25 серпня о 18:00Вебінар: Як зробити вивчення математики цікавим і веселим

Збірник завдань з теми "Агропромислове виробництво" з предмету "Англійська мова (за професійним спрямуванням)"

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Збірник розрахований на проведення практичних та самостійних занять з теми «Агропромислове виробництво України та країн, мова яких вивчається» із розділу «Професійно-орієнтовний цикл» для учнів ІV-V курсу професійно – технічних навчальних закладів за спеціальністю «Агроінженерія». При складанні посібника врахований метод інтенсивного навчання англійської мови та метод аналітичного читання. До кожної теми додані необхідний словниковий матеріал з перекладом та відповідними вправами. Уроки мають однотипну структуру. Кожен урок складається з тематичних текстів та завдань до них. До тексту обов'язково додається мінімальна кількість лексичних одиниць і вправи, метою яких є вивчення лексики, розвиток навичок читання з відбором потрібної інформації та перекладу. Робота з текстами має на меті підготувати студентів до роботи з літературою за спеціальністю, виробити у них навички практичного використання мови для глибшого оволодіння професією. Використані вправи є як проблемного так і тренувального характеру.

Посібник призначений для студентів та викладачів професійно – технічних навчальних закладів.

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Збірник завдань з теми  «Агропромислове виробництво України та країн, мова яких вивчається» з предмету «Англійська мова (за професійним спрямуванням)»для студентів професійних (професійно-технічних) навчальних закладів за спеціальністю «Агроінженерія» - с. Олександрівка, 2019 р., 30с.

 

 

 

Укладач: Микуліна Світлана Миколаївна - викладач англійської мови, спеціаліст І категорії

 

 

        Збірник розрахований на проведення практичних та самостійних занять з теми «Агропромислове виробництво України та країн, мова яких вивчається» із розділу «Професійно-орієнтовний цикл» для учнів ІV-V курсу професійно – технічних навчальних закладів за спеціальністю «Агроінженерія». При складанні посібника врахований метод інтенсивного навчання англійської мови та метод аналітичного читання. До кожної теми додані необхідний словниковий матеріал з перекладом та відповідними вправами. Уроки мають однотипну структуру. Кожен урок складається з тематичних текстів та завдань до них. До тексту обов’язково додається мінімальна кількість лексичних одиниць і вправи, метою яких є вивчення лексики, розвиток навичок читання з відбором потрібної інформації та перекладу. Робота з текстами має на меті підготувати студентів до роботи з літературою за спеціальністю, виробити у них навички практичного використання мови для глибшого оволодіння професією. Використані вправи є як проблемного так і тренувального характеру.

       Посібник призначений для студентів та викладачів професійно – технічних навчальних закладів.

 

 

CONTENTS (Зміст)

 

Lesson 1 Agriculture Its Origin and Development                                                                                4

Lesson 2  The Branches of Agriculture                                                                                                             6

Lesson 3 The Agricultural Education in Ukraine                                                                                  9

Lesson 4 The Mechanization. Tractors                                                                                                         11

Lesson 5 The Mechanization. Ploughs                                                                                                           14

Lesson 6 The Mechanization. Cultivators Harrows                                                                          17

Lesson 7 The Mechanization. Combine-Harvesters                                                                         19

Lesson 8  Agronomy                                                                                                                                                         21

Lesson 9   Agriculture In Western Ukraine                                                                                              23

Lesson 10 Agriculture In Great Britain                                                                                                        24

Lesson 11 Agriculture Abroad                                                                                                                               27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Література                                                                                                  30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 1 Agriculture Its Origin and Development

 

I.                   VOCABULARY

 

agriculture — сільське господарство to supply — забезпечувати equipment — обладнання to fertilize — удобрювати fertilizer — добриво resource — ресурси to cultivate — вирощувати cultivation — вирощування branch — галузь breeding — розведення grain crops — зернові культури

wheat — пшениця

rye — жито oats -овес barley — ячмінь hoe — мотика fork — вила rake — граблі

flax — льон hops — хміль hemp — конопля sunflower — соняшник to plough — орати plough — плуг to harrow — боронувати harrow — борона to mow — косити to thresh — молотити spring crops — ярі культури winter crops — озимі культури technical crops -технічні культури to sow — сіяти

sugar beets — цукрові буряки stick — палка spade — лопата         

 

   

II.                READ THE TEXT “THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN UKRAINE”

 

The agriculture is one of the most important branches of the national economy. The majority of the rural population works in agriculture. The development of agriculture depends upon the industrial level of the country. The industry supplies the agricultural equipment, chemical fertilizers and other necessary materials.

Agriculture uses the achievements of several sciences, especially those of botany, zoology and chemistry. Those achievements depend also upon the human talent and various circumstances which influence on the agricultural production. That's why the agriculture has a character of some art. It has become a branch of the national economy which needs some resources, for instance, the chemical fertilizers and agricultural machines. It also needs some natural fertilizers and natural resources which are given us by nature. The plant cultivation and the animal breeding are the main branches of agriculture. Wheat, rye, oats and barley belong to the cereals. They are main resources of the nourishment. The grain crops cultivation consists of plowing, sowing and harvesting. Agriculture supplies the technical crops: sugar beets, flax, hops, hemp and sunflower. The field work starts in spring and is over in autumn. In spring one ploughs, harrows, fertilizes and sows summer crops. In summer and autumn one mows and threshes grain crops, picks up fruits and vegetables. Agriculture is a single branch of the national economy which depends upon the climatic conditions.

 

III.            ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT:

 

Ø  What does the industry supply?

Ø  What do the achievements of agriculture depend upon?

Ø  What are the main branches of agriculture?

Ø  What are the main resources of the nourishment?

Ø  What grain crops do you know?

Ø  What technical crops do you know?

Ø  When does the field work start? When is it over?

Ø  What does one do in spring?

Ø  What does the grain crops cultivation consist of? 10. What does one do in summer and   autumn?

 

IV.             READ ALOUD THE FOLLOWING INTERNATIONAL WORDS, SENTENCES AND TRY TO TRANSLATE THEM INTO UKRAINIAN:

 

a)primitive agriculture; the primitive man; the land cultivation; plant resources; to exploit plant

resources; complex forms of agriculture; a complex of agricultural problems.

b)1. The primitive man hunted animals by using a stick. 2. He could gather plants by using a

spade and a fork. 3. Agronomists can repro¬duce the fertile layer of soil by cultivating the land.  4. The system of land tenure is a complex problem. 5. The first agricultural implement was the stick.

6. The first plow was originated as early as 3000 B.C. 7. The plow was first used in the Mediterranean region. 8. The plow gave a start to a more complex form of agriculture. 9. Then people began to use the fork, the rake and the spade. 10. Later on people began to use the plow. 11. By using the plow people gave a start to a more complex system of land tenure.

 

V.              FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE NECESSARY VERBS:

to cultivate, to plough, to feed, to start, to depend upon, to belong to.

l.One ... the soil in spring. 2. We ... potatoes and hops in our region. 3.The rural population ...

cows at the cattle-farm. 4. The field work . in spring. 5. Agriculture .. the climatic conditions. 6. Wheat, rye and barley .   the cereals.

 

VI.           TRANSLATE INTO UKRAINIAN “THE ORIGIN OF AGRICULTURE”

 

It is known that the primitive man lived by gathering plants and by hunting animals. Later on people began to exploit plant resources. The earliest implements for the land cultivation were the stick and the hoe. The implements people began to use later on were the spade, the rake, the fork and the plow. It is supposed that the plow was first originated in the Mediterranean region as early as 3000 B. C. It is said that the plow was the first implement which gave a start not only to a more complex form of agriculture but also to a system of land tenure.

 

VII.        TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:

 

1.Сільське господарство — головна галузь економіки нашої країни. 2.Більшість сільського населення працює в сільському господарстві. 3.Розвиток сільського господарства залежить від рівня розвитку промисловості. 4. Сільськогосподарські роботи починаються навесні і закінчуються восени. 5. Дві великі галузі сільського господарства — рослинництво і тваринництво. 6. Пшениця, жито, овес і ячмінь належать до зернових культур. 7.До технічних культур належать цукрові буряки, хміль, льон і конопля. 8. Першими примітивними знаряддями праці були палка, лопата, граблі і плуг. 9. Сезонне виробництво є особливістю сільського господарства.

