moon (what we see as the man in the moon' has often been likened to the figure of a hare). They were a symbol of the power of life - like the moon, always returning. Hares are now much less common than rabbits, and do not make good pets, which is probably why they've lost out to the rabbits at Easter. In adopting the rabbit as our Easter animal, have we lost some of the mystery of this special time of year?

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