 

 

 

Lesson 2  The Branches of Agriculture

 

I.                   VOCABULARY:

 

the forest growing — лісове господарство to nourish — годувати, живити  nourishment — харчування, живлення,

годівля the grain crops production — зерно-

виробництво the fruits and vegetable production —

виробництво овочів і фруктів  the   industrial     crops   production       —

виробництво технічних культур  the sugar beets production — виробництво

цукрових буряків  the plant raising — рослинництво  stock feeding — годівля худоби

 nutritive deficiencies — харчовий дефіцит

 

a carpenter bee — робоча бджола  viticulture — виноградарство 

a hornet — шершень 

a yellow jacket bee -бджола-охоронець  a boast -трутень 

apiculture — бджільництво  a wasp — матка  a bumble bee — джміль  an ant — личинка the flax production — льонарство  the hops production — хмелярство the animal breeding — розведення худоби 

spring varieties — ярі культури  winter varieties — озимі культури   

white — білок corn — зерно

 

  

II.                READ THE TEXT “THE BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE”

 

The nowadays agriculture doesn't only deal with the soil cultivation. It is also interested with the forest growing, with the protection of the river sides, mountains and with the hothouses. The agriculture is not only a nourishing resource. It also supports the human organism.

Without nourishment the human life may become impossible. The nourishment problem is the most important problem of all the countries in the world. Within the agriculture itself one distinguishes the following independent branches: the grain crops production, the fruits and vegetables production, the technical crops production (the sugar beets production, the flax and hops production, etc), the animal breeding and the apiculture.

All the agricultural branches may be divided into two large groups: the plant-raising and the animal breeding. The main branch is the grain crops cultivation. Thanks to the selection a lot of different wheat, rye, oats and barley sorts appeared in the fields. All of them have spring and winter varieties. They may be cultivated in different climatic zones.

The fruit and vegetable production covers the needs of the urban population. It also gives all the necessary vital vitamins, proteins and sugars. In the southern regions viticulture has become a very profitable branch of industry. The industrial crops production is a substantial resource of the raw materials for the industry. Hops is cultivated in our region. Nowadays the world market requires more aromatic varieties. Flax is cultivated to cover the needs of the clothing industry. The animal breeding supplies meat, milk, sour cream and cottage cheese. Poultry covers the needs of the population in eggs and meat. The apiculture is a peculiar branch of agriculture. It requires much attention and knowledge. Honey bees belong to the Kingdom Animalia which include all the animals. They are classified very peculiarly and represent a sort of a society which includes all the solitary and social bees, wasps, boasts, some familiar insects like yellow jackets, bald-faced hornets, bumble bees and ants. All of them fulfill their special duties. Bee-keepers must keep and protect bee-hives from different deseases.

When speaking about the branches of agriculture we can't forget the mechanization. This branch provides the mechanized order of the agricultural labour.

 

III.             ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT:

 

Ø  What is the main task of agriculture?

Ø  How can you characterize the nourishment problem?

Ø  What branches of agriculture do you know? Ø What varieties of grain crops do you know?

Ø  What do fruits and vegetables supply?

Ø  What do the technical crops supply?

Ø  How can you characterize the apiculture?

Ø  How are the bees classified?

Ø  What are the duties of bee — keepers?

Ø  What branch of agriculture organizes the mechanized order of the agricultural labour?

 

IV.             FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE NECESSARY WORDS IN BRACKETS:

 

Agronomy deals with the cultivation of ...for the regular production of food, feed and industrial ... . (field, fields, crop, crops).

The cultivation of . means the ground preparation for planting .   and other .   . (field, fields, tuber, tubers, plant, plants).

Viticulture deals with the growing of different ... of grapes. (sort, sorts).

Each bee ... consists of ... several..., ..., a lot of ... and many. (a wasp, wasps, a boast, boasts, a yellow jacket bee, yellow jacket bees, a carpenter bee, carpenter bees, an ant, ants).

Regular rise of ... is an essential ... in the development of national economy. ( a crop, crops, an element, elements).

Preparation of the ground is done by means of ., . and other. . ( a plow, plows, a harrow, harrows, an implement, implements).

 

 

V. FORMULATE THE PECULIARITIES OF THIS GRAIN CROP, TRANSLATE INTO UKRAINIAN:

 

BARLEY

Barley is one of the most widely cultivated crops of the cereals throughout the world. The crop is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions.

Once the chief bread, grain of many ancient nations, barley is now used for stock feeding. It has the same nutritive deficiencies as the other cereals. It is low in vitamin A, though apparently containing somewhat more than white corn.

 

OATS

Oats is an important grain crop in nearly all the countries. It is not commonly grown so far north or at such high altitudes as barley, and it does not stand drought so well. On the other hand, oats yields better than barley on poor soil.

Oats contains nearly as much protein as wheat does and even more fat than corn does.

The proteins are not of a high quality but contain low amounts of the essential amino acids. Oats also lacks vitamin D like all cereals, and contains little vitamin A, like white corn.

Due to the hulls, oats is the safest of all oummon grains for horse feeding, and hence is widely used for this purpose. Oats is useful because of its bulk, in starting fattening cattle or sheep on feed, but more concentrated grain is usually substituted for all or most of the oats as fattening progresses.

Oats is highly esteemed as a part of the concentrates for owes, young lambs, brood sows and young pigs. It is too bulky to serve well as the chief grain for fattening pigs.

 

CHARACTERIZE THE WAYS OF THE BEE TREATMENT IN THE USA:

Preventative treatment for both nosema disease and American foul-brood disease traditionally have consisted of a prophylactics administration of chemicals. Fumagilin (Fumidil — B) has been used for prevention of nosema disease, and oxytetracyclin has been used against American foulbrood. The feeding of fumagilin in syrup in sufficient concentration and amount has been shown to be highly effective way to prevent active cases of nosema desease. While not completely effective in eliminating the protozoan responsible for the disease, fumagilin has proven to be capable of keeping nosema infections at subclinical levels. This chemical is still successfully used in beekeeping.

 

VI.TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:

 

v  Всі галузі сільського господарства можна розділити на дві великі групи: рослинництво і тваринництво.

v  До зернових культур відносяться озимі зернові та ярі зернові культури.

v  Овочівництво і садівництво задовольняють потреби населення.

v  Виробництво цукрових буряків задовольняє потреби населення в цукрі.

v  Молочнотоварні ферми постачають в міста молоко, сир, масло і сметану.

v  Бджільництво є особливою галуззю сільського господарства.

v  Птахівництво задовольняє потреби населення у м'ясі та яйцях птиці.

v  Більшість польових робіт на даний час повністю механізовані.

 

 

 

 

Lesson 3 The Agricultural Education in Ukraine

I.                     VOCABULARY:

 

to join the Bologna process — приєднатись до болонського процесy  the Candidate of Agriculture — кандидат сільськогосподарських наук  he Doctor of Agriculture — доктор сільськогосподарських наук 

the mоге ... the better — чим більше ... тим краще  the scientific research — наукове дослідження  to train specialists — готувати фахівців to write theses — писати дисертацію bachelor — бакалавр  master — магістр to meet the demands (requirements) —задовольняти, відповідати вимогам (потребам) to meet the ever increasing demands — задовольняти безперервно зростаючі потреби to take into account — враховувати, приймати в розрахунок  the branch of engineering — галузь механізації  the branch of agronomy — галузь агрономії

 

II.                  READ THE TEXT “THE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN UKRAINE”

 

The agricultural education is a consisting part of the educational system in our country. The demand for specialists increases every year. The national economy needs the specialists with the middle special and higher education. Specialists are nowadays trained at special secondary (technical) schools and higher schools (institutes and universities). Our country is going to join the Bologna process in the system of education. It supposes the utilization of the most progressive methods in teaching and their close approach to the modern economy. Nowadays one must consider two levels in education: the Bachelor level and the Master level.

The system of the agricultural education is directed to the solution оf different practical tasks in the production. The initial level of the agricultural education includes special technical schools where the young people are mostly given some theoretical knowledge (especially in agricultural engineering) and different practical skills. The agricultural colleges belong to the next level The students of the agricultural colleges are trained both theoretically and practically. The training takes into account different natural and climatic conditions in different regions of our country. It also includes practical work. Thousands of young specialists who have been trained at the colleges are working in agriculture. Some of the best students reach the Bachelor level and are given the possibility to study at the Master level department. After having graduated from the Master level department the young specialists may work practically in agriculture or devote themselves to the scientific research. They may write theses and become Candidates of Agriculture and then later Doctors of Agriculture.

 

III.               ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT:

 

Ø  Where are the specialists for agriculture trained?

Ø  How can you characterize the higher education?

Ø  Where is the system of the agricultural education directed to?

Ø  What does the initial level of the agricultural education include?

Ø  What can you tell about the agricultural colleges? Ø What does the training take into account?

 

IV.               GRAMMAR. THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON. GIVE THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS:

 

high, progressive, educated, good, possible, complex, primitive, bad.

 

 

V.                  OPEN THE BRACKETS. MIND DEGREES OF GOMPARISON OF THE ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS:

 

ü  The stick is (primitive) agricultural implement, ü The tractor is one of (complex) agricultural machines.

ü  Oats has (much) vitamins than barley has.

ü  The Bolonga system in education is (progressive) in the world.

ü  The Master level is (high) than the Bachelor level.

ü  (Much) you study the special subjects (good) you may use your knowledge in the practice.

ü  (Old) he grew (wise) he became.

 

VI.               TRANSLATE INTO UKRAINIAN:

 

The demand for specialists in agronomy increases every year. To meet this ever increasing demand many agricultural higher schools and colleges are set in our country. They train specialists for all the branches of agriculture. As far as agronomy is concerned the training takes into account different natural and soil conditions. The specialists must know how to cultivate different fruits, vegetables, grain and technical crops. They must know how to fertilize soil according to its peculiarity. They must know how to operate various kinds of agricultural machinery such as tractors, harrows, plows, combine harvesters, etc. They also solve various production problems.

 

VII.            FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE NECESSARY WORDS:

 

1. training, 2. fertilizing, 3. demand, 4. operators.

 

 

... is done after plowing.

The ... for specialists in agriculture has greatly increased

The ... of agronomists takes into account that they will work in the regions with different climatic and soil conditions .

The practical work on farms includes the preparation of ... who will work under different conditions.

 

VIII.         TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:

 

Вимоги до спеціалістів зростають відповідно до вимог часу.

Наша країна вступає до болонського процесу в системі освіти, який відповідає вимогам Європейської хартії у всьому світі.

Система аграрної освіти направлена на розв'язання різноманітних практичних завдань у виробництві.

Студенти сільськогосподарських коледжів проходять практичну і теоретичну підготовку. При підготовці агрономів враховують різноманітні природні і кліматичні умови.

Чим більше студенти працюють у теплицях, тим кращою буде їх теоретична і практична підготовка.

Найкращі студенти присвячують себе науковим дослідженням і пишуть дисертації. Зараз у вищій освіті існують такі рівні: бакалавр, магістр та доктор філософії.

 

 

 

Lesson 4 The Mechanization. Tractors.

 

I. VOCABULARY

 

linkage — зчеплення, важільний механізм, важільна передача three-point linkage — триточковий навісний пристрій to drive (drove, driven) — керувати,проводити в дію the regular servicing — регулярне обслуговування to cultivate — обробляти землю, вирощувати general-purpose — загального користування to supply — постачати  implement — причіпне знаряддя  road making — будівництво доріг  PTO shaft — вал відбору потужності track load — слід, гусениця вантаж

tyre — шина, покришка         crawler — гусеничний трактор         belt pulley — привідний шків 

       shaft — вал

to mount — монтувати, навіщувати         dam building — будівництво дамб         grip — зчеплення із землею, захват        pulley — блок, шків

       wheeled tractor — колісний тракнеобхідний — збільшувати вимірювати

four-wheel-drive tractors — трактори з приводом на 4 колеса equally-sized —однакового розміру        at least — принаймні

 

 

II. READ THE TEXT “TRACTORS”

 

Tractor is useful when it supplies power to machines. Power can be supplied by the tractor in various forms. The tractor can pull or push machines, it can supply power to machines from the power-take-off shaft and it can drive machines by means of a belt from a belt pulley.

The tractor power is produced by the engine and is measured by horsepowers (hp) or kilowatts.

There are tractors with engine power from 3 to 300 hp.

Tractors are classified according to the maximum power that their engine can produce.

The crawlers or track laying tractors are large. They are used for heavy operations, such as road making or dam building.

Large tracks increase the grip of the tractor on the ground and the crawlers are able to push or pull heavy loads and machines.

Most of the tractors have tyres which can be placed closer or farther apart according to the distance between the rows that must be cultivated.

Wheeled tractors may have mounted implements and machines on them. This is done by the three-point linkage,

There are tractors with diesel or gasoline engines. The diesel engine will use less fuel than the gasoline engine for the same work done.

The regular servicing of tractors is necessary because it provides the tractor's useful work.

The fuel should be clean and have no water. If the engine is water-cooled one must be sure that there is water in the radiator, The radiator should be clean. The oil has to be changed regularly.

 

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT:

1.  In what forms can power be supplied by the tractor?

2.  What operations can the tractor do? 

3.  By what means can the tractor drive machines? 

4.  What is produced by the engine? 

5.  How is the tractor power measured?

6.  How are tractors classified? 

7.What are the crawlers able to push or pull? 

8.      What are the crawlers used for? 

9.      How can tyres be placed? 

10.  What tractors have implements and machines mounted on them? 

11.  What engines will use less fuel? 

12.  Why is the regular servicing of tractors necessary? 

13.  What should the fuel be? 

 

IV.GRAMMAR. THE PASSIVE VOICE. PUT THE VERBS IN THE PRESENT INDEFINITE ACTIVE OR PASSIVE VOICE:

 

1. The power (to measure) by kilowatts or horsepowers. 2. Tracks (to increase) the grip of the tractor on the ground 3. The regular servicing of tractors (to provide) useful work. 4. The cylinder and the cylinder heads (to form) the combustion chamber.5. Crawlers (to use) for heavy operations.

6. The camshaft (to open) the valves of the engine, 7. The oil (to change) regularly.

 

V. READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT “TYPES OF TRACTORS”

 

Four-wheel tractors are produced with engines of size from the small tractor оf about 15 hp to the giants with the engine power more than 200 hp. There are two basic types of four-wheel-drive tractors. One type has four large equally-sized wheels, the other has small front wheels and large rear wheels.

Most equal-sized wheel models have engines with at least 75 kw (100 hp) and tractors of this type with 150 kw engines are in use in some areas.

Ploughing and heavy cultivations are ideal work for these big tractors.

Many of the four-wheel-drive tractors with small front wheels are basically general-purроsе tractors and are able to transmit the engine power to the front wheels. The four-wheel-drive tractors can move along roads and their pulling power is greater than the pulling power of the two-wheeldrive tractors.

Row crop tractor has narrow tyres which can be placed closer or farther apart according to the distance between the rows that must be cultivated. It has a light-weight design and good visibility. It uses a diesel engine from 30 to 4-5 hp.

The general-purpose tractor does most of the work on the farms. It has powerful hydraulics and is able to pull heavy loads at the drawbar. This type of tractor is heavier than the rowcrop tractor and its weight is used to increase wheel grip.

Track laying tractors or crawlers are used for dam building, road making, drainage work. This type of tractors has low operating speed but it does less damage to the soil than the large powerful wheeled tractor.

 

VI.       FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE NECESSARY WORDS AND WORD- COMBINATIONS:

1. The tractor can supply power to the machines from the ... (power-take-off shaft, belt pulley, three-point linkage). 2. The tyres can be placed closer or farther apart ... (according to, by means of), distance between the rows. 3. The crawlers are usually ... (small, large, various). 4. The tractor can ... (increase, pull, do) machines. 5.The crawlers are able to      (produce, push, drive) heavy loads.

6.Implements are mounted on the tractor by means of ... (a belt pulley, tyres, a three-point linkage).

7. The fuel should be . . . (heavy, clean), and have no water.

  VII.TRANSLATE INTO UKRAINIAN “MODERN TRACTORS”

 

Modern farm tractors can do various job very effectively. Modern farm tractor can: 1)pull or push machines; 2) operate implements mounted upon it by means of the three-point linkage; 3) transmit power by means of its PTOshaft; 4) drive machines by belt power; 5) transmit power by means of shafts; 6) supply power for different operations; 7) generate electricity.

There are various types of farm tractors: wheeled tractors, and track laying tractors or crawlers, general-purpose tractors, large field tractors and garden tractors,

Crawlers are also necessary in agriculture, they are usually used for heavy operations such as road making and dam building. All the crawlers have tracks which must increase the grip of the crawler on the ground. They have low operating speeds but they can pull or push heavy loads and machines.

 

VIII.COMPARE THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF THE SENTENCES. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEM?

 

1.      An electric spark ignites the fuel. The fuel is ignited by an electric spark.

2.      The engineers used the first diesel engine in 1931. The first diesel engine was used by the engineers in 1931. 

3.      The tractor will supply power. Power will be supplied by the tractor 

4.      The engine produced power. The power was produced by the engine. 

5.      Our plant will produce new engines. New engines will be produced by our plant. 

 

           IX.      TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:

 

1.      Трактор може тягнути або штовхати машини, а також передавати свою потужність до машин від валу відбору потужності. 

2.      Трактори класифікується відповідно до максимальної потужності, яку можуть виробляти їх двигуни. 

3.      Більшість тракторів мають шини, які можуть знаходитись далі або ближче залежно до відстані між міжряддями. 

4.      Колісні трактори можуть мати навісні знаряддя, які кріпляться з допомогою три точкового навісного пристрою.

5.      Є трактори з дизельними і бензиновими двигунами. 

6.      Трактори потребують регулярного обслуговування. 

7.      Паливо має бути чистим і не містити води. 

8.      Потрібно регулярно змінювати масло. 

9.      Оранка здійснюється з допомогою чотирьохколіс-них та гусеничних тракторів. 

10.  Трактор загального призначення виконує всі польові та фермерські роботи.

 

Lesson 5 The Mechanization. Ploughs.

 

I.     VOCABULARY

 

to attach — прикріплювати, приєднувати conventional — звичайний 

with up to six mouldboards — з числом

полиць, що досягає шести  right-handed mouldboard — право-стороння

полиця  to produce a very level surface — давати

дуже рівну поверхню  the soil engaging parts — ґрунтоза-хватні

частини coulter — різак, чересло плуга  to cut — зрізувати plough — плуг

digger — плуг з передплужником

 to plough — орати angle — кут 

conventional and reversible ploughs —

звичайні і реверсні плуги  automatically     draudht-controlled      —        з

автоматичним регулюванням тяги. in this case — у цьому випадку

soil — ґрунт

seedbed — рілля, підготовлений до 

посіву ґрунт frame — рама  furrow — борозна  slice — пласт

reversible — оборотний, реверсний  root crops — коренеплоди  to rotate — обертатися  mouldboard — полиця плуга  share — сошник, леміш   trailed — причіпний  deep — глибокий  tine — зуб  depth — глибина 

idle running on the headlands — 

холостий пробіг на незораному кінці лану а hand-operated lever — ручний

важіль

a       doubleacting       ram      —        циліндр

двосторонньої дії

 

 

II.  READ THE TEXT “PLOUGHS”

 

The plough has been used in its different forms for many centuries. It has become the main implement used for the preparation of seedbeds.

A plough is an implement with one or more mouldboards which cut and turn the soil. Modern ploughs are commonly fully mounted on the tractor hydraulic system. Some are semi-mounted with the front supported by the tractor hydraulic linkage and the rear by one or more wheels, a semimounted plough is not lifted off the ground.

The number of mouldboards on a plough will depend on the type of soil and the tractor size.

Ploughs with up to six mouldboards are in common use.

There are three main types of ploughs:

Conventional ploughs with right-handed mouldboards. They are usually fully mounted but some semi-mounted and trailed models are also in use.

Reversible ploughs having leftand right-handed mouldboards, we can plough up and down in the same furrow. Most of them are mounted but some of the larger models are semi-mounted. Reversible ploughs produce a very level surface.

Disc ploughs are rarely used in Great Britain. In place of the mouldboards they have large rotating discs which cut and turn the soil slice.

Both right-handed and reversible types are being produced.

The soil engaging parts, disc coulter and the body of the plough are attached to legs, whish are in turn bolted to the plough frame.

The base of a plough body is called the frog, the soil engaging part being bolted to it. The share cuts the bottom of the furrow slice.

The mouldboard lifts and turns the furrow slice.There are many types of mouldboards each producing its special surface. The disc coulter cuts the side of the furrow that is to be turned.

There are various types of plough body, each having its special use. The main types common in Great Britain are general-purpose type and digger type. The general-purpose type is useful for the general ploughing work. The digger type is used for deep ploughing, generally for root crops.

 

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

 

1. How long has the plough been used? 2. What has the plough become? 3. What kind of an implement is the plough? 4. Where are ploughs usually mounted? 5. Are all ploughs fully mounted? 6. Is a semi-mounted plough lifted off the ground? 7. What will the number of mouldboards depend on? 8. What ploughs are in common use? 9. How many main types of ploughs are there? 10. Are all conventional ploughs fully mounted? 11. Can we plough with a reversible plough up and down in the same furrow? 12. What do the reversible ploughs produce? 13. Are disc ploughs often used in Great Britain? 14. What do disc ploughs have in place of mouldboards? 15. What are the soil-engaging parts, disc coulter and the body of the plough attached to? 16. What kind of work does the share do? 17. What kind of work does the mouldboard do? 18. Are there many types of mouldboards? 19. What are the main types of the plough body? 20. What is the digger type used for?

 

IV.       READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT “CONVENTIONAL AND REVERSIBLE PLOUGHS”

 

Mounted ploughs have many advantages over trailed tyres. Small mounted ploughs are in common use; for larger implements, semi-mounting is common.

Many ploughs have the depth controlled by levers that operate on the land wheel: but most small modern ploughs are controlled by adjustments of the linkage mechanism connecting them to the tractor. There is a limit to the size of plough that can be lifted in this way.

Long fiveto twelve-furrow semimounted ploughs can be hydraulically controlled. Some are automatically draught-controlled at both front and rear, the action of the rear cylinder being regulated in the same way as that of the main cylinder of the tractor. On another tyre the front of the plough is controlled by the automatic draught-controlled system, and working depth at the rear is regulated by a depth wheel, which also acts as a hydraulic lift wheel. The rear wheel in this case runs on the unploughed land.

Reversible ploughs have some advantages over conventional ploughs; they produce a level field, making seedbed preparation and harvesting operations easier; there is little idle running on the headlands.

At the end of each pass across a field the plough is turned on its frame. It can be turned mechanically or hydraulically.

 

V.                TRANSLATE INTO UKRAINIAN SUCH WORD-COMBINATIONS:

 

the furrow slice, the tractor linkage, general-purpose type, a higher power requirement, plough body, the plough frame, seedbed preparation, root crop seedbed work, depth control, disc harrows.

 

VI.             TRANSLATE INTO UKRAINIAN:

 

1.        A modern plough has up to six mouldboards. 

2.        When the piston has reached the bottom of its stroke the inlet valve closes.

3.        Both conventional and reversible ploughs have been produced by our plant. 

4.        The driver has to attach the plough correctly. 

5.        The pneumatic tyres have become so efficient and so popular that they are the standard part of all wheeled tractors. 

6.        Modern tractors have a four-stroke engine. 

7.        We have to set all mouldboards at the same angle.

 

           VII.     TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:

 

o   Плуг є основним навісним знаряддям, яке використовується для підготовки ріллі.  o Плуг є навісним знаряддям з однією або більшою кількістю поличок, які подрібнюють і перевертають ґрунт.  

o   Кількість поличок плуга залежить від типу ґрунту і розміру трактора.  o Реверсні плуги можуть зорювати і перевертати ґрунт на тій же борозні.  o Дискові плуги рідко використовуються у Великій Британії.  o Реверші плуги мають певні переваги над звичайними плугами.  

o   Плуг із передплужником використовується для звичайної та глибокої оранки.  

o   Багато плугів мають важелі, якими регулюють глибину оранки.  

o   Сучасний плуг може мати до шести полиць.  

o   У Великій Британії рідко використовуються плуги із передплужниками.

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

Lesson 6 The Mechanization. Cultivators Harrows

 

           I.         VOCABULARY

 

to disturb the crop — пошкодити  врожай    a drive disengagement lever — вaжіль вимикання power harrows -важкі борони                           an overload slip clutch — запобіжна фрикційна муфта rotary cultivators — ротаційні фрези                    

to ensure long working life — забезпечити тривалий експлуатаційний період                             to cover seed - заробляти насіння to destroy weeds — знищувати бур'ян drill — висів after frost has weathered the soil —   після того, як ґрунт піддався дії  низьких температур  spring cultivation of autumn-sown corn — весняний догляд засіяних восени зернових L-shaped blades — L-подібні ножі   to set straight — прямо встановлювати 

a chain drive unit — ланцюгова передача

 

           II.        READ THE TEXT “CULTIVATORS”

 

A cultivator has a frame with a number of tines for breaking the soil. It is usually mounted on the tractor and its working depth is controlled hydraulically. As with all cultivation machinery, there is a wide range of working widths, from 2 to 8 m suitable for all sizes of tractors.

Rigid tines are used for heavier works. They are arranged across the frame allowing free passage of soil.

Spring tines are flexible, sometimes with a coil at the top which vibrates in the soil. The vibrating movements of the tines will give fast seedbed preparation in most conditions.

Shares are used for seedbed and general work, stubble cleaning. When shares have been worn they must be replaced,

Cultivators are used for seedbed preparation, often after ploughing: for stubble cleaning and breaking; general weed-control; cultivation between potatoes and other rowcrops (the tines are grouped to pass between the rows without disturbing the crop).

Power-take-off-driven cultivation machines include power harrows and rotary cultivators. All power-driven cultivation machinery is costly and needs regular maintenance in order to ensure long working life.

Power harrows have two or more rows of reciprocating tines, others have tines which rotate in the soil. Most reciprocating-tine power harrows have two-tine bars. The drive is from the power takeoff through a gearbox and eccentric unit. A typical machine has a tine bar stroke of 15 cm.

Reciprocating tine power harrows are tractor mounted and depth control is provided by the hydraulic system. A roll is often attached behind the harrow. The roll can be used to control working depth, working width ranging from 1,5 to 4,5 m depending on the model. The tines may work to a depth of about 20 cm.

Rotary-tine power harrows have tines fitted on the rotors across the width of the machine. The tines are driven by the power shaft through a gearbox. Some models have various rotor speeds. This type of power harrow is also tractor mounted with depth control by a roll at the rear. Working width and depth are similar to those of the tine bar power harrows.

Power harrows make good seedbeds in spring after frost has weathered the soil. They are suitable for both root crop and cereal seedbed work.

Rotary cultivators may be mounted or trailed and have a power take — off driven shaft with L — shaped blades which cultivate the soil. The drive arrangement is through a gearbox and chain drive unit. A drive disengagement lever is sometimes included in the gearbox allowing the power shaft to turn with the blades. An overload slip clutch is also built into the drive.

The rotor and blades run at speeds ranging from 90 to 240 hp, the power shaft turning at 450 hp. Rotary cultivators are made in working width ranging from 1 to more than 5 m. The wider types are trailed and require tractor power of 110 kw (150 hp).

Rotary cultivators are used for 1) stubble cleaning; 2) seedbed work, usually for root crops; 3) cutting up weeds and crop residues; 4) land reclamation work.

 

           III.      READ THE TEXT “HARROWS”

 

1. Harrows are used for various purposes such as the preparation of seedbeds, the covering of seeds, the destruction of weeds and the aeration of soil. Many types and sizes are in use today. The most common type is that with a zigzag frame and rigid tines.

2 Seed harrows are light implements with closely fitted tines about 4 in (100 mm.) long. They are used for the final preparation of seedbeds and for covering seeds after the drill. They are mounted on small tractors.

Medium tractors harrows have various functions: the preparation of seedbeds, mixing of fertilizers with soil and spring cultivation of autumn-sown corn. The wider the implement, the гпоге important it is to have good arrangements for transport. Mounted implements up to 8 m wide may be used with tractors of 40-50 kw. Heavier and wider harrows for use with tractors of about 75 km may be semi-mounted. One type provides for lifting of the harrow sections to a wheeled frame, the wings of which can be manually rolled behind the centre sections.

Disc harrows cut and consolidate the soil. Two or more sets of discs are fitted on a frame which may be mounted or semi-mounted. Some heavy discs are trailed and have hydraulically operated transport wheels. Disc diameter varies from 30 to 75 cm. Discs are supported by bearings. Disc harrows working widths vary from 1,5 to 6 m.

Adjustments of disc angle. A hand-operated lever on the harrow is used to vary the cutting angle of the discs. Disc being fitted at the widest angle, the soil movement will be the greatest. When discs are set straight, they will not move the soil very much and have a consolidating effect.

 

IV.             GIVE UKRAINIAN EQUIVALENTS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS AND WORD-COMBINATIONS:

 

The number of mouldboards; semi-mounted and trailed models; in place of the mouldboards; the soil slice; both right-handed and reversible types; disc coulter, used for deep ploughing; digger bodies.

 

V.                TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:

 

1.  Культиватор навішується на трактор і його робоча глибина контролюється гідравлічно.                    

2.  Культиватор використовується для розпушування та вирівнювання ріллі.                                             

3.  Борони використовуються для підготовки ріллі, знищення бур'янів та аерації ґрунту.                         

4.  Чим ширше причіпне знаряддя, тим важливіше добре підготувати обладнання.                                    5. Дискові борони розрізають і перемішують ґрунт.                                                                                       

6. Ручний важіль борони використовується для зміни кута атаки дисків.

 

Lesson 7 The Mechanization. Combine-Harvesters.

 

I. VOCABULARY

 

 

auger — шнек, шнековий конвеєр bar — пруток, стрижень beater — вітер to consist of — складатися з cutter bar — різальний апарат to divide — ділити drum — барабан flow — потік grain — зерно harvest — врожай reel — мотовило

self-propelled — самохідний space — простір speed — швидкість to thresh — молотити even flow- рівномірний потік 

chaff – висівки, продукти-полова, січка concave — підбирання, дека crop — врожай, біологічний врожай 

to direct — направляти  divider — той, хто ділить  to fall (fell, fallen) — падати  to be angled — бути нахиленим  combine harvester — комбайн  to separate — відокремлювати  sieve — сито, решето  straw — солома tank — бак, резервуар  trailer — причіп

unit — одиниця, агрегат, секція, laid crop-полеглі культури

        to brush the ground — ледве торкатися землі

  

heavy straw crops — довгостебелесті культури

 

II. READ THE TEXT “COMBINE HARVESTERS”

 

Combine harvesters are used to harvest various crops. The combine harvester cuts the crop, threshes it, separates the grain from the straw and chaff.

The mechanism of a combine harvester can be divided into three sections. They are cutting, threshing and finally separating the grain from the straw and chaff.

To cut the crop a reciprocating tyre cutter bar is used. There is a divider at each side of the cutter bar. It separates the crop to be cut from that which will be left for the next round. The crop is cut while held against the cutter bar by the reel. After the crop is cut, the reel directs it to the cutter bar platform. The reel is one of the main parts of a combine harvester.

It has tines which can be angled to provide better cutting of the crops.A large auger moves the crop to the centre of the platform. By means of tines the auger directs the crop to the main elevator which lifts the crop to the threshing mechanism.

The threshing mechanism consists of a front beater, a heavy rotating drum, a concave, and a rear beater.

The main elevator is used to lift the crop to the front beater. It delivers the crop to the drum and concave. The front beater increases the speed of the crop as it moves to the drum.

Some combines do not have a front beater. In these combines the work of the front beater can be done by the main elevator.

Threshing takes place between the drum and concave. There are spaces between the concave bars, so the threshed grain can fall through on the grain pan. To reduce the speed of the crop as it leaves the cylinder is the task of the rear beater. The rear beater is the part of the threshing mechanism which both reduces the speed of the crop and directs it to the separating mechanism. To separate the grain from the straw is the main function of this mechanism. The separating mechanism consists of two parts: the straw walkers and the grain sieves.

The grain is separated from the straw by the rising and falling action of the straw walkers. They are driven by two crankshafts. The grain separated from the straw moves through the straw walkers and is directed to the grain pan under the concave.

The separating unit is used to sort the grain and chaff on the grain pan. This unit consists of two sieves and a fan. The vibrating action of the sieves separates the threshed grain. The fan provides a flow of air to keep sieves clean.

The harvested grain is directed to the grain tank. Big combines have an auger in the grain tank to provide the proper flow of the grain.

Grain tank capacities vary from 1 to 50 tonnes. A high capacity auger is used to deliver the threshed grain from the grain into a trailer.

  

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT:

 

1. What machines are used to harvest various crop? 2. What operations does the combine harvester do? 3. In what sections can the mechanism of a combine harvester be divided? 4. What are these sections doing? 5. What tyre of a cutter bar is used to cut the crop? 6. What is there at each side of the cutter bar? 7. What does a divider do? 8. Where does the reel directs the crop? 9. Where does a large auger move the crop? 10. What does the thereshing mechanism consist of? 11.What is used to lift the crop to the front beater? 12. Where does threshing take place? 13. What is the task of the rear beater? 14. What does the separating mechanism consist of? 15. What is used to sort the grain and chaff on the grain pan? 16. What does the separating unit consist of? 17. What does the fan provide? 18. Where is the harvested grain directed? 19. What is used to deliver the threshed grain from the grain tank into a trailer?

 

IV.READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT “CONTROLS AND ADJUSTMENTS”

 

The combine harvester must be set to suit various crops and harvesting conditions. To provide efficient threshing it is necessary to receive an even flow of crop to the drum and concave. The even flow of the crop depends on correct adjustment of all parts of a combine.

Both speed and position of the reel need adjustment. Working in a standing crop the reel should contact the straw below the ears. The reel speed should be faster than the forward speed of the combine.

Working in a laid crop the reel should be set well forward. The tines should brush the ground, when the cutter bar is about 3 inches above the ground. The cutter bar and the knife must be in good condition. Some combines have an automatic cutting height control system. This maintains a regular stubble height.

In heavy straw crops there is a risk of feeding too much material into the combine which may result in the loss of grain over the back of the straw walkers. To reduce the amount of straw on the straw walkers it is necessary to reduce forward speed or raise the cutter bar a little.

 

V.                GIVE EQUIVALENTS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS AND WORD — COMBINATIONS:

Cutter bar, divider, front beater, concave, rear beater, self-propelled machines, forward speed, auger, straw walkers, concave clearance.

 

VI.             TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:

 

1. Комбайни скошують зернові культури, молотять їх, відокремлюють зерно від соломи і полови. 2.Для того, щоб скошувати зернові культури прямим комбайнуванням, використовується обертальний різальний апарат. 3.Мотовило є одним із головних частин комбайна. 4. Молотильний механізм складається з фронтального бітера, 5. Передній бітер збільшує швидкість проходження врожаю на шляху до барабану. 6. Задній бітер є частиною молотильного механізму. 7. Відокремлюючий вузол використовується для того, щоб сортувати зерно і полову на транспортній дошці. 8. Обертальний рух решет відокремлює обмолочене зерно. 9. Вентилятор забезпечує потік повітря для того, щоб тримати решето чистим. 10. Обмолочене зерно направляється в зерновий бункер.

Lesson 8  Agronomy

 

           I.         VOCABULARY

 

             chemical composition of soils — хімічний           range of plants — сівозміна 

склад ґрунту                                                                     to fertilize — удобрювати 

food crops — харчові культури          industrial crops — технічні культури to plant — саджати    to differ — відрізнятися to drill — висівати            improvement   —        поліпшення, planting — посадка            удосконалення tubers — коренеплоди        to develop — розвивати to grow — вирощувати     different — різноманітний

              fertility — родючість                                             to improve — поліпшувати

crops — сільськогосподарські культури development — розвиток feed crops — кормові культури         gang plow — багатокорпусний

 to sow — сіяти  drill — висів  Seeds — насіння  harrow — борона

тракторний плуг sweeper— зрихлювач 

cultivator — культиватор 

 

 

 

           II.        READ THE TEXT “AGRONOMY”

 

Agronomy deals with the cultivation of fields for the regular production of crops : food crops, feed crops and industrial crops. The cultivation means the soil cultivation for planting seeds, tubers, etc. The cultivation is made by means of various kinds of agricultural machines and implements: gang plows, harrows, sweepers, etc.

As the climate and soils greatly differ in different regions, agronomists regularly exchange experience. This regular exchange has increased the range of plants which may be grown in different regions, and has given a start to the development of various means for the improvement of crops.

It is known that the regular study of the chemical composition of soils and the development of means for the reproduction of their fertility have become a fundamental part of the agricultural science.

It may be said that the development of agriculture has become an important factor in the development of national economy.

 

           III.      ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT:

 

1.  What does agronomy deals with ? 

2.  What does the cultivation mean ? 

3.  What agricultural machines and implements do we need? 

4.  What do agronomists regularly do? 

5.  What has become a fundamental part of the agricultural science ?

 

IV.       FILL IN THE BLANKS WITN THE NECESSARY WORDS AND  WORD-COMBI NATIONS:

 

l.Agronomy ... the cultivation of fields for the regular production of food, feed and industrial

crops (deal with, deals with) 

2.The cultivation of fields ... the preparation of the ground for planting tubers and other plants (means, mean). 

3.  The cultivation is done ... various kinds of machines (by means of, by different kinds of).

4.  The climate and the soils greatly differ in ... regions of our country (difference, different).

5.  It is known that the range of plants which may be grown in different regions has greatly increased due to the ... between agronomists (they exchange experience, exchange of experience). 

6.  It is known that the exchange of experience has resulted in the increase of the ... which may be grown in different regions (range of machines, range of plants). 

7.  The study of the means which can be used for the reproduction of the soil fertility has become an ... of the agricultural science (useful means, important part)

 

           V.        TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:

 

1.  Агрономи використовують різноманітні хімічні елементи, щоб підвищити родючість ґрунту. 

2.  Агрономія займається обробітком полів для регулярного виробництва сільськогосподарських культур. 

3.  Вивчення хімічного складу ґрунтів і розвиток засобів для відродження родючості стало фундаментальною частиною сільськогосподарської науки. 

4.  Обробіток ґрунту здійснюється за допомогою різноманітних сільськогосподарських машин і причіпних знарядь: багатокорпусних плугів, борін і культиваторів. 

5.  Ми виростили добрий врожай коренеплодів.  6. Клімат і ґрунти є різними в різних регіонах країни.

 

Lesson 9  Agriculture In Western Ukraine

 

           I.         LISTENING.  FILL IN THE GAPS.

 

grain planting, population, is rich in, agro-industrial complex, sugar beet and potato, climate conditions, cattle, flax and potato, north-western, horses, north-western part, widespread.

 

 

AGRICULTURE IN WESTERN UKRAINE

This region ______________diverse agricultural and natural resources. Geographically it can be divided into the Western part (or Carpathians) and the_________________________.

Carpathians region includes Lviv, Zakarpattya, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions.

The total area is 56,6 thousands km² with the ________________reaching 6,1 mln people.

The __________________________of the area includes agriculture and processing industries. In a forest-steppe area cattle breeding, pig breeding, __________________, flax and sugar beet cultivation are______________________.

In the mountains the ______________breeding prevails. Due to the geological and

____________________these lands can’t be used for arable planting. Therefore, sheep breeding traditionally played the leading role here. The steep mountain slopes are suitable for this agricultural sector. Polonyny or subalpine grasslands are covered with bilous – plant which only sheep can eat. _________________are also popular here. In Zakarpattya region you can find lots of households involved into viticulture, gardening and tobacco cultivation.

The __________________area consists of Rivne and Volyn region where 2,2 million people live. The total area is 40,3 thousand km². The average density of the population is 55 people per 1 km² which is the lowest rate in the country.

People mostly cultivate rye, flax, hop, winter-crops, wheat,____________________. However the region tends to live off cattle breeding: pig and sheep breeding, poultry, rabbit and fish farming, as well as beekeeping are popular.

Thousands of family households are small and most are poorly equipped. Local farmers work in fields as they have been doing for years. They cut hay with hand scythes, carts and ploughs are driven by______________.

 

     II. TRUE OR FALSE 

1.This region is poor in diverse agricultural and natural resources.

2. Geographically it can be divided into the Western part (or Carpathians) and the East-Western part.

3.Carpathians region includes Lviv, Zakarpattya, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions.

4.The total area is 52,6 thousands km² with the population reaching 6,7 mln people.

5.The agro-industrial complex of the area includes agriculture and processing industries.

6.In the mountains the poultry breeding prevails.

7.The steep mountain slopes are suitable for this agricultural sector. 

8.People mostly cultivate rye, flax, hop, winter-crops, wheat, sugar beet and potato. 

9.Local farmers cut hay with hand scythes, carts and ploughs are driven by horses.

 

III.TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH

 

природні ресурси сільське господарство 

хмель  зимові культури  пшеницю

рогата худоба льон і картопля домогосподарство жито цукровий буряк

 Lesson 10 Agriculture In Great Britain 

 

           I.         VOCABULARY

 

a significant increase  - суттєвий зріст profitability- користь, прибуток  

a full self – sufficiency - повна самодостатність 

animal husbandry -тваринництво 

dairy and beef cattle breeding – розведення молочної та м’ясної ВРХ   beef sheep - м’ясні вівці  tillage - обробіток землі, оранка  crop husbandry– рослинництво cereal crops- злакові культури   exceed - перевищувати  consumption - споживання mutton - баранина   veal - телятина  

in terms - з точки зору

 

           II.        READ THE TEXT “ AGRICULTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN”

 

For the period of latest decades Great Britain’s agriculture saw a significant increase in scientific and technical level and profitability of agro- industrial complex. A full self – sufficiency is reached by such products as milk, a high self –sufficiency have eggs, poultry, wheat, oats, barley and potato; imported are fruits, butter, sugar and cheese. 

The British agriculture is nowadays one of the most efficient and mechanized in the world. The share of employment in the field amounts 2% of the total employment in the country. The total area of farmlands is 58.3 mln ha (76% of the total area of the country). Animal husbandry prevails in the structure of agricultural production. Developed are dairy and beef cattle breeding, pig husbandry, beef sheep and poultry husbandry for meat. 

Great Britain is one of the largest suppliers of sheep wool. Traditionally, animal husbandry is concentrated in river basin. Nearly 60% of tillage in crop husbandry is occupied by permanent grasses, more than 28% - be cereal crops ( including wheat – 15%, barley – 11%) , 12- by industrial crops (rapeseed, sugar beet, flax) and feeding crops (including potato), and also by vegetable gardens and small – fruit crops. The main crop – producing areas are East England and the Southeast. 

There are many fruit gardens in Great Britain. Agriculture uses governmental support and receives donations from the EU budget. Production volumes exceed the volumes of consumption by such products as wheat, barley and pork; production volumes are lower than the volume of consumption by such products as potato, beef, mutton, wool, sugar and eggs. Therefore, Great Britain has to import many of the necessary products. 

The country imports 4/5 of butter, 2/3 of sugar, a half of wheat and bacon, ¼ of beef and veal consumed in the country. The country occupies the sixth place among EU members in terms of agricultural production volume. Great dynamics of the British agriculture development in 2012 in terms of the main agricultural items cost at market prices had the following indicts: wheat production increased by 21.9% (to 1.3 bln pounds sterling); barley production by 39.7% (to 538 mln P. St); production of vegetable oil – by 35.8% ( to 421. 5 mln P. St). the profit of the British agriculture grew 10% and reached 2.5 bln P. St; production grew 8.4% and reached 15 bin P. St. in 2012 526 thousand workers were employed in agriculture. Production growth in animal husbandry amounted to 2.8% (5.2 bln. P. St) which was mainly due to price rise for finished products / milk production increased to 2,8 bln P. St. Unfavorable weather conditions affect the British agriculture a lot, especially floods.

 

           III.       ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT:

 

1.What is the level of Britain's agriculture? 

2.  Where is a full self – sufficiency reached by? 

3.  What is the total area of farmlands? 

4.  What is the country the largest supplier of? 

5.  What grain crops do they grow? 6. What branch of agriculture receives donations?

 

IV. READ INFORMATION ABOUT THE AGRICULTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN AND WRITE   WHAT IS GROWN IN SOME REGIONS OF COUNTRIES

 

The physical environment and natural resources of England are more favourable to agricultural development than those of other parts of the United Kingdom. A greater proportion of the land consists of lowlands with good soils where the climate is conducive to crop growing. The majority of English farms are small, most holdings being less than 250 acres (100 hectares); nonetheless, they are highly mechanized. Wheat, the chief grain crop, is grown in the drier, sunnier counties of eastern and southern England, where new, stronger varieties have become increasingly widespread and average yields have risen significantly. 

Barley is grown mainly for livestock feed. The acreage under oats is gradually declining. Corn (maize) and rye are also grown. Principal potato-growing areas are the fenlands (болотиста місцевість) of Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and Lincolnshire; the clay soils of Humberside; and the peats (торф) of North Yorkshire. Sugar-beet production depends heavily on government subsidy because of competition from imported cane sugar. In recent years, acreage and yield for rape have increased. 

Grass and its variants are grown for feeding livestock. The growing of vegetables, fruit, and flowers, known in England as market gardening, is often done in greenhouses and is found within easy trucking distance of large towns, the proximity of a market being of more consequence than climatic considerations. The fertile (clay (глинозем) and limestone (вапняк)) soil of Kent has always been conducive to fruit growing. 

Cultivation was first established there on a commercial scale in the 16th century. The county of Kent is a major supplier of fruits and vegetables (apples ,pears, black currants, cauliflowers, and cabbages ). Hereford and Worcester is noted for its plums, while Somerset and Devon specialize in cider apples. The agriculture of England is primarily concerned with livestock husbandry and, in particular, with milk production. Dairying is important in every county, though the main concentrations are in western England. The quality of dairy cattle was improved considerably after World War II. The higher-yielding dairy breeds, including the Frisian and Ayrshire, have become more numerous than the once-dominant Shortorn. 

 

V. Check out the most commonly used technical abbreviations 


a.l - artificial intelligence - штучний інтелект

a.c. - alternating current - змінний струм

a.f. - audio frequency - частота звуку

a.m.p - ampere - ампер at.wt-atomic weight- атомна вага E.M.F. - (emf) - electromotive force - електрорушійна сила

b.p - boiling point - точка кипіння c - degree Centigrade - градуси Цельсія Cal. - calorie - калорія CFCS - chlorofluorocarbons - хлорфторвуглероди

cu - cubic - кубічний cm - centimeter -сантиметр cn in - cubic inch - кубічний дюйм

f.p.m - feet per minute - футів за хвилину

g.p.m - gallons per minute - галонів за хвилину g - gram – грам h - henry - генрі hp - horsepower - кінська сила hr - hour - година in - inch - дюйм j - joule - джоуль mc - megacycles - мегагерци M/ mu - micron - мікрон mg - milligram - міліграм min - minute - хвилина oz - ounce - унція wt - weight - вага

F - frequency - частота

d.c - direct current - постійний струм Cpu - central processing unit - центральний процесор fig - figure - малюнок kg - kilogram - кілограм km - kilometer - кілометр kv - kilovolt - кіловольт kw - kilowatt - кіловат

l - liter - літер m - meter - метер lb. - pound - фунт sq. km - square kilometer - квадратний кілометр


 

 

VI. Translate the exercise with a technical abbreviation

 

1.  The loss of one millimeter of the fertile layer of soil results in the loss of 76 kg of nitrogen, 24 kg of phosphorus and 800 kg of potassium per hectare.  

2.  The field speed of this tractor is 17 km/ph. 

3.  The basic technical data of the T- 150 crawler type tractor are as follows: engine power – 150 hp, at 200 rpm; fuel consumption per brake horse power – 185 gph; speeds - 8 forward and 4 reverse; range of speeds – 2.68 to 15.89 km/h; track – 1435 mm; ground clearance – 300 mm; average soil compacting pressure – 0.44 kg/cm2; mass (weight) – 7400 kg. 

 

             

Lesson 11 Agriculture Abroad

 

             I.         VOCABULARY

 

countryside – сільська місцина  gentry rolling– схожа на кулю  interrupted– знаходитись під  legumes - бобові  silage corn - силос  seed crops – зернові культури fertilizer– удобрювач 

irrigation machines – зрошувальні машини  implements - знаряддя, обладнання

Agricultural engineering – сільськогосподарська інженерія  science of agriculture – наука сільського господарства to be cultivated – обробляти  sheep – вівця (вівці) cattle  – велика рогата худоба farm land – фермерська земля  mechanization – механізація 

combine harvesters – комбайн( сільськогосподарська машина)

 

II.                READ THE TEXT “ AGRICULTURE IN DENMARK”

 

Denmark is small country consisting of a main peninsula and nearby y 500 islands, of which 60 are populated. The Danish countryside is either quite flat or gentry rolling. More mat 70 percent of die country is highly productive farm land, only occasionally interrupted by forests, lakes, and towns. Farmland is considered an important national asset in Denmark. Before young farmers can purchase land, they must earn a farming license. Also, Danish farms have long specialized in exports. 

 The typical farm is in the 110-to 500-acre range, specializing in four to six different crops and one type of livestock, normally dualpurpose dairy cattle or pigs. In spite of its size, Denmark is the world' s largest exporter of bacon and die fourth largest exporter of dairy products. Danish crop production is dominated by winter and spring varieties of barley, which is grown on about 60 percent of the farm land. On the remaining 40 percent, a great variety of crops are grown including wheat, rye, oats, fodder beets, sugar beets, canola seed, potatoes, cultivated grasses and legumes, silage corn, and a wide range of seed crops.                 Due to intensive fertilizer use and die relatively high rainfall, crop productivity is high: however, during dry periods irrigation machines are extensively used, especially on the lighter soils. 

Farm mechanization is mainly based on imported 50-to 125- horsepower tractors, Danish and imported combine harvesters, and Danish-made implements. The climate is practically the same all over the country-fairly mild winters with some frost and snow, and relatively cool summers with many rainy days.

 

III.             ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT:

 

1.  What part of Denmark is covered by forests, lakes and towns?

2.  What is the most important national asset in Denmark?

3.  What the crop productivity like? Why?

 

             IV.       FILL IN THE GAPS USING PROPER MODAL VERBS

                                            I. Must     2. Had     3. Will have     4. Will be able    5.Can                           

 

1)  Next week І (повинен буду) to take an exam in English. 

2)  He (може) translate this article. 

3)  He (повинен) translate this article. 

4)  He (повинен був) to translate this article yesterday evening.  5) She (зможе) to translate this text.

 

             V.        READ THE TEXT “AGRICULTURE IN  AUSTRALIA” 

 

          Australia is mainly a flat, dry, and thinly populated land. Only a few regions along the coast receive enough rain to support agriculture and large populations.

         Only three percent of Australia' s total surface is cultivated, but another 62 percent is used for rough grazing for the very large sheep and cattle stations where up to 45 acres per cow is required.

          Wheat is the dominate grain crop in Australia, and on nearly all livestock farms, hay is produced from grass or oats. Sheep are the dominating type of livestock. 

Farm mechanization is generally based on 100-to 200- horsepower four-wheel drive tractors pulling large implements. Large combine harvesters and other self-propelled equipment used are mostly made in North America, or under license in Australia. Most farms also have their own trucks for grain hauling and other transport tasks. 

Due to the normally stable weather pattern, both seeding and harvesting seasons are longer than elsewhere. Being a southern hemisphere country. Australia' s seasons are opposite to Europe and North America. Nearly all grain crops are based on the winter varieties. This means that the bed preparation and seeding takes place mainly during April to June, with harvest November to January.

 

             VI.      ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT

 

1.  What part of Australia’s surface is cultivated? 

2.  What is the main grain crop in Australia? 

3.  Why do bed preparations and seeding take place during April to June?

 

             VII.     FILL IN THE GAPS USING PROPER MODAL VERBS

 

1. Was allowed       2. May      3. Can      4. Must      5. Will have

 

1)  We (повинні) do this work today. 

2)  They (вміють) speak English. 

3)  Yesterday he (дозволили) to work at the laboratory. 

4)  (Можна) 1 come in? 

5)  Tomorrow you (повинні) to go to Kiev.

 

VIII.       READ THE TEXT “AGRICULTURE IN CANADA”

 

Canada is the second largest country in the world and covers more that 50 percent of the North American continent. Most of the population lives less than 450 miles from the United States border, and most farm land is found there as well. Only 17 percent of Canada’s land is utilized for farming and of that only about one third can be classified as good farm land. Most of the other two thirds are used for permanent grazing. The climate is mainly continental with long, cold winters and relatively short but fairly warm summers. Winter grain crop varieties are not common, and the spring crops are often of 90-day varieties suitable for the short frostfree growing season.

Crop yields in the prairie regions are low by world standards due to limited rainfall that also limits fertilizer application. Field mechanization in these regions is based on U.S.- or Canadian - made tractors, many of which are in the 200-to 350- horsepower range with fourwheel drive and capable of pulling large implements. Most farms have self-propelled combine harvesters and trucks for grain transport. Many farms have well-equipped workshops capable of handling common farm repairs.

 

 

IX.             ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT

 

1)  Where is most farm land of Canada found? 

2)  What part of Canada' s land is utilized? 

3)  Why are crop yields in the prairie regions low?

 

X. FILL IN THE GAPS USING PROPER MODAL VERBS

 

1. Were allowed   2.Have З.Наs    4.Shall be able   5. Could

 

1)  We (зможемо) to help him. 

2)  Не (вмів) swim. 

3)  Students (повинні) to study English. 

4)  We (дозволили) to take books from the library. 

5)  She (повинна була) to do it.

 

ЛІТЕРАТУРА

 

1.      Англо-український економічний словник /Під ред. А.В. Анікіна – М., 2007. 

2.      Англійський словник /Під ред. И.Ф. Жданової, З.Л. Вартумян. Ви-во. 3-є. – М., 2009.

3.      Бізнес: Оксфордський тлумачний словник /Під ред. І.М. Осадчої. – К., 2005. 

4.      Глушенкова В. Англійська мова для економістів. – Москва, 2009. 

5.      Новий технічний словник. В 3-х т. /Під ред. З.М. Меднікової, Ю.Д. Апресяна. – К., 2004. 

6.      Дж. М. Розенберг. Бізнес: Термінологічний словник. – К., 2007. 

7.      J.H. Adam. Longman Concise Dictionary of Business English. Longman, 2000. 

8.      D. Begg, S. Fischer, R. Dornbusch. Economics. 3rd ed. Mc. Grow-Hill Book Company.

London, 2001. 

9.      Britannica Interactive Encyclopedia. CD-ROM, 2009. 

10.  Compton' s Interactive Encyclopedia. CD-ROM, 2009. 

11.  A. Locke, A. Putallag, W. Shepherd. Economics. Agriculture. - 2003. 

12.  Ch. Pass, B. Lowes, A. Pendleton, L. Chadwick. Collins Dictionary of Business. Glasgow, 2010 

13.  Komarov. V.M. English for students of agriculture. – Moscow, 1998.

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